Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, is the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, the third largest freshwater lake by volume. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U. S. state of Minnesota to the west, Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. The farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River; the Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami, meaning "great sea." Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song, "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". According to other sources, the actual Ojibwe name is Anishinaabe Gichigami; the 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami. The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur.
Properly translated, the expression means "Upper Lake,". The lake was called Lac Tracy by 17th century Jesuit missionaries; the British, upon taking control of the region from the French in the 1760s following the French and Indian War, anglicized the lake's name to Superior, "on account of its being superior in magnitude to any of the lakes on that vast continent." Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the Soo Locks. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area, the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa; the Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface volume, is brackish. Lake Superior has a surface area of 31,700 square miles, the size of South Carolina or Austria, it has maximum breadth of 160 statute miles. Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms. Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles of water. There is enough water in Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South America to a depth of 30 centimetres.
The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles. American limnologist J. Val Klump was the first person to reach the lowest depth of Lake Superior on July 30, 1985, as part of a scientific expedition, which at 122 fathoms 1 foot below sea level is the second-lowest spot in the continental interior of the United States and the third-lowest spot in the interior of the North American continent after Iliamna Lake in Alaska and Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada at. While the temperature of the surface of Lake Superior varies seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms is an constant 39 °F; this variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic. Twice per year, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F from top to bottom, the lake waters mix; this feature makes the lake dimictic. Because of its volume, Lake Superior has a retention time of 191 years. Annual storms on Lake Superior feature wave heights of over 20 feet. Waves well over 30 feet have been recorded.
The lake is fed by over 200 rivers. The largest include the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River. There are rapids at the river's upper end where the river bed has a steep gradient; the Soo Locks were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the 25-foot height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron. The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet above sea level; until 1887, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined the outflow from Lake Superior. By 1921, development in support of transportation and hydroelectric power resulted in gates, power canals and other control structures spanning St. Marys rapids; the regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Water levels, including diversions of water from the Hudson Bay watershed, are regulated by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission.
Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007 less than the previous record low in 1926. However, the water levels returned within a few days. Historic high water The lake's water level fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels in October and November; the normal high-water mark is 1.17 feet above datum (601.1 ft
Eagle Mountain (Minnesota)
Eagle Mountain is the highest natural point in Minnesota, United States, at 2,301 feet. It is in northern Cook County, in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness and Superior National Forest in the Misquah Hills, northwest of Grand Marais, it is a Minnesota State Historic Site. Eagle Mountain is only about 15 miles from Lake Superior, at 600 feet, it is part of the Canadian Shield. Confusingly, there is another, much shorter, peak named Eagle Mountain in northern Minnesota; the shorter peak is part of the Lutsen Mountains ski resort. The hike to the summit can be made in about two and a half hours; the distance to the peak is about 3.5 miles with an elevation gain of 550 feet. The trail is moderately strenuous. Whale Lake offers two campsites to hikers; the peak of the mountain is marked with a plaque. Permits are required. Self-issued permits are available at any Superior National Forest ranger station or at the trailhead. Instructions and the permit can be found at the trailhead kiosk. Among the highest natural points in each U.
S. state, Eagle Mountain ranks 37th. Minnesota portal Geography portal Mountains portal List of mountains of Minnesota List of U. S. states by elevation Eagle Mt/Brule Lake, U. S. Forest Service. Map and access information. "Eagle Mountain". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2012-11-08. "U. S. State Highpoints". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-14
Keweenaw County, Michigan
Keweenaw County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan, the state's northernmost county. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,156, making it Michigan's least populous county, it is the state's largest county by total area, when the waters of Lake Superior are included in the total. The county seat is Eagle River; the county was set off and organized in 1861. It is believed "Keweenaw" is a Native American word that means "portage or place where portage is made". Keweenaw County is part of the Houghton, Micropolitan Statistical Area. Isle Royale, a national park which no longer has year-round inhabitants, was a separate county, incorporated into Keweenaw County in 1897. Two land masses comprise most of the land portion of the county: Isle Royale and the northeastern half of the Keweenaw Peninsula; the county includes the waters of Lake Superior between the two, extending to the state's water borders with Ontario and Minnesota. It is thus the largest county in Michigan by total area, at 5,966 square miles, of which 540 square miles is land and 5,426 square miles is water.
