Edward Devotion House
The Edward Devotion House is a historic house at 347 Harvard Street in Brookline, Massachusetts. Built about 1745, it is one of the town's few surviving 18th-century structures, is of those the best preserved; the house is owned by the town and administered by the Brookline Historical Society as a historic house museum. The home serves as the headquarters of the Brookline Historical Society, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The Edward Devotion House is located on the north side of Harvard Street, a major north-south roadway dating back to early colonial days, it is set west of Coolidge Corner, one of Brookline's major commercial centers, is nearly surrounded by the Edward Devotion School, a public elementary school. The house is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, three bays wide, with a gambrel roof, extended at the rear by a leanto section, which extends beyond the left facade in a "Beverly jog", it has a brick central chimney, entrances in the left bay of the main facade and in the jog.
The main facade entrance is flanked by pilasters and topped by an entablature and triangular pediment. The house was built about 1745 by Solomon Hill on land he had purchased from Edward Devotion, Jr., in his family since at least 1645. The house appears to have been built around, or contain elements of, an older structure dating to about 1680; the Devotion family was long prominent in Brookline civic affairs, petitioning for the town's separation from Boston. Edward Devotion, Jr. bequested funds to the town for the construction of a school, which the town did not act on until 1891, when the town purchased the house and built the first schoolhouse nearby. The house has been maintained by the Brookline Historical Society since the Society's founding in 1901, now displays objects of Brookline history and the Devotion family. National Register of Historic Places listings in Brookline, Massachusetts Brookline Historical Society - Edward Devotion House
Brookline is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States, is a part of Greater Boston. Brookline borders six of Boston's neighborhoods: Brighton, Fenway–Kenmore, Mission Hill, Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury; the city of Newton lies to the west of Brookline. At the 2010 census, the population of the town was 58,732, it is the most populous municipality in Massachusetts to have a town form of government. Brookline was first settled in 1638 as a hamlet in Boston, but was incorporated as a separate town in 1705. Brookline was the hometown of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States. Once part of Algonquian territory, Brookline was first settled by European colonists in the early 17th century; the area was an outlying part of the colonial settlement of Boston and known as the hamlet of Muddy River. In 1705, it was incorporated as the independent town of Brookline; the northern and southern borders of the town were marked by two small rivers or brooks, hence the name. The northern border with Brighton was Smelt Brook.
The southern boundary, abutting Boston, was the Muddy River. The Town of Brighton was merged with Boston in 1874, the Boston-Brookline border was redrawn to connect the new Back Bay neighborhood with Allston-Brighton; this merger created a narrow strip of land along the Charles River belonging to Boston, cutting Brookline off from the shoreline. It put certain lands north of the Muddy River on the Boston side, including what are now Kenmore Square and Packard's Corner; the current northern border follows Commonwealth Avenue, on the northeast, St. Mary's Street; when Frederick Law Olmsted designed the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways for Boston in the 1890s, the Muddy River was integrated into the Riverway and Olmsted Park, creating parkland accessible by both Boston and Brookline residents. Throughout its history, Brookline has resisted being annexed by Boston, in particular during the Boston–Brookline annexation debate of 1873; the neighboring towns of West Roxbury and Hyde Park connected Brookline to the rest of Norfolk County until they were annexed by Boston in 1874 and 1912 putting them in Suffolk County.
Brookline is now separated from the remainder of Norfolk County. Brookline has long been regarded as a verdant environment. In the 1841 edition of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Andrew Jackson Downing described the area this way: The whole of this neighborhood of Brookline is a kind of landscape garden, there is nothing in America of the sort, so inexpressibly charming as the lanes which lead from one cottage, or villa, to another. No animals are allowed to run at large, the open gates, with tempting vistas and glimpses under the pendent boughs, give it quite an Arcadian air of rural freedom and enjoyment; these lanes are clothed with a profusion of trees and wild shrubbery almost to the carriage tracks, curve and wind about, in a manner quite bewildering to the stranger who attempts to thread them alone. Brookline residents were among the first in the country to propose extending the vote to women. Benjamin F. Butler, in his 1882 campaign for Governor, advocated the idea. Two branches of upper Boston Post Road, established in the 1670s, passed through Brookline.
