Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year. This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh; the provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China, were part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.
Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars, making its economy the same size as Mexico. The province contributes 12% of the PRC's national economic output, is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou. "Guǎng" means "wide" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. The name "Guang" came from Guangxin, an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù and Guǎngnán Xīlù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù and Guǎngxī Lù. "Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão, refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries.
The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital; the Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta 7,000 years before present, with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP, the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP. In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was introduced from the middle Yangtze River area. In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present; the Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture, which occurred from 4600–4200 BP. Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou.
The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE; as time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong shifted to Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s; as more migrants arrived, the local population was assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty. "Guangnan East" is the source of the name "Guangdong". As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou; the defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynas
Shenzhen University is a public university established in 1983 located in Nanshan district, Guangdong, China. It is accredited by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and is funded by the Shenzhen Council Government; the university took its first enrollment the same year at what Deng Xiaoping called "Shenzhen Speed". Deng was named the "father of Shenzhen University." It is regarded as the fastest developing university in China, one of the "Top 100 Universities in China" and one of the top university, listed in the World Top Ranking Universities. A famous alumnus is the founder and CEO of Tencent. SZU comprises two campuses, Houhai campus and Xili campus, occupying 2.72 square kilometers in total. The Houhai campus is located on the coastline of Houhai Bay with 1.34 square kilometers. The new Xili campus now under construction is located in the city's University Town and takes up 1.38 square kilometers. Shenzhen University was established as a full-time comprehensive university, in line with the aim of China's Ministry of Education to further develop the critical infrastructure in the Special Economic Zone of Shenzhen.
Professor Zhang Wei, the former vice-president of Tsinghua University, an Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, was appointed its first president of to develop it. Shenzhen University has had a favoured status in China's academic circles. Deng Xiaoping gave his personal approval to the university and Jiang Zemin penned the university's characters in his own hand; the university has been visited by several heads of state and researchers such as Nobel Prize winner in Physics Dr. Yang Zhenning. Many business and academics have made donations to support the development of Shenzhen University and some entrepreneurs have set up funds and scholarships in various disciplines. In 1995, Shenzhen University passed the teaching evaluation for the undergraduate program accredited by MOE, was among the first group of universities in China to have its undergraduate programs certified. In 1996, Shenzhen University was accredited by the Academic Degree Evaluation Committee of the State Council for Master's programs.
In 1997, Shenzhen University reorganized into the faculty and college structure, adopted a work-study program and committed to an integrated approach to teaching. Since 2017, the university has concentrated research-oriented teaching and has invested in providing state of the art research laboratories. In 2017, the research budget totaled 9,705,000 million RMB. In 2006, three faculties were accredited to offer Ph. D degrees. SZU now has 27 schools, providing 96 undergraduate majors, 38 first-grade master degree conferring disciplines; the faculty consists of 3455 staff. There are 2267 teachers, 561 technicists, 627 administrative staffs, 782 postdoctoral, 220 full-time researchers, 119 visiting professors, 228 foreign teachers, it has seven academicians in the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 10 academicians in both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. The university is a main research center of Shenzhen city, it produced 846 SCI cited papers in 2014. The university teaching and research faculty had 356 works authored, 35 of which were translated into various languages.
In addition, two technical inventions won the second prize in the National Technical Invention Competition, one was awarded the first prize in the provincial invention competition. There were 26 research papers and projects which won prizes for science and innovation awarded by the People's Liberation Army as well as various research achievement prizes above the provincial level. 48 inventions and innovations from Shenzhen University have been marketed and 281 inventions have been adopted. The Lab of Smart Sensing and Mobile Computing headed by Distinguish Professor Dr. Kaishun Wu at Shenzhen University was established in 2013. Focusing on Internet of things and mobile computing, it is an interdisciplinary research center, formed with the strength from several disciplines in Shenzhen University, such as Computer Science, Biological Science, Physical Science and Cognitive Science. In recent years, the Center has been staffed with many overseas high-caliber talents from universities such as Harvard University, Nanyang Technological University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, University of British Coloumbia etc..