Of all counties in the United States, Keweenaw County has the highest proportion of water area to total area. The largest lake within the county is Gratiot Lake at 1,438 acres, located at the base of the county's two highest peaks: Mt. Horace Greeley at 1,550 feet and Mt. Gratiot at 1,490 feet. Other lakes include Lac La Belle near Bete Grise Bay, Lake Medora, Lake Fanny Hooe near Copper Harbor, Lake Bailey at the base of Mt. Lookout, Schlatter Lake at the tip of the peninsula. Isle Royale National Park Keweenaw National Historical Park US 41 runs northeast–southwest through the upper center part of the mainland portion of the county, it enters the southern area of the county at Bumbletown, passes Phoenix, Mandan, Copper Harbor and terminates north of Lake Fanny Hooe. M-26 loops from Phoenix to the shoreline of Lake Superior runs northeasterly along the shoreline to the intersection with US 41 at Copper Harbor. Alger County, east Cook County, northwest/CT border Houghton County, south Marquette County, southeast Ontonagon County, southwest Thunder Bay District, north The 2010 United States Census indicates Keweenaw County had a population of 2,156.
This decrease of 145 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a -6.3% change in population. In 2010 there were 1013 households and 614 families in the county; the population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 2,467 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile. 98.5% of the population were White, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American and 1.2% of two or more races. 0.7% were Hispanic or Latino. 38.8% were of Finnish, 14.0% German, 9.0% English, 6.6% French, French Canadian or Cajun and 5.7% Irish ancestry. There were 1013 households out of which 16.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.71. The county population contained 17.9% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 20.0% from 25 to 44, 36.0% from 45 to 64, 24.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 51.6 years. The population is 48.7 % female. The median income for a household in the county was $39,821, the median income for a family was $48,563; the per capita income for the county was $21,218. About 16.6% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.2% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. Keweenaw County was solidly Republican after the American Civil War, until the Franklin Delano Roosevelt era. In 1900, 1904 and 1908 it stood as the nation's most Republican county. In his last election of 1944, Roosevelt became the first Democrat to win the county since Horatio Seymour in 1868. However, from 1964 to 1996 Keweenaw voted Democratic in every election except 1972 and 1980, thus standing as one of only six counties nationwide to support both Alf Landon and Walter Mondale, who suffered the two worst electoral vote losses since 1824. Since 2000, the county has become solidly Republican again; the county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions—police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc.—are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. The Keweenaw County Courthouse and Sheriff’s Residence and Jail in Eagle River faces Lake Superior; the courthouse was built in 1866, followed by the sheriff’s residence and jail in 1886, remodeled in 1925. In her book Buildings of Michigan, Eckert writes: “Like a meetinghouse on a New England public square, enclosed by a 3-foot high public wall on the east and south sides...transformed in 1925 into its present stark white classical appearance. The courthouse for this sparsely populated remote county is remarkable in its formality... These include the giant Doric columns with fillets and bases, a pediment forming a projecting portico, a modillioned cornice, pedimented side dormers.” The courthouse still preserves its o
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Lake County, Minnesota
Lake County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,866, its county seat is Two Harbors. Lake County was founded on February 20, 1855, as Superior County, though its name was changed on March 3, of that year to Saint Louis County. On March 1, 1856, Saint Louis County became Lake County, while Newton County to the west was renamed Saint Louis County. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the area had long been inhabited by Native American groups. At the time of European contact, the principal Native American groups in the region were the Dakota and Ojibwe; the economy of these groups was based on hunting and gathering, with wild rice being of particular importance. The first Europeans to explore the area were the French in the late 17th century who were followed by trappers, fur traders and explorers. Beaver Bay was the first city in Lake County in 1855. In 1868, iron ore was discovered on the Vermilion Range by George Stuntz. In 1884, the first shipment of ore left Agate Bay, marking Minnesota's entry into the iron ore industry.
During the late 1880s, commercial fishing began on Lake Superior with the coming of Swedish and Norwegian immigrants to the North Shore. In 1890, the Merritt brothers discovered the Mesabi Range; the Two Harbors Lighthouse was built on Agate Bay in 1892. Ten years five Two Harbors businessmen signed the articles of incorporation for a new mining company named 3M. Today, 3M Corporation has over 70,000 employees worldwide and produces more than 50,000 adhesive household products, now has its headquarters in Saint Paul. In 1906, the Court House, which stands to this day, was built. In 1907, one of the nation's first steel ore docks was built in Two Harbors. In 1944, one of the first HMOs in the United States was created in Lake County to serve railroad employees. A second iron ore boom took place in the 1950s with the development of the taconite beneficiation process for turning lean, low-grade iron ore into a shippable product. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,991 square miles, of which 2,109 square miles is land and 881 square miles is water.
It is the fifth-largest county in Minnesota by area. Lake County is located in the Arrowhead Region of Northeastern Minnesota covering 2,062 miles. Within the county's boundaries are four state parks and a National Forest. Lake County offers hiking, camping and winter recreational activities. Lake County has the largest freshwater lake in the world at its side. With its natural environment and shoreline, Lake County offers recreational opportunities as well as historical shipwrecks, two operating lighthouses and two public marinas. Lake County is home to mining, wood products, lumbering and transportation, health care and tourism. Minnesota State Highway 1 Minnesota State Highway 61 Minnesota State Highway 169 List of county roads Rainy River District, Ontario Cook County Ashland County, Wisconsin Bayfield County, Wisconsin Douglas County, Wisconsin Saint Louis County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness As of the 2000 census, there were 11,058 people, 4,646 households, 3,140 families residing in the county.
The population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 6,840 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.99% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. 0.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.3% were of Norwegian, 17.8% German, 14.3% Swedish, 8.4% Finnish, 6.3% Irish and 5.4% English ancestry. There were 4,646 households out of which 27.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.83. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 24.50% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 20.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,402, the median income for a family was $46,980. Males had a median income of $39,719 versus $26,500 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,761. About 5.50% of families and 7.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.40% of those under age 18 and 5.70% of those age 65 or over. Lake County has a historic Democratic/Labor lean, it was the top county for Socialist Party of America candidate Eugene V. Debs in 1908, 1912, 1920; the last Republican to carry the county was Herbert Hoover’s failed run for re-election in 1932, although in the 1932 election Socialist Norman Thomas received 19.32% of the county’s vote, one of the highest percentages in the country. Lake County was the only county in Minnesota to vote for Hoover in 1932. In 2016, Lake County was the whitest county in the entire country to vote for Democrat Hillary Clinton over Republican Donald Trump.
Trump, got the highest percentage of the vote of any Republican since 1928. Beaver Bay Silver Bay Two Harbors Beaver Bay Township Crystal Bay Township Fall Lake Township Silver Creek Township Stony River Township Finland L
Ontonagon County, Michigan
Ontonagon County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 6,780, making it Michigan's third-least populous county; the county seat is Ontonagon. The county was set off in 1843, organized in 1848, its territory had been organized as part of Mackinac counties. With increasing population in the area, more counties were organized. After Ontonagon was organized, it was split to create Gogebic County, it is the westernmost U. S. county. The county is named after the Ontonagon River; the name is said to be derived from an Ojibwe language word Nondon-organ, meaning "hunting river." A French transliteration, identified the river on a 1670 French map. Alternatively, it is said to be derived from the Ojibwa onagon, which means "dish" or "bowl." See List of Michigan county name etymologies. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,741 square miles, of which 1,311 square miles is land and 2,430 square miles is water.
It is the third-largest county in Michigan by area. At a longitude of 89.5°W, it is the westernmost county in the United States contained within the Eastern Time Zone. US 45 – runs north-south through east-central part of county. Enters south line from Watersmeet, passes Paulding, Bruce Crossing, Rockland, ending at Ontonagon. M-26 – enters east line of county at 12 miles south of NE county corner. Runs SW, passing Mass City and Lake Mine, to intersection with M-38 east of Rockland. M-28 – runs east-west thru southern part of county. Enters 10.4 miles north of SE county corner. Runs westerly into Gogebic County. M-38 – enters east line of county at a point east of Mass City. Runs west to Lake Mine WNW to terminus at Ontonagon. M-64 – runs north-south through center part of county. Enters south line on west side of Lake Gogebic. Runs NE along shoreline to terminus at Ontonagon. Ontonagon County Airport serves surrounding communities. Keweenaw National Historical Park Ottawa National Forest The 2010 United States Census indicates Ontonagon County had a population of 6,780.
This decrease of 1038 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a -13.3% change in population. In 2010 there were 3,258 households and 1,954 families in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 5,672 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile. 97.3% of the population were White, 1.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.1% of some other race and 1.3% of two or more races. 0.9% were Hispanic or Latino. There were 3,258 households out of which 15.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.61. The county population contained 15.8% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 16.7% from 25 to 44, 37.0% from 45 to 64, 26.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 52.7 years. The population is 48.4 % female. The median income for a household in the county was $34,786, the median income for a family was $46,845; the per capita income for the county was $22,195. About 9.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1843, Michigan's Upper Peninsula was divided into Mackinac, Marquette, Schoolcraft and Ontonagon Counties. In 1845, a portion of Ontonagon County was partitioned to be part of Houghton County. In 1846, the village of Ontonagon was named as the county seat of Ontonagon County. Ontonagon County is balanced to Republican-leaning. Since 1876 its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 61% of the national elections through 2016. Ontonagon County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. As of September 2018 Ontonagon White Pine Adventure List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Ontonagon County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Ontonagon County, Michigan Sawyer, Alvah Littlefield. A History of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan and Its People. Lewis Publishing Co. Ontonagon Chamber Of Commerce
Thunder Bay District
Thunder Bay District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. The district seat is Thunder Bay. In 2016, the population was 146,048; the land area is 103,719.51 square kilometres. Most of the district is part of the Unorganized Thunder Bay District. Thunder Bay District was created in 1871 by provincial statute from the western half of Algoma District, named after a large bay on the north shore of Lake Superior, its northern and western boundaries were uncertain until Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Until about 1902 it was called Algoma West from the name of the provincial constituency established in 1885; the following districts include areas that were part of Thunder Bay District: Rainy River, created in 1885 Kenora, created in 1907 from Rainy River District Cochrane, created in 1921 City of Thunder Bay Municipality of Greenstone Town of Marathon Township of Conmee Township of Dorion Township of Gillies Township of Manitouwadge Municipality of Neebing Township of Nipigon Township of O'Connor Municipality of Oliver Paipoonge Township of Red Rock Township of Schreiber Township of Shuniah Township of Terrace Bay Animbiigoo Zaagi'igan Anishinaabek First Nation: Lake Nipigon Aroland First Nation: Aroland Settlement Biinjitiwabik Zaaging Anishnabek First Nation: Rocky Bay 1 Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek First Nation Fort William First Nation: Fort William 52 Ginoogaming First Nation: Ginoogaming Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek First Nation: Gull River 55 Lac des Mille Lacs First Nation: Lac des Mille Lacs 22A1, Seine River 22A2 Long Lake 58 First Nation: Long Lake 58 Namaygoosisagagun First Nation Ojibway Nation of Saugeen First Nation: Ojibway Nation of Saugeen Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation: Pic River 50 Pays Plat First Nation: Pays Plat 51 Pic Mobert First Nation: Pic Mobert North, Pic Mobert South Red Rock First Nation: Lake Helen 53A, Red Rock 53 Seine River First Nation: Seine River 23A, Seine River 23B Whitesand First Nation: Armstrong Settlement, Whitesand Thunder Bay, Unorganized Almost 80 per cent of the district's population lives in the city of Thunder Bay Census Metropolitan Area.
Historic populations: Population in 2001: 150,860 Population in 1996: 157,619 Arthur, Elizabeth. Thunder Bay District, 1821-1892: A Collection of Documents. Toronto: Champlain Society Publications, 1973. Edward Island Esnagami Lake List of Ontario Census Divisions List of townships in Ontario