Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
Odo of Bayeux
Odo of Bayeux, Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, was, for a time, second in power after the King of England. Odo was the son of Herluin de Conteville. Count Robert of Mortain was his younger brother. There is uncertainty about his birth date; some historians have suggested he was born around 1035. Duke William made him bishop of Bayeux in 1049, it has been suggested that his birth was as early as 1030, making him about nineteen rather than fourteen at the time. Although Odo was an ordained Christian cleric, he is best known as a warrior and statesman, participating in the Council of Lillebonne, he found ships for the Norman invasion of England and is one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror, known to have fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The Bayeux Tapestry commissioned by him to adorn his own cathedral, appears to labour the point that he did not fight, to say shed blood, at Hastings, but rather encouraged the troops from the rear.
The Latin annotation embroidered onto the Tapestry above his image reads: "Hic Odo Eps Baculu Tenens Confortat Pueros", in English "Here Odo the Bishop holding a club strengthens the boys". It has been suggested that his clerical status forbade him from using a sword, though this is doubtful: the club was a common weapon and used by leadership including by Duke William himself, as depicted in the same part of the Tapestry. Odo was accompanied by William the carrier of his crozier and a retinue of servants and members of his household. In 1067, Odo became Earl of Kent, for some years he was a trusted royal minister. On some occasions when William was absent, he served as de facto regent of England, at times he led the royal forces against rebellions: the precise sphere of his powers is not certain. There are other occasions when he accompanied William back to Normandy. During this time Odo acquired vast estates in England, larger in extent than anyone except the king: he had land in twenty-three counties in the south east and in East Anglia.
In 1076 at the Trial of Penenden Heath Odo was tried in front of a large and senior assembly over the course of three days at Penenden Heath in Kent for defrauding the Crown and the Diocese of Canterbury. At the conclusion of the trial he was forced to return a number of properties and his assets were re-apportioned. In 1082, Odo was disgraced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedition to Italy, his motives are not certain. Chroniclers writing a generation said Odo desired to make himself pope during the Investiture Controversy while Pope Gregory VII was in severe difficulty in his conflict with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, the position of pope was in contention. Whatever the reason, Odo spent the next five years in prison and his English estates were taken back by the king, as was his office as Earl of Kent. Odo was not deposed as Bishop of Bayeux. On his deathbed in 1087, King William I was reluctantly persuaded by his half-brother, Count of Mortain, to release Odo. After the king's death, Odo returned to England.
William's eldest son, Robert Curthose, had been made duke of Normandy, while Robert's brother William Rufus had received the throne of England. The bishop supported Robert Curthose's claim to England; the Rebellion of 1088 failed and William Rufus permitted Odo to leave the kingdom. Afterwards, Odo remained in the service of Robert in Normandy. Odo joined the First Crusade and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way at Palermo in January or February 1097, he was buried in Palermo Cathedral. William Stearns Davis writes in Life on a Medieval Barony: Bishop Odo of Bayeux fought at Hastings before any such authorized champions of the church existed.... That bishops shall restrain from warfare is a pious wish not in this sinful world to be granted. On screen, Odo has been portrayed by John Nettleton in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest, part of the series Theatre 625, by Denis Lill in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror. Bates, David. "Odo, earl of Kent". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20543. Retrieved 23 August 2010. Ireland, William Henry. England's Topographer: or A Complete History of the County of Kent. London: G. Virtue. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Odo of Bayeux". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Bates, David,'The Character and Career of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux', in: Speculum, vol. 50, pp. 1–20. LePatourel, John. "The Date of the Trial on Penenden Heath". The English Historical Review. 61: 378–388. Doi:10.1093/ehr/LXI. CCXLI.378. "Odo of Bayeux". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 August 2010. Rowley, The Man Behind the Bayeux Tapestry: Odo, William the Conqueror's Half-Brother ISBN 978-0-7524-6025-3 Nakashian, Craig M, Warrior Churchmen of Medieval England, 1000-1250 ISBN 978-1-7832-7162-7
A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events; the church building reflects this status, there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented. In England, the parish church is the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. Nearly every part of England is designated as a parish, most parishes have an Anglican parish church, consecrated. If there is no parish church, the bishop licenses another building for worship, may designate it as a parish centre of worship; this building is not consecrated, but is dedicated, for most legal purposes it is deemed to be a parish church. In areas of increasing secularisation or shifts in religious belief, centres of worship are becoming more common, larger churches are sold due to their upkeep costs.
Instead the church may use community centres or the facilities of a local church of another denomination. While smaller villages may have a single parish church, larger towns may have a parish church and other smaller churches in various districts; these churches do not have the legal or religious status of'parish church' and may be described by a variety of terms, such as chapel of ease or mission church. The parish church will be the only one to have a full-time minister, who will serve any smaller churches within the parish. In cities without an Anglican cathedral, the parish church may have administrative functions similar to that of a cathedral. However, the diocese will still have a cathedral. In the Catholic Church, as the seat of worship for the parish, this church is the one where the members of the parish must go for baptisms and weddings, unless permission is given by the parish priest for celebrating these sacraments elsewhere. One sign of this is; the Church of Scotland, the established Presbyterian church uses a system of parish churches, covering the whole of Scotland.
In Massachusetts, towns elected publicly funded parish churches from 1780 until 1834, under the Constitution of Massachusetts. Toward the end of the 20th century, a new resurgence in interest in "parish" churches emerged across the United States; this has given rise to efforts like the Slow Church Movement and The Parish Collective which focus on localized involvement across work and church life. Roman Catholic parish church Church of England parish church
Brompton is an old village near Chatham, in Medway, England. Its name means "a farmstead where broom grows" — broom is a small yellow flowering shrub. Today, Brompton is a small residential village between Chatham Gillingham. Brompton dates back to the late 17th century, grew in the 18th century to accommodate the fast-growing dockyard workforce, it was a deliberately planned settlement, laid out by Thomas Rogers, the owner of Westcourt Manor on whose demense lands it was built. In the 1750s, with the building of the Chatham Lines to defend Chatham Dockyard, the village became surrounded by military establishments, limiting its ability to expand much beyond its original plan; when war with France recommenced in 1778, it was necessary to strengthen the dockyard defences. Fort Amherst and the Chatham Lines were improved and extended, work was begun on additional perimeter forts in Chatham and Rochester; the Barracks – still in existence today – were built to house the soldiers. This, the expansion of the dockyard, meant that more homes were needed for the workers.
The position of the Chatham Lines meant that building could only happen to the east of the defensive ditch, so New Brompton came into being. The population rose to 9,000 by 1851. From the 1850s, following the building of New Brompton & Gillingham Station, the subsequent expansion of the town of New Brompton, the original settlement of Brompton became known as Old Brompton. From the late 19th century the importance of Old Brompton as a commercial center began to decline being destroyed in the 1950s and 1960s when redevelopment by Gillingham Council tore down the main 18th & 19th century shopping streets, replacing shops with council housing, leaving just a handful of shops at the southern end of the High Street; the closure of Chatham Dockyard in 1984 spelled the end for several of the shops and pubs that did manage to survive the Council redevelopments. Gillingham Green was a small village. Officers' houses were built within the confines of the Barracks and at Brompton where Mansion Row, Prospect Row and Garden Street now form part of the Brompton-Lines conservation area.
New Brompton was the name given to Gillingham station on the Chatham Main Line. New Brompton was the original name of Gillingham F. C. Founded in 1893 it changed its name in 1913. Brompton Barracks has been home to the Royal Engineers since 1812, now houses the Royal Engineers Museum; the Royal School of Military Engineering is based at Brompton Barracks Brompton is part of the Chatham Dockyard World Heritage bid. Royal Engineers Museum Corps of Royal Engineers Website Official Royal School of Military Engineering website Holdfast Training Services Chatham's World Heritage Site application
Cliffe is a village on the Hoo Peninsula in Kent, reached from the Medway Towns by a three-mile journey along the B2000 road. Situated upon a low chalk escarpment overlooking the Thames marshes, Cliffe offers views of Southend-on-Sea and London, it forms part of the parish of Cliffe Woods in the borough of Medway. The population of the village is included in the civil parish of Cliffe Woods. In 774 Offa, King of Mercia, built a rustic wooden church dedicated to St Helen, a popular Mercian saint, by legend the daughter of Coel of Colchester. Cliffe is cited in early records as having been called Cliffe-at-Hoo. Clovesho, or Clofeshoch, was an ancient Saxon town, in Mercia and near London, where the Anglo-Saxon Church is recorded as holding the important Councils of Clovesho between 742 and 825; these had representation from the archbishopric of Canterbury and the whole English church south of the Humber. The location of Cloveshoo has never been identified, but in the 18th century Cliffe was thought to be one possible location.
The Grade I listed St Helen's Church at Cliffe was built about 1260 and was constructed in the local style of alternating layers of Kent ragstone and squared black flint. It is one of the largest parish churches in Kent, the only one dedicated to St Helen, the size of the church revealing its past importance, it contains wall paintings of the martyrdom of St. Edmund, a Jacobean pulpit, fine stone carvings. Above the porch is a muniments room containing important historical documents. During the 14th century Cliffe was the site of a farm owned by the monks of Christ's Church, when the village had a population of about 3,000. In the late Middle Ages the village of Cliffe supported a port, which thrived until a disastrous fire in 1520 stifled its growth, marking a period of decline, accentuated by the silting of the marshes of the Thames Estuary. Cliffe-at-Hoo was still considered a town in the 16th century, but by the middle of the 19th century the population had slumped to about 900. In 1824, construction of the Thames and Medway Canal was begun, providing work for able-bodied villagers and other labourers who came to the area, increasing the population again.