The center is collaborating on joint research with top universities from Hong Kong and the United States. Members can be recommended to famous overseas universities for further study; the center has enough funding to encourage the combination of industry and high-level research. Under this center, one of the nine provincial level research platform - Wireless Big data and Future Networking Engineering was established in 2016. Shenzhen University library holds a collection of 51202 million items, consisting of 4,007,900 million paper resources and there are 257 kinds of databases, which including 2,325,500 full-text e-books in Chinese and foreign languages and 124,800 e-journal are accessible via personal computers and Internet library terminals; the campus has 30,000 Internet connections and 99 percent of its classrooms and lecture halls have been digitized. SZU has 34,949 full-time students including 27,564 undergraduates, 7132 postgraduates, 253 doctors, 837 international students, 1340 part-time postgraduates and 18784 adult education students.
Shenzhen University's geographic location in East Asia has attracted many international students. It has granted diplomas to 2
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry and marketing topics. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and law, its headquarters is located in New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek; the magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool", its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Federle. It was sold to Integrated Whale Media Investments. B. C. Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15, 1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise; the original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doings.
Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing. During his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazine's circulation nearly doubled. On Bruce's death, his brother Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. became President and Chief executive of Forbes and Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine. Between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. In 2006, an investment group Elevation Partners that includes rock star Bono bought a minority interest in the company with a reorganization, through a new company, Forbes Media LLC, in which Forbes Magazine and Forbes.com, along with other media properties, is now a part.
A 2009 New York Times report said: "40 percent of the enterprise was sold... for a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million". Three years Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners observed, "It's not worth half of that now", it was revealed that the price had been US$264 million. In January 2010, Forbes reached an agreement to sell its headquarters building Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to New York University; the company's headquarters subsequently moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, in 2014. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale; this was encouraged by minority shareholders Elevation Partners. Sale documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publisher's 2012 EBITDA was US$15 million. Forbes sought a price of US$400 million. In July 2014, the Forbes family bought out Elevation and sold a 51 per cent majority of the company to Integrated Whale Media Investments. Apart from Forbes and its lifestyle supplement, Forbes Life, other titles include Forbes Asia and fifteen local language editions.
Steve Forbes and his magazine's writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes on Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group and Forbes Custom Media. From the 2009 Times report: "Steve Forbes returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10." In addition, that year the company began publishing ForbesWoman, a quarterly magazine published by Steve Forbes's daughter, Moira Forbes, with a companion Web site. The company published American Legacy magazine as a joint venture, although that magazine separated from Forbes on May 14, 2007; the company formerly published American Heritage and Invention & Technology magazines. After failing to find a buyer, Forbes suspended publication of these two magazines as of May 17, 2007. Both magazines were purchased by the American Heritage Publishing Company and resumed publication as of the spring of 2008. Forbes has published the Forbes Travel Guide since 2009.
On January 6, 2014, Forbes magazine announced that, in partnership with app creator Maz, it was launching a social networking app called "Stream". Stream allows Forbes readers to save and share visual content with other readers and discover content from Forbes magazine and Forbes.com within the app. Forbes.com is part of Forbes Digital, a division of Forbes Media LLC. Forbes's holdings include a portion of RealClearPolitics. Together these sites reach more than 27 million unique visitors each month. Forbes.com employs the slogan "Home Page for the World's Business Leaders" and claimed, in 2006, to be the world's most visited business web site. The 2009 Times report said that, while "one of the top five financial sites by traffic off an estimated $70 million to $80 million a year in revenue, never yielded the hoped-for public offering". Forbes.com uses a "contributor model" in which a wide network of "contributors" writes and publishes articles directly on the website. Contributors are paid based on traffic to their respective Forbes.com pages.
Forbes allows advertisers to publish blog posts on its website alongside regular editorial content through a program called BrandVoice, which accounts for more than 10 pe
CDMA2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards for sending voice and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. It is developed by 3GPP2 as a backwards-compatible successor to second-generation cdmaOne set of standards and used in North America and South Korea. CDMA2000 compares to UMTS, a competing set of 3G standards, developed by 3GPP and used in Europe and China; the name CDMA2000 denotes a family of standards that represent the successive, evolutionary stages of the underlying technology. These are: Voice: CDMA2000 1xRTT, 1X Advanced Data: CDMA2000 1xEV-DO: Release 0, Revision A, Revision B, Ultra Mobile Broadband All are approved radio interfaces for the ITU's IMT-2000. In the United States, CDMA2000 is a registered trademark of the Telecommunications Industry Association. CDMA2000 1X known as 1x and 1xRTT, is the core CDMA2000 wireless air interface standard; the designation "1x", meaning 1 times radio transmission technology, indicates the same radio frequency bandwidth as IS-95: a duplex pair of 1.25 MHz radio channels.
