Loyalty (Fat Joe album)
Loyalty is the fifth studio album by American rapper Fat Joe. The album was released on November 12, 2002, by Terror Squad and Atlantic Records The album debuted at number 31 on the Billboard 200 Chart. A writer for RapReviews gave praise to the production quality throughout the track listing, singling out Cool & Dre for their contributions that showcase their talents, Joe for delivering on his lyrical content with hard-edged, introspective street bangers and romantic rap ballads despite getting a "little too commercial for his own good" in the middle portion of the album, concluding that "When all things are considered, Fat Joe did a nice job of balancing this album for different crowds and fanbases, if not a great job of doing so like he did on Don Cartagena and J. O. S. E.." HipHopDX staff writer Mikeo said, "Fat Joe's Loyalty isn't anything more than average in the end. The hodge-podge of grimy, ghetto inspired tracks and commercially acceptable songs leave this album in staccato. Overall, as a product it's easy to recommend to the radio hungry Hip Hop fan, it's just that Joe is not going to be remembered for the time he put into this release."
LL Cool J
James Todd Smith, known professionally as LL Cool J, is an American hip hop recording artist, musician, record producer, actor and entrepreneur from Hollis, Queens. With the breakthrough success of his hit single "I Need a Beat" and the Radio LP, LL Cool J became one of the first hip-hop acts to achieve mainstream success along with Kurtis Blow and Run-D. M. C.. LL Cool J has released 13 studio albums and two greatest hits, his twelfth album Exit 13, was his last for his long-tenured deal with Def Jam Recordings. LL Cool J appeared in numerous films, including In Too Deep, Any Given Sunday, S. W. A. T. Deep Blue Sea and Edison, he plays NCIS Special Agent Sam Hanna in the CBS crime drama television series NCIS: Los Angeles. LL Cool J is the host of Lip Sync Battle on Paramount Network. A two-time Grammy Award winner, LL Cool J is known for such hip hop hits as "Going Back to Cali", "I'm Bad", "The Boomin' System", "Rock the Bells" and "Mama Said Knock You Out", as well as R&B hits such as "Doin' It", "I Need Love", "All I Have", "Around the Way Girl" and "Hey Lover".
In 2010, VH1 has placed him on their "100 Greatest Artists Of All Time" list. In 2017, LL Cool J became the first rapper to receive Kennedy Center Honors. James Todd Smith was born on January 14, 1968, in Bay Shore, New York to Ondrea Griffith and James Louis Smith, Jr known as James Nunya. According to the Chicago Tribune, " a kid growing up middle class and Catholic in Queens, life for LL was heart-breaking, his father shot his grandfather, nearly killing them both. When 4-year-old LL found them, blood was everywhere." In an episode of Finding Your Roots, LL learned his mother was adopted by Eugene Griffith and Ellen Hightower. The series' genetic genealogist CeCe Moore identified LL's biological grandparents as Ethel Mae Jolly and Nathaniel Christy Lewis through analysis of his DNA. LL's biological great-uncle was hall of fame boxer John Henry Lewis, he began rapping at the age of 9, influenced by the hip-hop group The Treacherous Three. In March 1984, sixteen-year-old Smith was creating demo tapes in his grandparents' home.
His grandfather, a jazz saxophonist, bought him $2,000 worth of equipment, including two turntables, an audio mixer and an amplifier. Smith stated that "By the time I got that equipment, I was a rapper. In this neighborhood, the kids grow up in rap. It's like speaking Spanish. I got into it when I was about 9, since all I wanted was to make a record and hear it on the radio." This was at the same time that NYU student Rick Rubin and promoter-manager Russell Simmons founded the then-independent Def Jam label. By using the mixer he had received from his grandfather, Smith produced and mixed his own demos and sent them to various record companies throughout New York City, including Def Jam. In the VH1 documentary Planet Rock: The Story of Hip Hop and the Crack Generation, LL Cool J revealed that he wanted to call himself J-Ski but did not want to associate his stage name with the cocaine culture. Under his new stage name, LL Cool J, Smith was signed by Def Jam, which led to the release of his first official record, the 12-inch single "I Need a Beat".
