A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, can be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur; the substance involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are characterized by a chemical change, they yield one or more products, which have properties different from the reactants. Reactions consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the so-called elementary reactions, the information on the precise course of action is part of the reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions.
Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms. Reactions may proceed in the forward or reverse direction until they go to completion or reach equilibrium. Reactions that proceed in the forward direction to approach equilibrium are described as spontaneous, requiring no input of free energy to go forward. Non-spontaneous reactions require input of free energy to go forward. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product. In biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways; these reactions are catalyzed by protein enzymes. Enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions can occur at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell.
The general concept of a chemical reaction has been extended to reactions between entities smaller than atoms, including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays, reactions between elementary particles, as described by quantum field theory. Chemical reactions such as combustion in fire and the reduction of ores to metals were known since antiquity. Initial theories of transformation of materials were developed by Greek philosophers, such as the Four-Element Theory of Empedocles stating that any substance is composed of the four basic elements – fire, water and earth. In the Middle Ages, chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists, they attempted, in particular, to convert lead into gold, for which purpose they used reactions of lead and lead-copper alloys with sulfur. The production of chemical substances that do not occur in nature has long been tried, such as the synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acids attributed to the controversial alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān; the process involved heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as copper sulfate and saltpeter.
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium chloride. With the development of the lead chamber process in 1746 and the Leblanc process, allowing large-scale production of sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate chemical reactions became implemented into the industry. Further optimization of sulfuric acid technology resulted in the contact process in the 1880s, the Haber process was developed in 1909–1910 for ammonia synthesis. From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton tried to establish theories of the experimentally observed chemical transformations; the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 by Johann Joachim Becher. It postulated the existence of a fire-like element called "phlogiston", contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion; this proved to be false in 1785 by Antoine Lavoisier who found the correct explanation of the combustion as reaction with oxygen from the air.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac recognized in 1808 that gases always react in a certain relationship with each other. Based on this idea and the atomic theory of John Dalton, Joseph Proust had developed the law of definite proportions, which resulted in the concepts of stoichiometry and chemical equations. Regarding the organic chemistry, it was long believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were too complex to be obtained synthetically. According to the concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with a "vital force" and distinguished from inorganic materials; this separation was ended however by the synthesis of urea from inorganic precursors by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. Other chemists who brought major contributions to organic chemistry include Alexander William Williamson with his synthesis of ethers and Christopher Kelk Ingold, among many discoveries, established the mechanisms of substitution reactions. Chemical equations are used to graphically illustrate chemical reactions, they consist of chemical or structural formulas of the reactants on the left and those of the products on the right.
They are separated by an arrow which indicates the type of the reaction.
Lethal autonomous weapon
Lethal autonomous weapons are a type of autonomous military robot that can independently search and engage targets based on programmed constraints and descriptions. LAW are called lethal autonomous weapon systems, lethal autonomous robots, robotic weapons, or killer robots. LAWs may operate on land, on water, under water, or in space; the autonomy of current systems as of 2018 is restricted in the sense that a human gives the final command to attack - though there are exceptions with certain "defensive" systems. Being "autonomous" has different meanings in different fields of study. In engineering it may refer to the machine's ability to operate without human involvement. In philosophy it may refer to an individual being morally independent. In political science it may refer to an area's capability of self-governing. In terms of military weapon development, the identification of a weapon as autonomous is not as clear as in other areas; the specific standard entailed in the concept of being autonomous can vary hugely between different scholars and organizations.
Scholars like Peter Asaro and Mark Gubrud are trying to set the threshold lower and judge more weapon systems as autonomous. They believe that any weapon system, capable of releasing a lethal force without the operation, decision or confirmation of a human supervisor can be deemed as autonomous. According to Gubrud, A weapon system operating or wholly without human intervention is considered autonomous, he argues that a weapon system does not need to be able to make decisions by itself in order to be called autonomous. Instead, it should be treated as autonomous as long as it involves in one or multiple parts of the "preparation process", from finding the target to firing. Other organizations, are setting the standard of autonomous weapon system in a higher position; the Ministry of Defence defines autonomous weapon systems as "systems that are capable of understanding higher level intent and direction. From this understanding and its perception of its environment, such a system is able to take appropriate action to bring about a desired state.