1xRTT doubles the capacity of IS-95 by adding 64 more traffic channels to the forward link, orthogonal to the original set of 64. The 1X standard supports packet data speeds of up to 153 kbit/s with real world data transmission averaging 80–100 kbit/s in most commercial applications. IMT-2000 made changes to the data link layer for greater use of data services, including medium and link access control protocols and QoS; the IS-95 data link layer only provided "best efforts delivery" for data and circuit switched channel for voice. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO abbreviated as EV-DO or EV, is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals for broadband Internet access, it uses multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access as well as time-division access to maximize both individual user's throughput and the overall system throughput. It is standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 as part of the CDMA2000 family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world – those employing CDMA networks.
1X Advanced is the evolution of CDMA2000 1X. It provides up to four times the capacity and 70% more coverage compared to 1X; the CDMA Development Group states that, as of April 2014, there are 314 operators in 118 countries offering CDMA2000 1X and/or 1xEV-DO service. The intended 4G successor to CDMA2000 was UMB. TIA TR-45 Engineering Committee for CDMA Standards 3GPP2 Standards and specifications CDMA2000 Overviews of the CDMA2000 standards - 1X to UMB cdma2000.info Online interactive cdma2000 SDU decoder - covers all releases up to C. S0005-F 2.0 A Detailed Introduction to the EV-DO Downlink
Le.com, known as Leshi Internet Information and Technology Corp. Beijing, is a Chinese technology company, one of the largest online video companies in China, it is headquartered in Beijing. Leshi Internet trading as LeTV in English instead of Le.com. However, Leshi Internet still operate the brand Leshi Video in Chinese. Jia Yueting founded Letv.com in 2004. It was subsequently listed as a Chinese national high-tech enterprise and went public on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange on August 12, 2010. Le.com claims to be the world's first IPO company in its sector. As of 24 March 2015, the market value of Letv amounted to RMB 84 billion. On 5 December 2015, Le.com announced that the listed company would acquire Le Vision Pictures from LeEco, a holding company majority owned by the largest shareholder and chairman of Le.com, Jia Yueting, subject to the approval of the shareholders of the listed company. As at 8 November 2016, the deal has not been completed; as at 31 December 2015, chairman Jia Yueting and his elder sister Jia Yuefang had pledged 630,994,920 number of shares of Le.com, which they owned just 782,545,454 number of shares in total.
By percentage, they owned approx. 42.2% of the total share capital, but 80.6% of them were pledged. At the same time, Le.com borrowed. The leverage of Le.com had made some media worried the financial health of both Le.com and Jia's owned LeEco. During 2016, Le.com recapitalized by some private equity funds. On 13 January 2017 Sunac China bought 8.61 % stake of Le.com for an approx. CN¥6.041 billion. After the deal, Jia Yueting owned 25.84% shares of Le.com, while Tianjin Jiarui owned 8.61% stake as the second-largest shareholder. In a separate deal, Tianjin Jiarui bought 15% stake of Le Vision Pictures from LeEco. In a third deal, Tianjin Jiarui acquired part of the stake of Leshi Zhixin from Le.com and a minority shareholder, for CN¥2.302 billion and CN¥2.648 billion respectively. After the deals, Le.com would still be the largest shareholder but for 40.31% only, followed by Tianjin Jiarui for 33.50% and LeEco for 18.38%. In February 2017 Le.com formed an agreement with a supplier Truly International Holdings for capital increase.
Would own 2.3438% stake in Leshi Zhixin for CN¥720 million. However, in August Truly sued Leshi Zhixin in civil court in order to recover a paid-in investment of CN¥240 million, claiming the terms of the investment agreement had been breached. In July 2017 Jia Yueting resigned as the chairman and CEO. In July 2018, Leshi announced that it was at risk of being suspended from the Shenzhen Stock Exchange due to negative net assets. Le.com's video streaming service offers over 100,000 episodes of TV dramas and over 5,000 movie titles. The site draws an estimated 250 million pageviews per day, 350 million users per month, 100 million daily content viewers on mobile devices, 10 million daily content viewers on large-screen TVs. One of the most popular shows on Le.com's service has been the Go Princess Go series. Le.com's online video streaming service has been receiving positive response in China. While Le.com focuses on TV and movie streaming, its LIVE and LeVidi services focus on live broadcasting and short videos from YouTube and other content providers, respectively.
For its streaming service in the United States, Le.com partners with content providers Machinima Inc. Tastemade and Indieflix, among others, its services Le, LeVidi, LIVE are marketed collectively as EcoPass. Le.com produced flat screen smart TV via a non wholly owned subsidiary Leshi Zhixin. The subsidiary owned a minor stake in TCL Multimedia, a subsidiary of TCL Corporation for 52.10% stake. LeCloud Letv Cloud, invented the VaaS model in 2014, similar to other "as a service" technologies like IaaS, PaaS, SaaS. VaaS model is based on cloud computing, big data, video technologies, it is founded on Internet-wide content aggregation, combining aggregation and derivative capabilities. The LeCloud team and Microsoft jointly held a press conference in Beijing in May 2015 and announced that the two parties have inked a deal for solution compatibility with Microsoft Azure. Official website
Augmented reality is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real-world are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, haptic and olfactory. The overlaid sensory information can be constructive or destructive and is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment. In this way, augmented reality alters one's ongoing perception of a real-world environment, whereas virtual reality replaces the user's real-world environment with a simulated one. Augmented reality is related to two synonymous terms: mixed reality and computer-mediated reality; the primary value of augmented reality is that it brings components of the digital world into a person's perception of the real world, does so not as a simple display of data, but through the integration of immersive sensations that are perceived as natural parts of an environment.
The first functional AR systems that provided immersive mixed reality experiences for users were invented in the early 1990s, starting with the Virtual Fixtures system developed at the U. S. Air Force's Armstrong Laboratory in 1992; the first commercial augmented reality experiences were used in the entertainment and gaming businesses, but now other industries are getting interested about AR's possibilities for example in knowledge sharing, managing the information flood and organizing distant meetings. Augmented reality is transforming the world of education, where content may be accessed by scanning or viewing an image with a mobile device or by bringing immersive, markerless AR experiences to the classroom. Another example is an AR helmet for construction workers which display information about the construction sites. Augmented reality is used to enhance natural environments or situations and offer perceptually enriched experiences. With the help of advanced AR technologies the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable.
Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be virtual or real, e.g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they are in space. Augmented reality has a lot of potential in the gathering and sharing of tacit knowledge. Augmentation techniques are performed in real time and in semantic context with environmental elements. Immersive perceptual information is sometimes combined with supplemental information like scores over a live video feed of a sporting event; this heads up display technology. Hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones and tablet computers contain these elements which include a camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer, GPS, solid state compass, making them suitable AR platforms. There are 2 technologies: diffractive reflective waveguides. Augmented reality systems guru Karl Guttag compared the optics of diffractive waveguides against the competing technology, reflective waveguides.
Various technologies are used in augmented reality rendering, including optical projection systems, handheld devices, display systems worn on the human body. A head-mounted display is a display device worn on the forehead, such as helmet. HMDs place images of both virtual objects over the user's field of view. Modern HMDs employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world and adjust accordingly with the user's head movements. HMDs can provide VR users with collaborative experiences. Specific providers, such as uSens and Gestigon, include gesture controls for full virtual immersion. In January 2015, Meta launched a project led by Horizons Ventures, Tim Draper, Alexis Ohanian, BOE Optoelectronics and Garry Tan. On February 17, 2016, Meta announced their second-generation product at TED, Meta 2; the Meta 2 head-mounted display headset uses a sensory array for hand interactions and positional tracking, visual field view of 90 degrees, resolution display of 2560 x 1440, considered the largest field of view available.
AR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses. Versions include eyewear that employs cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display its augmented view through the eyepieces and devices in which the AR imagery is projected through or reflected off the surfaces of the eyewear's lenspieces. A head-up display is a transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. A precursor technology to augmented reality, heads-up displays were first developed for pilots in the 1950s, projecting simple flight data into their line of sight, thereby enabling them to keep their "heads up" and not look down at the instruments. Near-eye augmented reality devices can be used as portable head-up displays as they can show data and images while the user views the real world. Many definitions of augmented reality only define it as overlaying the information; this is what a head-up display does.