The single was a streetwise b-boy song with spare beats and ballistic rhymes. Smith discussed his search for a label, stating "I sent my demo to many different companies, but it was Def Jam where I found my home." That same year, Smith made his professional debut concert performance at Manhattan Center High School. In a interview, LL Cool J recalled the experience, stating "They pushed the lunch room tables together and me and my DJ, Cut Creator, started playing.... As soon as it was over there were girls asking for autographs. Right and there I said'This is what I want to do'." LL's debut single sold over 100,000 copies and helped establish both Def Jam as a label and Smith as a rapper. The commercial success of "I Need a Beat", along with the Beastie Boys' single "Rock Hard", helped lead Def Jam to a distribution deal with Columbia Records the following year. LL Cool J married Simone Smith in 1995, he reconciled with his father. Radio was released both for production innovation and LL's powerful rap.
Released November 18, 1985, on Def Jam Recordings in the United States, Radio earned a significant amount of commercial success and sales for a hip hop record at the time. Shortly after its release, the album sold over 500,000 copies in its first five months selling over 1 million copies by 1988, according to the Recording Industry Association of America. Radio peaked at number 6 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart and at number 46 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, it entered the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart on December 28, 1985, remained there for forty-seven weeks, while entering the Pop Albums chart on January 11, 1986, remaining on that chart for thirty-eight weeks. By 1989, the album had earned platinum status from the Recording Industry Association of America, with sales exceeding one million copies. "I Can't Live Without My Radio" and "Rock the Bells" were singles that helped the album go platinum. It reached 1,500,000 in US sales. With the breakthrough success of his hit single "I Need a Beat" and the Radio LP, LL C
Armando Christian Pérez, known by the stage name Pitbull, is an American rapper. His first recorded mainstream performance was on a solo track from Lil Jon's 2002 album Kings of Crunk. In 2004, Pitbull released his debut album M. I. A. M. I. Under TVT Records, it included production producers Jim Jonsin. Pitbull released his second album El Mariel, in 2006 and his third, The Boatlift, in 2007, his fourth album, included his breakthrough hit single "I Know You Want Me", which peaked at number two on the US Billboard Hot 100. After rebranding himself as a pop artist, Pitbull's next album, Planet Pit, featured his first US number one single "Give Me Everything", his 2013 track "Timber", topped the charts in twenty nations, including the US and UK. He performed the song "We Are One" along with Jennifer Lopez and Claudia Leitte, which served as the official theme of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Armando Christian Perez was born on January 1981 to Cuban expatriates in Miami, Florida; when he was 3, he could recite the works of poet, José Martí, in Spanish.
Growing up, he was influenced by the Miami bass genre of pop music and has cited Celia Cruz and Willy Chirino as sources of inspiration for his music. Pérez's parents separated when he was young, he was raised by his mother, he attended South Miami Senior High School before graduating from Miami Coral Park High School, where he focused his career on rapping. He said; the dog is too stupid to lose. And they're outlawed in Dade County. They're everything that I am. It's been a constant fight". After meeting Lil Jon in Miami, Pitbull was featured on Lil Jon and the East Side Boyz' album Kings of Crunk in 2002. Pitbull's song "Oye" was featured on the soundtrack to the film 2 Fast 2 Furious the following year. In addition, Pitbull released several mixtapes, composed of freestyles and remixes of popular rap music. Pitbull worked with Uncle Luke during his early career, being featured on Luke's 2001 album Somethin' Nasty, including the single "Lollipop" along with Lil' Zane. In 2001, Pitbull was signed to Luther Campbell's Luke Records by Jullian Boothe the label's vice-president of A&R.
In 2001, Pitbull was introduced to Robert Fernandez of Famous Artist Music & Management, an independent label and management company specializing in developing artists, by the Diaz Brothers, a producer duo signed to the company. Fernandez "saw the eagerness and hunger he had" and, with the Luke Records deal ending, began working to develop Pitbull. Together they focused on creating a more radio-friendly sound. Fernandez told HitQuarters: "At that time his music had a lot of verses and took a long time to get into the hook, so we took time in getting the songs catchier and less on the rap side."Fernandez introduced Pitbull to Lil Jon, hoping to secure the rapper a small guest intro spot on Lil Jon's upcoming album Kings of Crunk. According to Fernandez, Jon offered him a track on the album; this track helped raise the young rapper's profile. In 2004, Pitbull released his debut album M. I. A. M. I. With the lead single being "Culo" produced by the Diaz Brothers, it peaked at No. 32 on No. 11 on the Hot Rap Tracks chart.
