Apcar Baltazar was a Romanian painter and art critic of Armenian parentage. His first name is spelled Abgar, due to differing transliterations from Armenian, he was born into a family of shopkeepers. From 1891 to 1896, he attended the "Cantemir Vodă" Gymnasium, where he received high grades in his drawing classes. After winning a scholarship competition at the "National School of Fine Arts", he studied with George Demetrescu Mirea and graduated in 1901, he made the acquaintance of art historian Alexandru Tzigara-Samurcaș, who introduced him to Romanian folk art. Over the next year, he applied twice at the "Ministry of Religion and Public Instruction" for a scholarship to study abroad, but was denied both times. In 1903, he had his first showing at an exhibition held by "Tinerimea artistică"; that same year saw the beginning of a journal called Voința națională where his friends Ilarie Chendi and Emil Gârleanu gave him critical exposure. He worked as a clerk for a year at the above-mentioned Ministry before tendering his resignation.
From 1904 to 1905, he became a contributor to his friends' journal. In 1907, he had his first solo exhibition at the Sala Ateneului, he began working as a regular columnist for the magazine Viața Românească, where he wrote about the art industry, art education, trends in style and other topics. He wrote articles for the journal Convorbiri Literare; that year, he entered a contest for a position in the decorative arts department at the School of Fine Arts, but his works were stolen the day before judging and he had to withdraw. In 1909, his former employers at the Ministry of Religion sent him to Horezu Monastery to study the condition of its art works and write a report for the "Bulletin of the Historical Monuments Commission", he was preparing to do further studies on other historical monuments and travel to Paris to research methods of restoration, but died of an unspecified heart ailment. A major retrospective of his work was held at the National Museum of Art of Romania to celebrate his birth centennial in 1980.
Petru Comarnescu, Apcar Baltazar, Editura de stat pentru literatură şi artă, 1956 Radu Ionescu, ed. Apcar Baltazar: Convorbiri Artistice, Editura Meridiane, 1974 Dana Herbay and Dorana Coșoveanu, Apcar Baltazar, 1880–1909: expoziție retrospectivă Muzeul de Artă al Republicii Socialiste România, 1981 Gheorghe Samoilă blog an appreciation of his work, with material by Krikor Zambaccian
Iași is the second largest city in Romania, the seat of Iași County. Located in the historical region of Moldavia, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural and artistic life; the city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1564 to 1859 of the United Principalities from 1859 to 1862, the capital of Romania from 1916 to 1918. Known as The Cultural Capital of Romania, Iași is a symbol in Romanian history; the historian Nicolae Iorga said "There should be no Romanian who does not know of it". Still referred to as The Moldavian Capital, Iași is the main economic and business centre of the Moldavian region of Romania. In December 2018, Iași was declared Historical capital of Romania. At the 2011 census, the city proper had a population of 290,422. With 474,035 residents, the Iași urban area is the second most populous in Romania, whereas more than 500,000 people live within its peri-urban area. Home to the oldest Romanian university and to the first engineering school, Iași is one of the most important education and research centres of the country, accommodates over 60,000 students in 5 public universities.
The social and cultural life revolves around the Vasile Alecsandri National Theater, the Moldova State Philharmonic, the Opera House, the Iași Athenaeum, a famous Botanical Garden, the Central University Library, the high quality cultural centres and festivals, an array of museums, memorial houses and historical monuments. The city is known as the site of the largest Romanian pilgrimage which takes place each year, in October; the city is referred to as: Bulgarian: Яш English, Polish: Jassy French: Iassy German: Jassy, Jassenmarkt Greek: Ιάσιο Hebrew: יאסי or יאשי. Hungarian: Jászvásár Italian: Iassi Russian: Яссы Serbian: Јаши or Jaši Turkish: Yaş Ukrainian: Ясси, Яси - Я́сси, Я́си Yiddish: יאס Arabic: ياشي/اياشي/ياسي Scholars have different theories on the origin of the name "Iași"; some argue that the name originates with the Sarmatian tribe Iazyges, one mentioned by Ovid as Latin: "Ipse vides onerata ferox ut ducata Iasyx/ Per media Histri plaustra bubulcus aquas" and "Iazyges et Colchi Metereaque turba Getaque/ Danubii mediis vix prohibentur aquis".