Brookline Village was the original center of retail activity. In 1810, the Boston and Worcester Turnpike, now Massachusetts Route 9, was laid out, starting on Huntington Avenue in Boston and passing through the village center on its way west. Steam railroads came to Brookline in the middle of the 19th century; the Boston and Worcester Railroad was constructed in the early 1830s, passed through Brookline near the Charles River. The rail line is still in active use, now paralleled by the Massachusetts Turnpike; the Highland Branch of the Boston and Albany Railroad was built from Kenmore Square to Brookline Village in 1847, was extended into Newton in 1852. In the late 1950s, this would become the Green Line "D" Branch; the portion of Beacon Street west of Kenmore Square was laid out in 1850. Streetcar tracks were laid above ground on Beacon Street in 1888, from Coolidge Corner to Massachusetts Avenue in Boston, via Kenmore Square. In 1889, they were extended over the Brighton border at Cleveland Circle.
They would become the Green Line "C" Branch. Thanks to the Boston Elevated Railway system, this upgrade from horse-drawn carriage to electric trolleys occurred on many major streets all over the region, made transportation into downtown Boston faster and cheaper. Much of Brookline was developed into a streetcar suburb, with large brick apartment buildings sprouting up along the new streetcar lines. Brookline was known as the hamlet of Muddy River and was considered part of Boston until the Town of Brookline was independently incorporated in 1705, it is said. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brookline has a total area of 6.8 sq mi, all but 0.039 sq mi of, land. The northern part of Brookline north of the D-line tracks, is urban in character, as walkable and transit rich; the population density of this part of town is nearly 20,000 inhabitants per square mile, on a par with the densest neighborhoods in nearby Cambridge and Chelsea, Massachusetts
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school. Elementary school is only one part of compulsory education in Western countries. Elementary school were first established in 1870. Most of these schools were converted into Primary schools during the late 1940s. Elementary school: were first promoted in 1647 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Today, there are approximately 92,858 elementary schools Elementary schools in Japan were first established by 1875. National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics Educational stage Primary school Grammar school Virtual reality in primary education
A parent–teacher association/organization or parent–teacher–student association is a formal organization composed of parents and staff, intended to facilitate parental participation in a school. In Australia, the function of PTAs is filled by parents and citizens associations, which are governed by both state and national organisational bodies. Indian schools have PTAs and the government has run initiatives to create awareness of PTAs amongst parents and school management. There is no national PTA organisation. A 1992, "Program on Action" for the 1986 National Policy on Education encouraged'giving pre-eminence to people's involvement including association of non-governmental and voluntary effort'. Government education schemes such as Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan have advocated community mobilisation and involvement. Under RMSA every school should have a PTA. State District Management Committees should co-exist with PTAs and leverage their functions. PTAs which should conduct meetings at least once a month and present SDMCs with a register of complaints and actions taken.
In 2013-14 37.54% of the schools in India had a PTA. A 2010 study suggested that 50% of parents in rural areas and 45% in urban areas were aware of the existence of school PTAs. In 1996, the Maharashtra government declared PTAs mandatory in all schools within the state. By 2014 50% of the schools had a PTA. State guidelines for PTAs included: The parents of every student shall be members of a PTA The PTA does not interfere in the day-to-day administration of the schools 50% of PTA members should be women Duties of the PTA committee should involve assisting the school in planning and organising educational programs, seeing the syllabus is completed, to collect and present information regarding school fees The government of Delhi made PTAs mandatory in government-aided and private unaided schools. All parents are members of the PTA. PTA elections should be every other year and the PTA should hold a general meeting at least once a year. 78.21% of the schools in Delhi have a PTA. Decentralisation of school management was promoted though the setting up of PTAs under SSA.