Other singles included "Dammit Man", "Back Up", "Toma", "That's Nasty". He joined the 2000 hip-hop concert tour headlined by Eminem and 50 Cent. Pitbull appeared on the Ying Yang Twins' single "Shake", which peaked at No.41 on the Hot 100 and No.12 on the rap chart, Adassa's chart topping single "Kamasutra" & Twista's "Hit the Floor". Remix album Money Is Still a Major Issue was released in November 2005. TVT Records, Pitbull's label at the time, Slip-n-Slide Records disputed over the release of Welcome to the 305, an unreleased album by Slip-n-Slide that Pitbull had recorded in 2001. A Miami judge ruled that Slip-n-Slide had a legal right to release the album as it was recorded when Pitbull was a Slip-N-Slide artist, prior to him signing with TVT Records. A U. S. District Court judge affirmed the decision further. TVT was ordered in March 2007 to pay Slip-n-Slide $9.1 million for attempting to block the album's release to record stores and digital download entities. In 2005 Pitbull and rapper Sean'Diddy' Combs co-founded Bad Boy Latino, a subsidiary of Combs' Bad Boy Records label.
It focuses on Latin hip hop, Latin soul, Latin pop and other tropical music and has offices in New York and Miami, Florida. Along with co-founding it, Pérez heads the A&R division of the label. In January 2006, Pitbull guest-starred in UPN's South Beach. Pitbull recorded "Nuestro Himno" in collaboration with Wyclef Jean, Carlos Ponce, Olga Tañón. On Listennn... the Album, the debut album by Terror Squad member and Miami radio personality DJ Khaled, Pitbull performed on three singles: "Holla at Me" and "Born-N-Raised" alongside other Southern-based rappers. He dedicated the album to his father. Along with the usual party-oriented tracks, Pitbull included politically themed tracks in El Mariel; the album was released on October 31, 2006, included singles "Bojangles", "Ay Chico", "Fuego", duet with Puerto Rican singer Ken-Y, "Dime". El Mariel topped the Billboard independent albums chart and peaked at No. 17 on the Billboard 200 and No. 2 on the rap chart. Pitbull's third album, titled The Boatlift, was
Don't Mind (Kent Jones song)
"Don't Mind" is the debut single by American hip hop recording artist Kent Jones. The song was released on April 25, 2016, by Epidemic Records, We the Best Music Group and Epic Records as a single from his debut mixtape Tours; the official remix features Lil Wayne. The track was written by Jones, Marcello Valenzano, Andre Lyon, DJ Khaled, Barry White, Gerald Levert and Edwin Nicholas; the song was produced by Khaled. The song contains replayed elements of "Practice What You Preach" by Barry White; the song's accompanying music video premiered on March 2016, on Kent Jones' YouTube account. It features an appearance from DJ Khaled. "Don't Mind" debuted at number 63 on Billboard Hot 100 for the chart dated May 21, 2016. It peaked at number 8; the song was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for selling over 1,000,000 digital copies in the United States. Music video on YouTube Audio on YouTube
The Documentary is the debut studio album by American rapper The Game. It was released on January 18, 2005, by Aftermath Entertainment, G-Unit Records and Interscope Records; the record serves as his major-label debut, preceded by his independently-released debut Untold Story in 2004. In 2001, while The Game was in hospital recovering from a shooting, he decided to pursue a career in music, he released the mixtape, You Know What It Is Vol. 1 in 2002, was discovered by Dr. Dre and led to him signing The Game to his label, Aftermath Entertainment; the album includes production from high-profile producers such as Dr. Dre, Kanye West, Scott Storch and Timbaland, among others, guest appearances from 50 Cent, Nate Dogg and Faith Evans, among others; this would be The Game's only album on Aftermath and G-Unit Records, as he left the label in 2005 after a feud began between him and fellow G-Unit label-mate 50 Cent. The Documentary debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, selling 586,000 units in the first week.