A now lost inscription on a Roman milestone found near Osijek, Croatia by Matija Petar Katančić in the 18th century, mentions the existence of a Jassiorum municipium, or Municipium Dacorum-Iassiorum from other sources. Other explanations show that the name originated from the Iranian Alanic tribe of Jassi, having same origin with Yazyges tribes Jassic people; the Prut river was known as the city as Forum Philistinorum. From this population derived the plural of town name, "Iașii". Another historian wrote that the Iasians lived among the Cumans and that they left the Caucasus after the first Mongolian campaign in the West, settling temporarily near the Prut, he asserts that the ethnic name of Jasz, given to Iasians by Hungarians has been erroneously identified with the Jazyges. The Hungarian name of the city means "Jassic Market". Archaeological investigations attest to the presence of human communities on the present territory of the city and around it as far back as the prehistoric age. Settlements included those of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, a late Neolithic archaeological culture.
There is archaeological evidence of human settlements in the area of Iași dating from the 6th to 7th centuries and 7th to 10th centuries. Many of the vessels found in Iași had a cross indicating that the inhabitants were Christians; the name of the city is first found in a document from 1408. This is a grant of certain commercial privileges by the Moldavian Prince Alexander to the Polish merchants of Lvov. However, as buildings older than 1408 still exist, e.g. the Armenian Church believed to be built in 1395, it is certain that the city existed before its first surviving written mention. Around 1564, Prince Alexandru Lăpușneanu moved the Moldavian capital from Suceava to Iași. Between 1561 and 1563, a school and a Lutheran church were founded by the Greek adventurer Prince, Ioan Iacob Heraclid. In 1640, Vasile Lupu established the first school in which the Romanian language replaced Greek, set up a printing press in the Byzantine Trei Ierarhi Monastery. Between 15 September - 27 October 1642, the city hosted the Synod of Jassy.
In 1643, the first volume printed in Moldavia was published in Iași. The city was burned down by the Tatars in 1513, by the Ottomans in 1538, by Imperial Russian troops in 1686. In 1734, it was hit by the plague, it was through the Peace of Iași that the sixth Russo-Turkish War was brought to a close in 1792. A Greek revolutionary manoeuvre and occupation under Alexander Ypsilanti and the Filiki Eteria led to the storming of the city by the Turks in 1822. In 1844 a severe fire affected much of the city. Between 1564 and 1859, the city was the capital of Moldavia.
Alexandru Tzigara-Samurcaș was a Romanian art historian, ethnographer and cultural journalist known as local champion of art conservation, Romanian Police leader and pioneer radio broadcaster. Tzigara was a member of the Junimea literary society, holding positions at the National School of Fine Arts, the University of Bucharest and lastly the University of Cernăuți. During his youth, he was secretary to Carol I, the King of Romania. Close to the royal family, he served as head of the Carol I Academic Foundation, where he set up a large collection of photographic plates. Tzigara achieved fame in 1906 as founder of the "National Museum", nucleus of the present-day Museum of the Romanian Peasant, but was involved in arranging and preserving the Theodor Aman art fund. During World War I, Tzigara-Samurcaș irritated Romanian public opinion by accepting to serve in a puppet administration set up by the Central Powers. Although his conduct was considered benign by the legitimate government, it drew him accusations of collaborationism from within academia, aggravated his long-standing conflict with historian Nicolae Iorga.
Tzigara was prevented from advancing in his university career over the interwar period, but compensated for this mishap with other achievements: he was a delegate to several world fairs, the first-ever lecturer on Radio Romania's staff, the editor in chief of Convorbiri Literare magazine, shortly before retirement, a corresponding member of the Academy. His post-World War II years were spent in obscurity, owing to his ideological incompatibility with the Romanian communist regime. Alexandru Tzigara-Samurcaș was alleged to be Carol I's illegitimate son, a rumor fueled by his closeness to court, he was himself the father of artist Ana Tzigara Berza, father in law of folklorist Marcu Berza. A native of Bucharest, Tzigara-Samurcaș was born on April 4 1872, baptized into the Romanian Orthodox Church. A popular rumor has him as the illegitimate son of Domnitor Carol I, the future King of Romania, to whom Tzigara was close in years. Historian Lucian Boia gives some credit to this piece of oral history, notes that Tzigara, like Wilhelm and Mite Kremnitz, had "an unusually tight relationship" with the royal family.