It is capable of deciding a course of action, from a number of alternatives, without depending on human oversight and control - such human engagement with the system may still be present, though. While the overall activity of an autonomous unmanned aircraft will be predictable, individual actions may not be."As a result, the composition of treaty between states requires a accepted labeling of what constitutes an autonomous weapon. The oldest automatically-triggered lethal weapon is the land mine, used since at least the 1600s, naval mines, used since at least the 1700s. Anti-personnel mines are banned in many countries by the 1997 Ottawa Treaty, not including the United States and much of Asia and the Middle East; some current examples of LAWs are automated "hardkill" active protection systems, such as a radar-guided CIWS systems used to defend ships that have been in use since the 1970s. Such systems can autonomously identify and attack oncoming missiles, artillery fire and surface vessels according to criteria set by the human operator.
Similar systems exist for tanks, such as the Russian Arena, the Israeli Trophy, the German AMAP-ADS. Several types of stationary sentry guns, which can fire at humans and vehicles, are used in South Korea and Israel. Many missile defense systems, such as Iron Dome have autonomous targeting capabilities. Automatic turrets installed on military vehicles are called remote weapon stations; the main reason for not having a "human in the loop" in these systems is the need for rapid response. They have been used to protect personnel and installations against incoming projectiles. Systems with a higher degree of autonomy would include drones or unmanned combat aerial vehicles, e.g.: "The unarmed BAE Systems Taranis jet-propelled combat drone prototype may lead to a Future Combat Air System that can autonomously search and locate enemies but can only engage with a target when authorized by mission command. It can defend itself against enemy aircraft"; the Northrop Grumman X-47B drone can land on aircraft carriers.
According to The Economist, as technology advances, future applications of unmanned undersea vehicles might include mine clearance, mine-laying, anti-submarine sensor networking in contested waters, patrolling with active sonar, resupplying manned submarines, becoming low-cost missile platforms. In 2018 the U. S. Nuclear Posture Review alleged that Russia is developing a "new intercontinental, nuclear-armed, nuclear-powered, undersea autonomous torpedo" named "Status 6". Russian Federation is developing artificially intelligent missiles, unmanned vehicles, military robots and medic robots. Israeli Minister Ayoob Kara stated in 2017 that Israel is developing military robots, including ones as small as fliesIn 2018 Chinese scientists told the South China Morning Post that China is developing large autonomous submarines suitable for reconnaissance, mine placement, "suicide attacks" against enemy vessels, slated for deployment in the early 2020s. In October 2018, Zeng Yi, a senior executive at Chinese Defense Firm Norinco, gave a speech in which he said that “In future battlegrounds, there will be no people fighting,” and that the use of lethal autonomous weapons in warfare is "inevitable."British Army deployed new unmanned vehicles and military robots in 2019.
US Navy is developing unmanned "ghost" fleets of ships. Current US policy states: "Autonomous
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it. Such a device is detonated automatically by way of pressure when a target steps on it or drives over it, although other detonation mechanisms are sometimes used. A land mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both; the name originates from the ancient practice of military mining, where tunnels were dug under enemy fortifications or troop formations. These killing tunnels were at first collapsed to destroy targets located above, but they were filled with explosives and detonated in order to cause greater devastation. Nowadays, in common parlance, "land mine" refers to devices manufactured as anti-personnel or anti-vehicle weapons. Though some types of improvised explosive devices are mistakenly classified as land mines, the term land mine is reserved for manufactured devices designed to be used by recognized military services, whereas IED is used for makeshift "devices placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, lethal, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, distract or harass.
They may incorporate military stores, but are devised from non-military components". The use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons, they can remain dangerous many years after a conflict has ended, harming the economy. 78 countries are contaminated with land mines and 15,000–20,000 people are killed every year while countless more are maimed. 80% of land mine casualties are civilian, with children as the most affected age group. Most killings occur in times of peace. With pressure from a number of campaign groups organised through the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a global movement to prohibit their use led to the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction known as the Ottawa Treaty. To date, 164 nations have signed the treaty. Land mines were designed for two main uses: To create defensive tactical barriers, channelling attacking forces into predetermined fire zones or slowing an invading force's progress to allow reinforcements to arrive.
To act as passive area-denial weapons. Land mines are used in large quantities for this first purpose, thus their widespread use in the demilitarized zones of flashpoints such as Cyprus and Korea; as of 2013, the only governments that still laid land mines were Myanmar in its internal conflict, Syria in its civil war. Land mines continue to kill or injure at least 4,300 people every year decades after the ends of the conflicts for which they were placed. Jiao Yu in the preface to his Huolongjing Quanzhi, written in 1412 AD, claimed that in the third century, the chancellor Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han state had used not only "fire weapons" but land mines in the Battle of Hulugu Valley against the forces of Sima Yi and his son Sima Zhao of the rival Cao Wei state; this claim is dubious, as gunpowder warfare did not develop in China until the advent of the flamethrower in the 10th century, while the land mine was not seen in China until the late 13th century. Explosive land mines were used in 1277 by the Chinese during the Song dynasty against an assault of the Mongols, who were besieging a city in southern China.