A 2016 government ewport stated that 25% of parents were aware of the existence of PTAs, 43% of the schools had PTAs and 39% of PTAs met regularly. Tamil Nadu government policy includes the demand that PTAs should work towards pupil enrollment and attendance and assist in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. A 2010 survey of parents of schoolchildren for the government of India reported that 50% of respondents were aware of PTAs or MTAs and 16% were members. There are plans to organize a PTA in the United Arab Emirates at governmental schools such as ATHS, they are present in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan. In the United Kingdom, parent-teacher associations are common, being present in the majority of schools. A 2007 NFER study found that 83 per cent of primary schools in England and Wales and 60 per cent of secondary schools had a "PTA or equivalent". In England and Northern Ireland PTAs may choose to join PTA-UK which describes itself as "The national charity representing over 13,750 PTAs across England and Northern Ireland" which seeks "To advance education by encouraging the fullest co-operation between home and school, education authorities, central government and all other interested parties and bodies."
Unlike the USA the fact that a body is called a PTA does not, in itself, imply membership of any national organisation. There is a separate, similar body for Scotland, "The Scottish Parent Teacher Council". PTAs are, in general not involved in the management of schools, a matter for the school governing bodies, but in practice parents who are active in the PTA will tend to engage in the elections of parent representatives. In the U. S. groups which use the PTA acronym are part of the National Parent Teacher Association, a non-profit organization based in Alexandria, Virginia. It is the largest and oldest volunteer organization working on behalf of children and youth. Most public and private elementary and middle schools have a PTA, a parent-teacher organization or an equivalent local organization; these organizations occur at high schools and preschools. Every person who joins a local PTA automatically becomes a member of both the state and National PTAs. PTA membership — including the number of affiliated units and of individual members — has been declining for several decades.
Today, there are 54 PTA congresses: U. S. states, the District of Columbia, the U. S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and Europe. There are 23,000 local organizations recognized by the National PTA in the United States; the Reflections Arts in Education Program encourages students to explore the arts and express themselves by giving positive recognition for their artistic efforts. Since it was founded in 1969 by Mary Lou Anderson, millions of students have benefited from this program. Through the Reflections Awards Program, your PTA can play a role in providing a positive learning environment for students that fosters self-exploration, encourages creative thinking and problem-solving, promotes the exploration of arts and culture in the home and community. Any active PTA/PTSA in good standing is eligible to implement a Reflections Program; the National Parent Teacher Association was founded on February 17, 1897, in Washington, DC, as the National Congress of Mothers by Alice McLellan Birney and Phoebe Apperson Hearst at a meeting of over 2,000 parents, workers, and
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition, that adults shared with children before publishing existed; the development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. After printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were created for adults and adapted for a younger audience. Since the fifteenth century much literature has been aimed at children with a moral or religious message; the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is known as the "Golden Age of Children's Literature", because many classic children's books were published then. There is no single or used definition of children's literature, it can be broadly defined as anything that children read or more defined as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, or drama intended for and used by children and young people.
One writer on children's literature defines it as "all books written for children, excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, non-fiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries and other reference materials". However, others would argue that comics should be included: "Children's Literature studies has traditionally treated comics fitfully and superficially despite the importance of comics as a global phenomenon associated with children"; the International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature notes that "the boundaries of genre... are not fixed but blurred". Sometimes, no agreement can be reached about whether a given work is best categorized as literature for adults or children; some works defy easy categorization. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was written and marketed for young adults, but it is popular among adults; the series' extreme popularity led The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for children's books.
Despite the widespread association of children's literature with picture books, spoken narratives existed before printing, the root of many children's tales go back to ancient storytellers. Seth Lerer, in the opening of Children's Literature: A Reader's History from Aesop to Harry Potter, says, "This book presents a history of what children have heard and read... The history I write of is a history of reception." Early children's literature consisted of spoken stories and poems that were used to educate and entertain children. It was only in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood, that a separate genre of children's literature began to emerge, with its own divisions and canon; the earliest of these books were educational books, books on conduct, simple ABCs—often decorated with animals and anthropomorphic letters. In 1962, French historian Philippe Ariès argues in his book Centuries of Childhood that the modern concept of childhood only emerged in recent times.