Researcher Zigu Ornea, who notes that Tzigara may have been spreading the story around, argues: "This legend is hard to verify but, in any case, it is a possible one, since Tzigara-Samurcaș was born in 1872 and Carol I was present on our throne, as Domnitor, from 1866." Like Boia, Ornea notes that Tzigara's close relationship with the king, the king's repeated interventions on his behalf "every time got stuck", his contacts with the Kremnitzes were some additional clues to a royal bloodline. Historian Vasile Docea criticizes Ornea's verdict, noting that it relies on questionable sources, argues that, far from embracing this legend, Tzigara spoke "with evident pride" about his Tzigara roots. According to historian Lucian Nastasă, Docea "disproved" the rumor of Alexandru Tzigara-Samurcaș's royal descent. Alexandru's mother and Carol's alleged mistress was Elena Samurcaș, married to Toma Tzigara. Research into his maternal genealogy led the art historian to conclude that he was of noble Greek and Italo-Greek descent: his supposed ancestor was Spatharios Zotos Tzigaras, buried in Venice at San Giorgio dei Greci.
The Samurcaș family had aristocratic blood, being related to the boyar nobility of Wallachia: the art historian's paternal line made him a relative of the Kretzulescu, Rallet and Crețeanu boyar families. Of boyar rank, Alexandru's Samurcaș ancestors had a history on both sides of the Southern Carpathians, in Wallachia and in then-Austrian-ruled Transylvania. Active during the Age of Revolution, Wallachian Vornic Constantin Samurcaș took part in Eterist agitation, but fleeing the 1821 rural uprising, settled in Kronstadt to spy for the Austrians. Another ancestor, Postelnic Alecu Samurcaș, was a linguist, known for his work in the Greek language; the meeting of two branches was recorded in the coat of arms that Tzigara-Samurcaș fashioned for himself, showing the spatha of Zotos Tzigaras, alongside a sable and a stylized eyebrow. A while after Toma Tzigara's death, Alexandru was adopted by his childless uncle Ioan Alecu Samurcaș, his first contacts with history and folk art came by means of his extended family, which collected and preserved documents and art objects.
After graduating from the Matei Basarab High School and taking his Baccalaureate, he enlisted at the University of Bucharest Faculty of Letters, Historical Section. It was here that the young man was acquainted with his first mentors: writer-collector Alexandru Odobescu and archeologist Grigore Tocilescu, the latter of whom ensured Tzigara's employment as custodian for the National Museum of Antiquities, he was a critic of the museum's underdevelopment under Tocilescu's management, wrote that the disorganized collection comprised an Egyptian mummy, copies of frescoes from the Cathedral Church in Curtea de Argeș, items from the Pietroasele Treasure, works of Precolumbian art, alongside a scale model of the Eiffel Tower. From 1893, the young graduate was in the German Empire, where he studied at the University of Berlin and the Ludwig Maximilian University, taking his Ph. D. in Muni
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by molding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. Less and less usefully, the term may be used broadly for all the visual arts, as opposed to literature and music. Materials for use in the plastic arts, in the narrower definition, include those that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, glass, or metal; the term "plastic" has been used to mean certain synthetic organic resins since they were invented, but the term "plastic arts" long preceded them. The term should not be confused, with Piet Mondrian's concept of "Neoplasticism"; the oldest known plastic art date to. In contrast to the limiting of'plastic arts' to sculpture and architecture by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling in 1807, the German critic August Wilhelm Schlegel applied the concept not only to visual arts, but poetry. Classical poetry lines he saw utilizing plastic isolation, rhyme falling under the Romantic.. In Schlegel's Viennese lectures, published in 1827 as On the Theory and History of the Plastic Arts, he contrasted the plasticism of Classical Art with picturesque Romanticism.
He "operated with the antinomy of terms plastic/pictorial, mechanically/ organically, finite/ infinite, closed/accomplished. Schlegel stated that the spirit of the entire antique culture and poetry was plastic and that the spirit of modern culture, was picturesque"; these distinctions were carried over into Russian Romanticism aesthetics, "Venevitinov objected to the indiscriminate use of the term'pictures'. In his use of August Schlegel's term'plastic' he argues for a return to the simple, enclosed, limited, finite and plastic world of the ancients. There seem to have been two interpretations of the plastic - picturesque contrast in Romantic Idealist philosophy; as Venevitinov uses the contrast, as August Schlegel intended it to be used when he defined it in Lecture I of Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur, it denoted the difference between the corporeal mind of the man of antiquity and the'picturesque' mind of modern man. Ancient art appeals directly to the modern art gives rise to mental pictures or images.