The invention of this detonated "enormous bomb" was credited to one Lou Qianxia of the 13th century. The famous 14th-century Chinese text of the Huolongjing, the first to describe hollow cast iron cannonball shells filled with gunpowder, was the first to describe the invention of the land mine in greater detail than references found in texts written beforehand; this mid 14th century work compiled during the late Yuan dynasty and early Ming dynasty stated that mines were made of cast iron and were spherical in shape, filled with either "magic gunpowder", "poison gunpowder", or "blinding and burning gunpowder", any one of these compositions being suitable for use. The wad of the mine was made of hard wood, carrying three different fuses in case of defective connection to the touch hole. In those days, the Chinese relied upon command signals and timed calculation of enemy movements into the minefield, since a long fuse had to be ignited by hand from the ambushers in a somewhat far-off location lying in wait.
The Huolongjing describes land mines that were set off by enemy movement, called the'ground-thunder explosive camp', one of the'self-trespassing' types, as the text says: These mines are installed at frontier gates and passes. Pieces of bamboo are sawn into sections nine feet in length, all septa in the bamboo being removed, save only the last. Boiling oil is next left there for some time before being removed; the fuse starts from the bottom, is compressed into it to form an explosive mine. The gunpowder fills up eight-tenths of the tube, while lead or iron pellets take up the rest of the space. A trench five feet in depth is dug; the fuse is connected to a firing device. The Huolongjing describes the trigger device used for this as a "steel wheel", which directed sparks
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions. This is a cluster bomb that ejects explosive bomblets that are designed to kill personnel and destroy vehicles. Other cluster munitions are designed to destroy runways or electric power transmission lines, disperse chemical or biological weapons, or to scatter land mines; some submunition-based weapons can disperse non-munitions, such as leaflets. Because cluster bombs release many small bomblets over a wide area, they pose risks to civilians both during attacks and afterwards. Unexploded bomblets can kill or maim civilians and/or unintended targets long after a conflict has ended, are costly to locate and remove. Cluster munitions are prohibited for those nations that ratify the Convention on Cluster Munitions, adopted in Dublin, Ireland in May 2008; the Convention entered into force and became binding international law upon ratifying states on 1 August 2010, six months after being ratified by 30 states.
As of 1 April 2018, a total of 120 states have joined the Convention, as 103 States parties and 17 Signatories. The first cluster bomb used operationally was the German SD-2 or Sprengbombe Dickwandig 2 kg referred to as the Butterfly Bomb, it was used in World War II to attack both military targets. The technology was developed independently by the United States and Italy; the US used the 20-lb M41 fragmentation bomb wired together in clusters of 6 or 25 with sensitive or proximity fuzes. From the 1970s to the 1990s cluster bombs became standard air-dropped munitions for many nations, in a wide variety of types, they have been produced by 34 countries and used in at least 23. Artillery shells that employ similar principles have existed for decades, they are referred to as ICM shells. The US military slang terms for them are "firecracker" or "popcorn" shells, for the many small explosions they cause in the target area. A basic cluster bomb consists of a hollow shell and two to more than 2,000 submunitions or bomblets contained within it.
Some types are dispensers that are designed to be retained by the aircraft after releasing their munitions. The submunitions themselves may be fitted with small parachute retarders or streamers to slow their descent. Modern cluster bombs and submunition dispensers can be multiple-purpose weapons containing a combination of anti-armor, anti-personnel, anti-materiel munitions; the submunitions themselves may be multi-purpose, such as combining a shaped charge, to attack armour, with a fragmenting case, to attack infantry and light vehicles. They may have an incendiary function. Since the 1990s submunition-based weapons have been designed that deploy smart submunitions, using thermal and visual sensors to locate and attack particular targets armored vehicles. Weapons of this type include the US CBU-97 sensor-fuzed weapon, first used in combat during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the 2003 invasion of Iraq; some munitions intended for anti-tank use can be set to self-destruct if they reach the ground without locating a target, theoretically reducing the risk of unintended civilian deaths and injuries.