However, the canal project was a short-lived enterprise, superseded by the development of the railways, although the canal route, including the Higham and Strood tunnel was used by South Eastern Railway from 1845, bringing a branch line to Cliffe in 1882. In 1895 the number of people contracting malaria was high but casualties began to decrease after the farmer, Henry Pye, came to the area and systematically began the drainage of the farmland and marshes, thus eliminating the carrier of the fever, he drained such a large area of the marsh and so improved the grazing pastures that he was called'King of the Hundreds'. Henry Pye was an innovator in farming practices promoting the use of Aveling and Porter steam engines, locally built in Rochester, for use in ploughing and threshing. In 1878, with other farmers Pye met with the South Eastern Railway Company and petitioned for a railway to be built, resulting in the establishment of the'Hundred of Hoo Railway Company'; the first part of the line was opened in March 1882.
The rise of the Kent cement industry brought a new prosperity to the ancient settlement during the Victorian era. Alfred Francis, with his son, established the firm of Francis and Co. at the Nine Elms office at Vauxhall and built the cement works at Cliffe in about 1860. Francis and Co instituted; these works were built on Cliffe marsh, to the west of the village where the chalk cliffs came to within a mile of the River Thames. The area proved a useful source of clay. Alfred Francis died in 1871, but in partnership his son continued to produce "Portland, Roman and Parian cement, Portland stucco and Plaster of Paris" shipping chalk and fire bricks, from the site; the riverside location provided ease of transport and wharves were duly built at the mouth of Cliffe creek. A canal was constructed from the works, which gave its name to a tavern built nearby, now long demolished but remembered as the Canal Tavern. 1870–71 saw further developments to the cement works, which were rebuilt and extended, with an elaborate tramway added.
Methods of extracting the chalk were basic, involving the labourer being suspended by a rope secured at the cliff top, from which position he would hack out the chalk, so that it fell to the ground below to be collected in a waiting railway wagon. Further to the north of the Francis and Company works near the river, an explosive works opened in 1901. Over the factory's 20-year history, 16 people were to lose their lives in explosions. Francis and Company was taken over about 1900 by the British Portland Cement Company, but after the Great War the cement works began to decline, was phased out in 1920–21. By 1901 the population of Cliffe exceeded 3,000; the Alpha Cement works began near the Francis works in 1910 as part of the Thames Portland Cement Company. It stood about a mile from the river and included a Goshead aerial cableway, which ran alongside the road constructed by the soldiers of Cliffe Fort disused. Alpha continued after the closure of the Francis works, which it took over in 1934.
With this amalgamation an additional railway was added in 1935 to replace the cableway, linking the works with the quayside next to the fort. The Alpha site, became exhausted by 1950, further digging led to extensive flooding, as quarrying exceeded the depth of the water table; these quarries, still flooded, offer havens for
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
North Kent Marshes
The North Kent Marshes, located in the north of the county of Kent on the Thames Estuary in south-east England, is one of 22 Environmentally Sensitive Areas recognised by the UK government's Department for Environment and Rural Affairs. It lies within the Thames Gateway regional planning area; the north of Kent has been marshland and the part which still survives, stretching from Dartford in the west, to Whitstable in the east, has been recognised as one of the most important natural wetlands in northern Europe. Monitored by local land owners and wildlife custodians, the RSPB claim up to 300,000 migrant birds use the mudflats of the Thames marshes as a regular haven in their migratory journeys between the Arctic and Africa; the RSPB have over recent years acquired considerable stretches of Cliffe marshes on the Hoo peninsula. They maintain reserves at Northward hill, High Halstow and Elmley Marshes, Sheppey; the Medway Council's Riverside park at Gillingham is another example of managed open public access to the marshes.
The North Kent Marsh with its stable water level is an important habitat for the water vole. There are thirteen key sites throughout Britain. Shorne and Higham marshes, with parts of Cliffe and Cooling marsh and Grain marshes and the Isle of Sheppey among them; the marshes are protected by the Kent and Medway Structure Plan, a strong local environmental pressure group. The marshes offer invaluable natural flood protection for London; the Marshes are in the districts of Dartford, Medway and Canterbury. The Channel Four series Southcliffe takes place in a fictional market town located in the North Kent Marshes. In reality most of the series was surrounding rural area. South Swale - a nature reserve covering the marshes between Faversham and Whitstable