The former is therefore real and corporeal, the latter ideal." Art materials Handicraft Media Plastic in art Plastic number Recording medium Visual arts Barnes, A. C; the Art in Painting, 3rd ed. 1937, Brace & World, Inc. NY. OCLC 1572753 Bukumirovic, D.. Maga Magazinovic. Biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj. br. 4. Beograd: Narodna knj. Fazenda, M. J.. Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano. N.p. Gerón, C.. Enciclopedia de las artes plásticas dominicanas: 1844-2000. 4th ed. Dominican Republic s.n. Schlegel, August Wilhelm. Vorlesungen uber dramatische Kunst und Literatur, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1966, p.21f
Moldovans or Moldavians are the largest ethnic group of the Republic of Moldova, a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia. Under the variant Moldavians, the term may be used to refer to all inhabitants of the territory of historical Principality of Moldavia divided among Romania and Ukraine, regardless of ethnic identity; this article refers to the Moldovan/Romanian language-speaking population native to the Republic of Moldova, the historical Bessarabia and diaspora originating from these regions, self-identified as Moldovans. According to Miron Costin, a prominent chronicler from the 17th century Moldavia, the inhabitants of the Principality of Moldavia spoke Romanian and called themselves "Moldovans", but "Romanians" which, he notes, comes from "romanus"; the Slavic neighbours called Moldovans "Vlachs" or "Volokhs", a term used to refer to all native Romance speakers from Eastern Europe and the Balkan peninsula. As the ethnonym "Romanian" was gaining more and more popularity throughout Western Moldavia and Bukovina during the 19th century, its dissemination in Bessarabia, a more backward and rural province of the Russian Empire at the time, was welcomed by the Romanian-oriented intellectuals, while the majority of the rural population continued to use the old self-identification "Moldovans".
Until the 1920s, historians considered Moldovans as a subgroup of the Romanian ethnos. After 1924, within the newly created Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet authorities supported the creation of a different standardized language in order to prove that Moldovans form a separate ethnic group. In the past, the term "Moldovan" has been used to refer to the population of the historical Principality of Moldavia. However, for the inhabitants of Bessarabia living under the Russian rule, the term gained an ethnic connotation by the beginning of the 20th century: in May 1917, at a congress of Bessarabian teachers, a dispute arose over the identification of the native population. In 1918, Bessarabia joined the Kingdom of Romania, following a vote of Sfatul Ţării; the circumstance of the vote was itself complex, since the Romanian troops were present in Bessarabia at the request of the Sfatul Ţării as it was facing exterior threats and anarchy. By the time of the union, the illiterate Romanian-speaking peasants of Bessarabia did not consider themselves part of a larger Romanian nation, there was no mass nationalist movement as in other regions, such as in Transylvania.
The unified Romanian state promoted a common identity for all its Romanian-speaking inhabitants. Owing to its relative underdevelopment compared to other regions of Greater Romania, as well as to the low competence and corruption of the new Romanian administration in this province, the integration process of Bessarabia in the unified Romanian state was less successful than in other regions and was soon to be disrupted by the Soviet occupation. In 1940, during World War II, Romania agreed to an ultimatum and ceded the region to the Soviet Union, which organized it into the Moldavian SSR; the Soviets began a campaign to strengthen the Moldovan identity different from that of the rest of Romanian speakers, taking advantage of the incomplete integration of the Bessarabia into the interwar Romania. The official Soviet policy stated that Romanian and Moldovan were two different languages and, to emphasize this distinction, Moldovan had to be written in a new Cyrillic alphabet based on the Russian Cyrillic, rather than the older Romanian Cyrillic that ceased to be used in the 19th century in the Romanian Old Kingdom and 1917 in Bessarabia.
A poll conducted in the Republic of Moldova by IMAS-Inc Chișinău in October 2009 presented a detailed picture. The respondents were asked to rate the relationship between the identity of Moldovans and that of Romanians on a scale between 1 to 5; the poll showed that 26% of the entire sample, which included all ethnic groups, claimed the two identities were the same or similar, whereas 47% claimed they were different or different. The results varied among different categories of subjects. For instance, while 33% of the young respondents chose the same or similar and 44% different or different, among the senior respondents the corresponding figures were 18.5% and 53%. The proportion of those who chose the same or similar identity was higher than the average among the native speakers of Romanian/Moldovan, among the urban dwellers, among those with higher education, among the residents of the capital city. According to a study conducted in the Republic of Moldova in May 1998, when the self-declared Moldovans were asked to relate the Romanian and Moldovan identities, 55% considered them somewhat different, 26% different and less than 5% identical.
A survey carried out in the Republic of Moldova in 1992 showed that 87% of the Romanian/Moldovan speakers chose to identify themselves as "Moldovans", rather than "Romanians". The major Moldovan political forces have diverging opinions regarding the identity of Moldovans; this contradiction is reflected in their stance towards the national history that should be taught in schools. Governing forces such