He explains that children were in the past not considered as different from adults and were not given different treatment. As evidence for this position, he notes that, apart from instructional and didactic texts for children written by clerics like the Venerable Bede and Ælfric of Eynsham, there was a lack of any genuine literature aimed at children before the 18th century. Other scholars have qualified this viewpoint by noting that there was a literature designed to convey the values and information necessary for children within their cultures, such as the Play of Daniel from the 12th century. Pre-modern children's literature, tended to be of a didactic and moralistic nature, with the purpose of conveying conduct-related and religious lessons. During the 17th century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them; the English philosopher John Locke developed his theory of the tabula rasa in his 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that the mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, that data is added and rules for processing are formed by one's sensory experiences. A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. Locke himself emphasized the importance of providing children with "easy pleasant books" to develop their minds rather than using force to compel them, he suggested that picture books be created for children. In the nineteenth century, a few children's titles became famous as classroom reading texts. Among these were the fables of Aesop and Jean de la Fontaine and Charles Perraults's 1697 Tales of Mother Goose; the popularity of these texts led to the creation of a number of nineteenth-century fantasy and fairy tales for children which featured magic objects and talking animals. Another influence on this shift in attitudes came from Puritanism, which stressed the importance of individual salvation.
Puritans were concerned with the spiritual welfare of their children, there was a large growth in the publication of "good godly books" aimed squarely at children. Some of the most popular works were by James Janeway, but the most enduring book from this movement, still read toda
A science fair experiment is a competition where contestants present their science project, results in the form of a report, display board, and/or models that they have created. Science fairs allow students in elementary and high schools to compete in science and/or technology activities; the main motive of a science fair is for students to answer a question or task, not from a textbook but found out themselves by conducting a range of experiments and ongoing research in the short amount of time allocated to them. In order that the questions or tasks spark a true interest in the student they should be able to have an interesting, eye catching project portrayed on a display board. Science fairs provide a mechanism for students with intense interest in the sciences to be paired with mentors from nearby colleges and universities, so that they can access to instruction and equipment that the local schools can Science fairs date back to 1942, when William Emerson Ritter and Edward W. Scripps created "The Science Talent Search" for high school students.
The first American National Science Fair was won by Alan J. Fletcher when he was 18, winning with a display on the laws of motion. In the United States, science fairs became popular in the early 1950s. Interest in the sciences was at a new high after the world witnessed the use of the first two atomic weapons and the dawn of television; as the decade progressed, science stories in the news, such as Jonas Salk's vaccine for polio and the launch of Sputnik, brought science fiction to reality and attracted increasing numbers of students to fairs. Most countries have regional science fairs in which interested students can participate. Winners of these regional fairs send students to national fairs such as ISEF and CWSF. National science fairs send winners to international fairs such as ISEF and EUCYS. Google Science Fair Intel International Science and Engineering Fair Science project Interest Fair Science Competitions The WWW Virtual Library: Science Fairs
Norman Gary Finkelstein is an American political scientist, activist and author. His primary fields of research are the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the politics of the Holocaust, he is a graduate of Binghamton University and received his Ph. D. in political science at Princeton University. He has held faculty positions at Brooklyn College, Rutgers University, Hunter College, New York University, DePaul University, where he was an assistant professor from 2001 to 2007. In 2007, after a publicized feud between Finkelstein and Alan Dershowitz, an academic opponent, Finkelstein was denied tenure at DePaul, he was placed on administrative leave for the 2007–08 academic year, on September 5, 2007, he announced his resignation after coming to a settlement with the university on undisclosed terms. An official statement from DePaul defended the decision to deny Finkelstein tenure and said that outside influence played no role in the decision. In 2008 he was banned from entering Israel for 10 years for criticizing Israeli policies.
