Cook (profession)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A cook is a profession for individuals who prepare food for consumption in the food industry such as restaurants. A cook is sometimes referred to as a chef, although in the culinary world, the terms are not interchangeable. Cooks' responsibilities include preparing food, managing food stations, cleaning the kitchen, and helping the chefs.[1] Restaurants will give a title to the cooks according to their designated stations.[2] Examples are broiler cooks, fry cooks, pantry cooks, and sauce cooks.

A cook at work (15th- or 16th-century German illustration)

History[edit]

In 776 BC, Coroebus of Elis who won the Ancient Olympic Games in a sprint race was also a cook.[3]

In the Middle Age of Northern France (around 9th-15th century), being a cook was a known profession in the community;[4] in a sense, cooks were acknowledged as trained craftsmen. Taillevent wrote in the Le Viandier- a classic recipe collection in Medieval France- that he underwent different levels of training such as being an apprentice and journeyman before he acquired a master grade, the master or queu attained knowledge passed from one generation to another.

Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) described cook in the Brigade De Cuisine as the Cuisinier. [5] They help the top levels in the hierarchy, such as chefs, and prepare specific dishes.

Salary & Economics Value[edit]

Based on the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of work opportunities for cooks is expected to go up by 6 percent during the time period of 2016 to 2026.[6] In 2016, the number of jobs for a cook was at 2,403,000, the rate is projected to increase slower than food preparation workers, bakers, and chefs (all of which are projected to increase by at least 8 percent from 2016 to 2026).

A group of professional and aspiring cooks in a hotel kitchen (1990)

In addition, cooks earn about $22,850 a year, and about $10.99 an hour.

As of October 2017, the average income for cooks was around C$33,400 a year.[7]

As of 2018 cooks in Australia earn about AU$20.48 for every hour of work.[8]

Education[edit]

United States[edit]

There is not a strict set of achievements that one must accomplish before one can become a cook.[9]

There are institutions that provide culinary programs, such as vocational cooking schools. There are mandatory lessons that cover topics such as food safety, sanitation, hospitality, and advanced cooking,[10] this will last for less than two years to four years.[11]

It is also known that some cooks receive their education through culinary apprenticeships that can be sponsored by professional culinary institutes or trade unions. Apprenticeships usually have a duration of one year and provide on-the-job experience along with technical training.[12]

Based on the American Culinary Federation, the minimum requirements for entering such programs include being 17 years old and having a high school diploma or equivalent.[13] Should they seek out a promotion to higher level culinary professions, they may get a culinary certification that proves them to have at least two years of job experience and basic knowledge of kitchen skills.

United Kingdom[edit]

GCSE in English and Math could help individuals who are interested in becoming cooks.[14] However, it is more valuable if they experienced apprenticeship or training in any culinary institution or courses.

There are certain colleges from different areas that provide training and development programs, among these are Wales, England, and Northern Ireland. Examples of certificate or diploma available are Diploma in Introduction to Professional Cookery, Certificate in General Cookery, and Diploma in Food Production and Cooking.[15]

Health Concerns[edit]

There are various health concerns that arise from working in a kitchen. Cooks who deal with uncooked meat have the chance to catch food-borne illnesses.[16] Additionally, cooks are at risk of breathing in and touching chemical products such as bleach and glass cleaner. Two other potential concerns are the risk of getting injured from the use of sharp objects, or from touching hot surfaces. Another possible health danger is that cooks could fall due to wet and slick floors.[17]

Regional Differences[edit]

Middle East[edit]

Professional cooks in the Middle East are predominantly men,[18] because of religious restrictions, (except for a small amount of Christian-based groups), cooks typically refrain from using pork to make meals while lamb and chicken are the standard meats used. Then, the meat will be served with either bread or rice.[19] According to Jill Eversole Nolan, there is a high percentage of Middle Easterners that are lactose intolerant which is why dairy is not frequently used when eating meals. Cattle are frequently used for carrying or moving items and are to only be used for food when there is no other purpose for them. Even then, beef is not easy to use as a food source and are served in chunks, either dried, raw, or cooked,[20] on the other hand, eggplants are easy to buy off the streets and are highly used by Middle Eastern cooks with over 40 dishes prepared while just using the main ingredient.[18]

Mexico[edit]

Mexican cooks make a strong point to respect the dishes they make and that these dishes reflect their “heritage" and "soul."[21][22][23] The amount of passion they have directly tied into how well their food comes out and how flavorful it may be.[21] Cooks will often haggle and buy their ingredients from street markets while their corn tortillas are either handmade (which is considerably time-consuming) or bought from tortillerias.[22] Mexican cuisine has been influenced by French invaders and integrates both styles in their food. Crêpes, or crepas, as they are called in Mexico, were introduced to them by the French invaders and are widely used for various dishes.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Riley, Rowan (2010). Hospitality, Human Services and Tourism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 2,3. ISBN 9781438120775. 
  2. ^ "Job Titles". National Restaurant Association. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 
  3. ^ Symons, Michael (2003). A History of Cooks and Cooking. University of Illinois Press. p. 300. ISBN 9780252071928. 
  4. ^ Adamson, Melitta (2002). Regional Cuisines of Medieval Europe: A Book of Essays. Psychology Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780415929943. 
  5. ^ Dominé, André (1999). Culinaria: France. Könemann. p. 32. ISBN 9783829020190. 
  6. ^ "Cooks : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-27. 
  7. ^ "Salary: Cook in Vancouver, BC". Glassdoor. Retrieved 2018-02-05. 
  8. ^ "Line Cook Salary (Australia)". www.payscale.com. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  9. ^ "Cooks : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-31. 
  10. ^ "Required Courses and Classes for Cooking School". Study.com. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 
  11. ^ "Culinary Vocational Schools and Colleges in the U.S." Study.com. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 
  12. ^ "Cooks : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-27. 
  13. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International,. "Certified Culinarian". www.acfchefs.org. Retrieved 2018-01-31. 
  14. ^ "Chef | Job profiles | National Careers Service". nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  15. ^ "Hospitality Guild - Hospitality Training Solutions". www.hospitalityguild.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  16. ^ Safety, Government of Canada, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and. "Cooks : OSH Answers". www.ccohs.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 
  17. ^ United States Department of Labor (January 30, 2018). "Occupational Outlook Handbook". Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
  18. ^ a b Kiple, Kenneth F. (2001). The Cambridge world history of food. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1140–1142. ISBN 9780521402156. 
  19. ^ Nolan, Jill Eversole (30 January 2018). "Cultural Diversity: Eating in America—Middle Eastern". ohioline.osu.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 
  20. ^ Heine, Peter (2004). Food Culture in the Near East, Middle East, and North Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313329562. 
  21. ^ a b Adapon, Joy (2008-09-15). Culinary Art and Anthropology. Berg. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9781847882127. 
  22. ^ a b Coronado, Rosa (2001). Cooking the Mexican Way. Lerner Publications. ISBN 9780822541172. 
  23. ^ a b Godoy, Maria (2016-05-05). "How Mexican Cuisine Was Doing Fusion 500 Years Ago". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-02-01.