Although smart submunition weapons are much more expensive than standard cluster bombs, fewer smart submunitions are required to defeat dispersed and mobile targets offsetting their cost. Because they are designed to prevent indiscriminate area effects and unexploded ordnance risks, these submunitions are not classified as cluster munitions under the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Incendiary cluster bombs are intended to start fires, just like conventional incendiary bombs, they contain submunitions of white phosphorus or napalm, can be combined anti-personnel and anti-tank submunitions to hamper firefighting efforts. In urban areas they have been preceded by the use of conventional explosive bombs to fracture the roofs and walls of buildings to expose their flammable contents. One of the earliest examples is the so-called Molotov bread basket used by the Soviet Union in the Winter War of 1939-40. Incendiary clusters were extensively used by both sides in the strategic bombings of World War II.
They caused firestorms and conflagrations in the bombing of Dresden in World War II and the firebombing of Tokyo. Some modern bomb submunitions deliver a combustible thermobaric aerosol that results in a high pressure explosion when ignited. Anti-personnel cluster bombs use explosive fragmentation to destroy soft targets. Along with incendiary cluster bombs, these were among the first types of cluster bombs produced by Germany during World War II, they were used during the Blitz with delay and booby-trap fusing to hamper firefighting and other damage-control efforts in the target areas. They were used with a contact fuze when attacking entrenchments; these weapons were used during the Vietnam War when many thousands of tons of submunitions were dropped on Laos and Vietnam. Most anti-armor munitions contain shaped charge warheads to pierce the armor of tanks and armored fighting vehicles. In some cases, guidance is used to increase the likelihood of hitting a vehicle. Modern guided submunitions, such as those found in the U.
S. CBU-97, can use an explosively formed penetrator. Unguided shaped-charge submunitions are designed to be effective against entrenchments that incorporate overhead cover. To simplify supply and increase battlefield effectiveness by allowing a single type of round to be used against nearly any target, submunitions that incorporate both fragmentation and shaped-charge effects are
Chemical Weapons Convention
The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production and use of chemical weapons and their precursors. The full name of the treaty is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction and it is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, an intergovernmental organization based in The Hague, The Netherlands; the treaty entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the large-scale use, production and transfer of chemical weapons. Limited production for research, pharmaceutical or protective purposes is still permitted; the main obligation of member states under the convention is to effect this prohibition, as well as the destruction of all current chemical weapons. All destruction activities must take place under OPCW verification; as of May 2018, 193 states accept its obligations. Israel has signed but not ratified the agreement, while three other UN member states have neither signed nor acceded to the treaty.
Most the State of Palestine deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 17 May 2018. In September 2013 Syria acceded to the convention as part of an agreement for the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons; as of November 2018, 96.62% of the world's declared chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed. The convention has provisions for systematic evaluation of chemical production facilities, as well as for investigations of allegations of use and production of chemical weapons based on intelligence of other state parties; some chemicals which have been used extensively in warfare but have numerous large-scale industrial uses such as phosgene are regulated, certain notable exceptions exist. Chlorine gas is toxic, but being a pure element and widely used for peaceful purposes, is not listed as a chemical weapon. Certain state-powers continue to manufacture and implement such chemicals in combat munitions. Although these chemicals are not listed as controlled by the CWC, the use of any toxic chemical as a weapon is in-and-of itself forbidden by the treaty.
Other chemicals, such as white phosphorus, are toxic but are legal under the CWC when they are used by military forces for reasons other than their toxicity. Intergovernmental consideration of a chemical and biological weapons ban was initiated in 1968 within the 18-nation Disarmament Committee, after numerous changes of name and composition, became the Conference on Disarmament in 1984. On 3 September 1992 the Conference on Disarmament submitted to the U. N. General Assembly its annual report; the General Assembly approved the Convention on 30 November 1992, the U. N. Secretary-General opened the Convention for signature in Paris on 13 January 1993; the CWC remained open for signature until its entry into force on 29 April 1997, 180 days after the deposit of the 65th instrument of ratification. The convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections, it does not, cover biological weapons. The convention is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which acts as the legal platform for specification of the CWC provisions.
The Conference of the States Parties is mandated to change the CWC and pass regulations on implementation of CWC requirements. The Technical Secretariat of the organization conducts inspections to ensure compliance of member states; these inspections target destruction facilities, chemical weapons production facilities which have been dismantled or converted for civil use, as well as inspections of the chemical industry. The Secretariat may furthermore conduct "investigations of alleged use" of chemical weapons and give assistance after use of chemical weapons; the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the organization because it had, with the Chemical Weapons Convention, "defined the use of chemical weapons as a taboo under international law" according to Thorbjørn Jagland, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons Destruction of chemical weapons production facilities Destruction of all chemical weapons Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons An OPCW inspection regime for the production of chemicals which might be converted to chemical weapons International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas The convention distinguishes three classes of controlled substance, chemicals that can either be used as weapons themselves or used in the manufacture of weapons.
The classification is based on the quantities of the substance produced commercially for legitimate purposes. Each class is split into Part A, which are chemicals that can be used directly as weapons, Part B, which are chemicals useful in the manufacture of chemical weapons. Separate from the precursors, the convention defines toxic chemicals as "ny chemical which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals; this includes all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, regardless of whether they are produ
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
A directed-energy weapon is a ranged weapon that damages its target with focused energy, including laser and particle beams. Potential applications of this technology include weapons that target personnel, missiles and optical devices. In the United States, the Pentagon, DARPA, the Air Force Research Laboratory, United States Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, the Naval Research Laboratory are researching directed-energy weapons and railguns to counter ballistic missiles, hypersonic cruise missiles, hypersonic glide vehicles; these systems of missile defense are expected to come online no sooner than the mid to late-2020s. Russia, China and the United Kingdom are developing directed-energy weapons. After decades of R&D, directed-energy weapons are still at the experimental stage and it remains to be seen if or when they will be deployed as practical, high-performance military weapons. Directed energy weapons could have several main advantages over conventional weaponry: Direct energy weapons can be used discreetly.
Light is only slightly altered by gravity, giving it an perfectly flat trajectory. It is practically immune to both windage and Coriolis force; this makes aim much more precise and extends the range to line-of-sight, limited only by beam diffraction and spread, absorption or scattering by intervening atmospheric contents. Lasers travel at light-speed and have near infinite range and therefore, are suitable for use in space warfare. Although some devices are labelled as microwave weapons, the microwave range is defined as being between 300 MHz and 300 GHz, within the RF range—these frequencies having wavelengths of 1–1000 milimeters; some examples of weapons which have been publicized by the military are as follows: Active Denial System is a millimeter wave source that heats the water in a human target's skin and thus causes incapacitating pain. It was developed by the U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory and Raytheon for riot-control duty. Though intended to cause severe pain while leaving no lasting damage, concern has been voiced as to whether the system could cause irreversible damage to the eyes.
There has yet to be testing for long-term side effects of exposure to the microwave beam. It can destroy unshielded electronics; the device comes in various sizes including attached to a humvee. Vigilant Eagle is a proposed airport defense system that directs high-frequency microwaves towards any projectile, fired at an aircraft; the system consists of a missile-detecting and tracking subsystem, a command and control system, a scanning array. The MDT is a fixed grid of passive infrared cameras; the command and control system determines the missile launch point. The scanning array projects microwaves that disrupt the surface-to-air missile's guidance system, deflecting it from the aircraft. Bofors HPM Blackout is a high-powered microwave weapon, said to be able to destroy at short distance a wide variety of commercial off-the-shelf electronic equipment, it is said to be not lethal to humans. The effective radiated power of the EL/M-2080 Green Pine radar makes it a hypothetical candidate for conversion into a directed-energy weapon, by focusing pulses of radar energy on target missiles.
The energy spikes are tailored to enter missiles through antennas or sensor apertures where they can fool guidance systems, scramble computer memories or burn out sensitive electronic components. AESA radars mounted on fighter aircraft have been slated as directed energy weapons against missiles, however, a senior US Air Force officer noted: "they aren't suited to create weapons effects on missiles because of limited antenna size and field of view". Lethal effects are produced only inside 100 metres range, disruptive effects at distances on the order of one kilometre. Moreover, cheap countermeasures can be applied to existing missiles. Counter-electronics High Power Microwave Advanced Missile Project An electrolaser first ionizes its target path, sends a powerful electric current down the conducting track of ionized plasma, somewhat like lightning, it functions as a high-energy, long-distance version of the Taser or stun gun. Pulsed Energy Projectile or PEP systems emit an infrared laser pulse which creates expanding plasma at the target.
The resulting sound and electromagnetic waves stun the target and cause pain and temporary paralysis. The weapon is under development and is intended as a non-lethal weapon in crowd control though it can be used as a lethal weapon. A dazzler is a directed-energy weapon intended to temporarily blind or disorient its target with intense directed radiation. Targets can include human vision. Dazzlers emit infrared or invisible light against various electronic sensors, visible light against humans, when they are intended to cause no long-term damage to eyes; the emitters are lasers, making what is termed a laser dazzler. Most of the contemporary systems are man-portable, operate in either the red or green areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developed for military use, non-military products are becoming available for use in law enforcement and security; the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle is a prototype non-lethal laser dazzler developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate, U.
S. Department of Defense, its purpose is to temporarily blind a target. Blinding laser weapons have been tested i