Finkelstein taught at Sakarya University Middle East Institute in Turkey in 2014–15. Finkelstein has written of his Jewish parents' experiences during World War II, his mother, Maryla Husyt, grew up in Warsaw, survived the Warsaw Ghetto, the Majdanek concentration camp, two slave labor camps. Her first husband died in the war, she considered the day of her liberation the most horrible day of her life, as she realized that she was alone, her parents and siblings gone. Norman's father, Zacharias Finkelstein, active in Hashomer Hatzair, was a survivor of both the Warsaw Ghetto and the Auschwitz concentration camp. After the war they met in a displaced persons camp in Linz and emigrated to the United States, where his father became a factory worker and his mother a homemaker and a bookkeeper. Finkelstein's mother was an ardent pacifist. Both his parents died in 1995. Of his parents, Finkelstein has recalled that "they saw the world through the prism of the Nazi Holocaust, they were eternally indebted to the Soviet Union, so anyone, anti-Soviet they were harsh on".
They supported the Soviet Union's approval of the creation of the State of Israel, as enunciated by Gromyko, who said that Jews had earned the right to a state, but thought that Israel had sold its soul to the West and "refused to have any truck with it". Finkelstein grew up in Borough Park Mill Basin, both in Brooklyn, New York, where he attended James Madison High School. In his memoir he recalls identifying with the outrage that his mother, who witnessed the genocidal atrocities of World War II, felt at the carnage the United States wrought in Vietnam. One childhood friend recalls his mother's "emotional investment in left-wing humanitarian causes as bordering on hysteria", he had "internalized indignation", a trait that he admits rendered him "insufferable" when talking about the Vietnam War, which imbued him with a "holier-than-thou" attitude he now regrets. But Finkelstein regards his absorption of his mother's outlook—the refusal to put aside a sense of moral outrage in order to get on with one's life—as a virtue.
Subsequently, his reading of Noam Chomsky played an important role in tailoring the passion bequeathed to him by his mother to the necessity of maintaining intellectual rigor. Finkelstein completed his undergraduate studies at Binghamton University in New York in 1974, after which he studied at the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris. A deep admirer of Paul Sweezy, he was an ardent Maoist and was "totally devastated" by the news of the trial of the Gang of Four, which led him to abandon Marxism–Leninism. Finkelstein received his Master's degree in political science in 1980, his PhD in political studies, from Princeton, his doctoral thesis was on Zionism. Before gaining academic employment, Finkelstein was a part-time social worker with teenage dropouts in New York, he taught successively at Rutgers University, New York University, Brooklyn College, Hunter College, DePaul University in Chicago. During the First Intifada, he spent every summer from 1988 in the West Bank as a guest of Palestinian families in Hebron and Beit Sahour.
The New York Times reported that Finkelstein left Hunter College in 2001 "after his teaching load and salary were reduced" by the college administration. He has said he enjoyed teaching at Hunter and was "unceremoniously kicked out of" the school after begging it to keep him on with just two courses a semester for $12,000 a year. Hunter set conditions that would have required him to spend four days a week teaching, which he thought unacceptable. Beginning with his doctoral thesis at Princeton, Finkelstein's career has been affected by controversy. A self-described "forensic scholar", he has written critical academic reviews of several prominent writers and scholars whom he accuses of misrepresenting the documentary record in order to defend Israel's policies and practices, his writings have dealt with politically charged topics such as Zionism, the demographic history of Palestine and his allegations of the existence of a "Holocaust Industry" that exploits the memory of the Holocaust to further Israeli and financial interests.
Finkelstein's supporters and detractors alike have remarked on his polemical style. His work has been praised by eminent historians such as Raul Hilberg and Avi Shlaim, as well as Chomsky. Finkelstein has described himself as "an old-fashioned communist," in the sense that he "see no value whatsoever in states." Finkelstein's doctoral thesis examined the claims made in Joan Peters's From Time Immemorial, a best-selling book at the time. Peters's "history and defense" of Israel deals with the demographic history of Palestine. D