In March 2005, the Recording Industry Association of America certified the album double Platinum, by November 2005 the album sold 4.4 million copies in the U. S. and selling five million copies worldwide. The Documentary received positive reviews, with critics praising the album's production. Since the album's release, The Game was credited as a "driving force" in reviving the once dominant West Coast hip hop scene that had since been overshadowed by artists from the East and South during the early 2000s; the Documentary remains as The Game's best-selling album to date. On June 16, 2014, The Game announced a sequel to the album, The Documentary 2, released on October 9, 2015, followed by the release of The Documentary 2.5 days later. After The Game signed with the G-Unit, he recorded nine songs with fellow American rapper 50 Cent in his home studio in Farmington and went back to Los Angeles, California to complete the album with American record producer Dr. Dre. While continuing the recording sessions on the album, he began working with rapper and record producer Kanye West on a song, where Kanye did the chorus.
However, the song was left on the cutting room floor. The Game was inspired to revive the hip hop scene in the West Coast, overshadowed since its heyday in the 1990s by rappers from the East and the South. In 2005, in the interview with Vibe magazine, 50 Cent stated that he was brought in by the Interscope Records to work on the album, claiming, on the verge of being shelved and The Game was being dropped from the label. However, in the interview with Funkmaster Flex, The Game said that his status was never uncertain that he would be dropped from the label. 50 Cent claimed that he wrote six songs of The Documentary's eighteen tracks—"Hate It or Love It", "How We Do", "Church for Thugs", "Special", "Higher", "Westside Story"—and didn't receiving any proper credit for his work. The Game denied those claims; the Game recorded tracks based on his life experiences from his childhood to his success as a rapper. When asked about the album, he stated: I grew up in a boys home and I was taken away from my parents when I was like 8 years old...
Here I am, 24. When my album drops I will be 25 so that's 17 years I have been going through my struggle by myself. There are 17 tracks on my album and every track sheds light on a different situation I went through the last 17 years; the rapper commented on the album's perception before its release, saying, "I know everybody was expecting gang-bang, 40-ounce, low-rider music, but that's not what I gave them... I'm telling a real story, maybe there are people out there who can relate to my experiences." Rolling Stone observed that "every song has a well-massaged hook and some immediate appeal, verses that don't waste a lot of time getting to the point." The Documentary's big budget production from high-profile hip hop producers was well received from critics. The first half of the album contains "upbeat, gangsta boogie" tracks with the other half relegating "smoothed out R&B maneuvers". At seven tracks, Dr. Dre co-executive produced the album with his "stripped-down cinematic" approach. "Westside Story" contains an "evil sounding piano plink", "Dreams" has a "simultaneously smooth and eerie" beat, "Hate It or Love It" unveils a "smoothed out R&B funk vibe".
"Higher" revolves around a pounding synth blast and "How We Do" contains syncopated hand claps with a beat described as "a hypnotic blast of sinister seduction powered by a deliciously primitive 808 pattern and a slinky synth." "Don't Need Your Love" samples Mary J. Blige's "Not Gon Cry" and is one the album's more soulful songs. "Church for Thugs" delivers a "sing-song stylee over an accentuated sonic bed" and "Put You on the Game" is a club track containing "dark dirge of synth". Although "Start from Scratch" features R&B singer Marsha Ambrosius, the beat "eschews the traditional R&B vibes" for more "aural intimidation". IGN called it "the most haunting inclusion on the album." "The Documentary" features a "busy backing track" of "crashing symphonics and tinny flares of synth", which one critic believed overshadowed the lyrics. "Runnin'" is a "dark, Stygian tune augmented by tinges of R&B mellowness." "No More Fun and Games" has a fast-paced beat. "We Ain't", which samples Dr. Dre's "The Watcher", takes Eminem's "chug laden synth gurgle" and is described as "one of the most menacingly catchy numbers on the entire album."
Nate Dogg features on two "smoothed out" tracks. "Don't Worry" is an R&B flavored track and despite its "minimal production", one reviewer wrote the song "still hits hard." The fina
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri