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Tangail Airdrop

The Tangail Airdrop was a successful battalion-size airborne forces's paratroop operation mounted on 11 December 1971 by the 2nd Battalion of the Indian Army's Parachute Regiment during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 for the liberation of Bangladesh. The main objective of the operation was the capture of Poongli Bridge on the Jamuna River which would cut off the Pakistani 93rd Brigade, retreating from Mymensingh in the north to defend the capital of East Pakistan and its approaches; the paratroop unit was tasked to link up with the advancing Maratha Light Infantry on the ground to advance towards the East Pakistani capital. A battalion of paratroopers led by Lt Col Kulwant Singh Pannu was reinforced by an artillery battery of 17 PARA Field, an engineering detachment, an ADS, a surgical team and other administrative troops from 50th Parachute Brigade. Tasked to cut off the retreat of the Pakistani troops from the north towards Dacca, the unit touched ground at 4:30pm and were greeted by a jubilant crowd of local people, with some helping the troops carry their packs and ammunition.

The drop was dispersed over a wide area, but the Paras regrouped and commenced their attack. By 7.00pm they had captured their main objective, cutting off the Pakistani 93 Brigade retreating from the north. Link-up with 1 Maratha LI was established after the Marathas broke through at Tangail Road and reached the bridgehead that evening; the Pakistanis, attempting to retake the bridge rushed the Indian positions that evening, were repulsed. The Tangail Airdrop operation involved C-119s, 2 Caribous and Dakotas from 11 sqn and 48 Sqn; the IAF carried out feint drops using dummies dropped from Caribou aircraft to hide the true location and extent of the operation. The only hitch was a Hangup from the lead Dakota. One Paratrooper had a static line hangup, after carrying out emergency procedures, was dropped safely about 50 miles away. Indian Army which took over the Poongli Bridge from the Pakistani Army was "shocked" at "the sight of mutilated bodies of women, whom the Pakistani troops had killed just before fleeing from Poongli Bridge."During the larger war there were widespread killings and other atrocities by the Pakistani Army – including the displacement of civilians in Bangladesh and widespread violations of human rights began with the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971.

Members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias killed estimated between 300,000 to 3,000,000 people and raped 200,000–400,000 Bangladeshi women in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape. The Tangail Airdrop and the subsequent capture of the Poongli bridge gave the advancing Indian Army, assisted by Kader Bahini created by RAW, the maneuverability to side-step the held Tongi-Dacca Road to take the undefended Manikganj-Dacca Road right up to Mirpur Bridge at the gates of Dacca. Pakistan Army's 93,000 troops unconditionally surrendered to the Indian Army and India's local ally Mukti Bahini on 16 December 1971; this day and event is commemorated as the Bijoy Dibos in Vijay Diwas in India. Indian commander Lt Col Kulwant Singh was awarded the MVC for his leadership in battle; the 2Paras were subsequently the first Indian forces to enter Dacca. For this and their role in Capture of the strategic bridge, the Paras received battle honour for Poongli Bridge and theatre honours for Dacca. Timeline of the Bangladesh Liberation War Military plans of the Bangladesh Liberation War Mitro Bahini order of battle Pakistan Army order of battle, December 1971 Evolution of Pakistan Eastern Command plan Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Sajjad, Tazreena.

"The Post-Genocidal Period and its Impact on Women". In Samuel Totten. Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide. Transaction. Pp. 219–248. ISBN 978-1412847599. Sharlach, Lisa. "Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda". New Political Science. 1: 89–102. Doi:10.1080/713687893

Cadillac Escala

The Cadillac Escala is a concept car built by Cadillac for the 2016 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance. The last of a trifecta of concept cars conceived in 2007, it is preceded by the Ciel and Elmiraj, which had debuted back in 2011 and 2013 respectively; the Escala previews Cadillac's future design language, being an evolution of the Art and Science design philosophy, used on its cars for over a decade. The Escala was first announced via a trailer video on August 15, 2016, its name, revealed one day before its public debut, derives from the Spanish word for scale. This refers to the Escala using an elongated version of the Cadillac CT6's Omega underpinnings, being six inches longer than the latter; the car was unveiled at a cocktail party in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California on August 18, 2016, attended by Cadillac President Johan de Nysschen, GM Vice President of Global Design Michael Simcoe and Cadillac's executive director of global design Andrew Smith, along with several other executives. Although yet to be confirmed for production, it was described by de Nysschen as "a potential addition to our existing product plan” in a press release, its ultimate fate determined by the fertility of the flagship luxury sedan market.

However, it previews the design and other advanced technological features in development, set to appear on other upcoming Cadillac production cars in the future. The exterior, painted in a nine-layer pearlescent blackish-brown "Gaia" finish, blends Cadillac's trademark Art and Science era design cues with more contemporary ones, being the first Cadillac to feature horizontal headlamps since the Seville was discontinued in 2004; this was done to give the car a more understated, harmonious look, in which simplicity is a prevalent theme on the Escala's design. They are complemented by two vertical strips of OLED daytime running lamps positioned just below the headlamps. A monotone Cadillac emblem adorns the three-dimensional mesh grille, patterned with several miniature crests; the car is designed as a four-door hardtop with a sloping rear roofline, giving a more athletic appearance, with a liftback tailgate at the rear end. When the trunk is opened, the cargo floor rises up to enable easier access to luggage.

Present on the car's C-pillar is the Hofmeister kink, a seen trait for a Cadillac paying homage to the fastback Cadillac coupés of the late 1940s. Cadillac's signature vertical taillights are reworked, now added with a horizontal strip, it sits on 22-inch dual layer spoke wheels, fitted with 20-inch tires co-developed with Michelin that has the Cadillac chevron engraved onto the tire tread. The newly designed front fascia is expected to make its way to Cadillac production models starting in late 2018; the handcrafted "dual personality" interior is designed to combine driver technology amenities and rear-seat passenger comfortability into one automobile. A wide, three-layered curved OLED screen developed with Samsung stretches across the dashboard in the driver's compartment, while accompanied by smaller, retractable displays at the back of the front seats for rear passengers; the normal metal top is replaced by a panoramic glass roof, which along with the absence of B-pillars gives the car a more "airy" feel associated with Cadillac hardtops from the 1950s to 1970s.

Much of the upholstery, including the seatbacks, door panel and lower dashboard, is finished in a pale gray leather similar to those used in designer suits, contrasted by woven white wool. The famous Cadillac flying goddess, designed by William Schnell in 1930 and having last appeared in the 1950s, returns after a long hiatus in the form an etching on the car's glass infotainment controller, which replaces the older CUE system; the Escala is powered by a Cadillac-exclusive 4.2-liter twin-turbocharged dual overhead camshaft V8 engine generating 500 horspower, due to be introduced as a more powerful engine option in the CT6. The engine uses General Motors' new Active Fuel Management cylinder deactivation system, allowing the engine to run on four cylinders for better fuel efficiency; the car shares the mixed-material rear-wheel-drive Omega platform with the CT6, although enlarged by 4.7 inches, giving the car an extra 6.5 inches in overall length when compared to the latter. The Escala was featured in a Cadillac advertisement as a symbol of what Cadillac's future will look like.

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The Spare Room

The Spare Room is a novel by Australian writer Helen Garner, set over the course of three weeks while the narrator, cares for a friend dying of bowel cancer. The Spare Room was published in 2008; the novel is told from the first person perspective of a woman, who lives in Melbourne near her family. A friend Nicola, ill with bowel cancer, comes to stay with Helen in order to pursue alternative therapy for her disease; the cancer is considered terminal by her doctors. Helen becomes more so as she sees its deleterious health effects; as the three weeks of the novel progress Helen becomes angry with Nicola for denying the seriousness of her illness, forcing those around her to do emotional work on her behalf in confronting her death, in making light of them for doing so. At the end of the novel, Nicola returns to mainstream oncology treatment, the doctors find that some of her symptoms are due to cancer having destroyed part of her vertebrae; the novel flashes forward to the months ahead, where Nicola returns to Sydney and dies.

A number of friends and family, including Helen, take turns as her caretaker. Nicola only embraces her death when a Buddhist friend tells her that in dying, she has something to teach them; the novel draws on both events and details from Garner's life. The narrator Helen lives next door to her daughter Eva and Eva's children, as Garner does with her daughter Alice Garner and her children, plays the ukulele as Garner does; the events in the novel are based on Garner's spending a period caring for her friend Jenya Osborne when Osborne was dying. Garner chose to use her own first name for the narrator character as she wanted to admit to the least attractive or acceptable emotions that she felt as her friend died; the publication of The Spare Room received considerable media coverage and the novel was favourably reviewed in several major Australian metropolitan newspapers. Points of interest included: Garner's simple and powerful prose style; some reviewers found the strong similarities with Garner's life distracting.

One noted some of the advantages of fiction, in that Garner was able to resolve the story in the novel in a way she could not in her major non-fiction works The First Stone and Joe Cinque's Consolation. Robert Dessaix wrote an extended review that although favourable argued that The Spare Room is not a novel, but closer to a piece of journalism or a report from a metaphorical battle front as the novel is focused on Helen's point of view and never on Nicola's interior experience. James Wood listed it in his New Yorker column for the Best Books of 2009. Victorian Premier's Literary Award, Vance Palmer Prize for Fiction, 2008: winner Queensland Premier's Literary Awards, Best Fiction Book, 2008: winner Barbara Jefferis Award, 2009: winner

Vector optimization

Vector optimization is a subarea of mathematical optimization where optimization problems with a vector-valued objective functions are optimized with respect to a given partial ordering and subject to certain constraints. A multi-objective optimization problem is a special case of a vector optimization problem: The objective space is the finite dimensional Euclidean space ordered by the component-wise "less than or equal to" ordering. In mathematical terms, a vector optimization problem can be written as: C - ⁡ min x ∈ S f where f: X → Z for a ordered vector space Z; the partial ordering is induced by a cone C ⊆ Z. X is an arbitrary set and S ⊆ X is called the feasible set. There are different minimality notions, among them: x ¯ ∈ S is a weakly efficient point if for every x ∈ S one has f − f ∉ − int ⁡ C. X ¯ ∈ S is an efficient point if for every x ∈ S one has f − f ∉ − C ∖. X ¯ ∈ S is a properly efficient point if x ¯ is a weakly efficient point with respect to a closed pointed convex cone C ~ where C ∖ ⊆ int ⁡ C ~.

Every proper minimizer is a minimizer. And every minimizer is a weak minimizer. Modern solution concepts not only consists of minimality notions but take into account infimum attainment. Benson's algorithm for linear vector optimization problems. Any multi-objective optimization problem can be written as R + d - ⁡ min x ∈ M f where f: X → R d and R + d is the non-negative orthant of R d, thus the minimizer of this vector optimization problem are the Pareto efficient points


Jebediah are an Australian alternative rock band formed in 1994 in Perth, Western Australia. They were formed by Chris Daymond on lead guitar, Kevin Mitchell on lead vocals and rhythm guitar, Vanessa Thornton on bass guitar, they were joined a year by Kevin's older brother, Brett Mitchell, on drums. After winning the National Campus Band Competition, the group were brought to national attention when their 1996 single "Jerks of Attention" received heavy airplay on Australian alternative radio station Triple J –, followed by their breakthrough debut album, Slightly Odway; the band released four studio albums by 2004: three entered the top ten on the ARIA Albums Chart. After touring to celebrate their tenth anniversary, the band went on hiatus in 2005. Kevin Mitchell continued solo work under Bob Evans. Kevin appeared on a self-titled album in July 2010 by the Basement Birds, a supergroup which he formed with fellow musicians, Kavyen Temperley, Josh Pyke and Steve Parkin. Jebediah reconvened in 2010 and released their fifth studio album, Kosciuszko, in the following year, which charted in the ARIA top ten.

Jebediah was formed in Perth in 1994 by Chris Daymond on lead guitar, Almin Fulurija on drums, Kevin Mitchell on vocals and rhythm guitar, Vanessa Thornton on bass guitar. They are named after Jebediah Springfield, the fictional founder of Springfield on the American TV cartoon series, The Simpsons. Daymond and Mitchell had met in a theatre class at Leeming High School in their final year, while Daymond and Thornton knew each other from childhood and had been members of Hybrid. By early 1995, Kevin's older brother, Brett Mitchell, replaced Fulurija because the latter would not turn up to practice sessions, Brett had been a drummer with various groups including The Jerk Offs. In May that year Jebediah performed their first gig, for a Leeming High School formal, at the Perth Sheraton Hotel, where they played cover versions of material by Green Day, Pearl Jam and The Smashing Pumpkins, one original, they won the Western Australian semi-finals of the 1995 Australian National Campus Band Competition and in October they won the national final in Lismore.

This led to an opening slot on the Summersault Music Festival before high-profile bands, Beastie Boys, Foo Fighters and Sonic Youth. Brett explained in a 2011 interview: "In the early days, everything was just a bit of a shock... to us. In August 1996 Jebediah issued their debut five-track extended play, produced by Chris Dickie. According to Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, Twitch contained "quirky tracks like'Mister Masonic' and'Tracksuit' and was a strong taster for the band's fuzzy pop". In April that year they had signed to Murmur, a subsidiary label of Sony Music, on the basis of their live performances, they followed with a national tour alongside Snout, Automatic. In 2004 Daymon recalled "our first EP came out through Murmur. Right from the start we never self-financed any of our early material... Thinking about it now, over the years, a lot of being in a band – for us – is touring and playing the shows. At the West Australian Music Industry Awards of 1996 they won their first WAMi for Best Stage Presence.

Twitch debuted at number one on the local Perth singles chart. It appeared on the ARIA Singles Chart in the top 100. Jebediah's first single, "Jerks of Attention", was released in December 1996 and appeared on the ARIA Singles Chart top 100 in the following month, it received national airplay on the Triple J radio network. The group's appearances at Homebake and the Big Day Out concerts as well as support slots for Soundgarden, The Presidents of the United States of America and You Am I, further raised their public profile. Another single, "Leaving Home", was issued in June and reached the top 50; the group won two WAMi awards in 1997: Most Popular Band and Most Popular Song for "Jerks of Attention". In September Jebediah issued their first studio album, Slightly Odway, with Neill King producing; the album's title is "a comment on the odd way they feel they approach life as well as music". It remained in the top 50 for 54 weeks. Popular tracks included "Leaving Home" and the third single, "Military Strongmen".

Odway reached number two on the ARIA alternative charts, within four months it was certified gold. Jonathan Lewis of Allmusic felt it showed them "as a talented young band, despite the flimsy songwriting and the lack of light and shade on the album". While Greg Lawrence at noted that it provides "a mature, complete range – from the early-penned punk mayhem of'Blame' to the delicacy of the'Twilight=Dusk', from the dark tones of'Jerks of Attention' to the bright strains of radio hit'Leaving Home'. The album does a great job of capturing the amazing live dynamic of the band"."Leaving Home" was rated number 10 in the Triple J Hottest 100 music poll for 1997. Odway received a double-platinum certificate, with two more top 50 singles, "Teflon" and "Harpoon", adding to the group's chart success. Murmur label mates, Something for Kate, provided a cover version of "Harpoon" on the EP. Murmur issued a split-EP with both versions of "Harpoon" back