Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
The Northstar Line is a commuter rail route in the US state of Minnesota. Northstar runs 40 miles from Big Lake to downtown Minneapolis at Target Field using existing track and right-of-way owned by the BNSF Railway. Passenger service began on November 16, 2009; the rail line serves part of the Northstar Corridor between St. Cloud. Planning for the line began in 1997; the corridor is served by Interstate 94 and U. S. Highway 10; the route was designed to run the full distance between Minneapolis and Rice, northwest of St. Cloud; the project was counting on federal funding for half of its construction costs. The estimated ridership for the full route was not high enough to qualify for that much needed federal funding; when the line was first proposed, then-Governor Jesse Ventura was an early advocate and convinced some people to come around to his point of view. Ventura's successor, Governor Tim Pawlenty, did not support it, he changed his mind after MnDOT determined that a scaled-back version of the line would qualify for federal funding.
The 2004 Minnesota Legislative session did not pass a bonding bill, which meant a lack of funds for initial project work. Some counties in the area and the Metropolitan Council came up with matching funds to allow funding from the United States federal government to continue. During the 2005 state legislative session, a bonding bill including $37.5 million of funding for the proposed project was passed. The bill was signed on April 11, 2005, by Governor Tim Pawlenty at the site of the Riverdale station in Coon Rapids; the 2006 state legislature, along with city and federal governments, provided funding to complete the corridor to Big Lake. Construction began on the maintenance facility near Big Lake station and on the Blue Line light rail extension in September 2007, before full funding for the line had been secured. On December 11, 2007, U. S. Deputy Secretary of Transportation Thomas Barrett met with Governor Pawlenty in Anoka County and signed a Full Funding Grant Agreement of $156.8 million, nearly half of the funding for the $317 million, 40-mile line from Minneapolis to Big Lake.
The money enabled the release of an additional $97.5 million in state bonding money set aside for the project. The federal government paid $156.8 million, the state paid $98.6 million and the Anoka County Regional Rail Authority pledged $34.8 million. The remaining partners were Sherburne County Regional Rail Authority, Hennepin County Regional Rail Authority, the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Twins. Of the $317 million total, $107.5 million went to paying BNSF for a perpetual easement for track rights and facilities along the line and to pay the BNSF employees that operate the trains. The operating budget for the first full year of service, 2010, was $16.8 million. The Minnesota Department of Transportation and the Northstar Corridor Development Authority studied options for development of the corridor to handle the increasing commuter load and felt that a commuter rail line was the best option, it was expected to cost about US$265 million in 2008 dollars, estimated to be less than one-third the cost of upgrading existing highways, though the cost would climb to $317 million.
Because all of the route being used existed, the investment went into building new stations, upgrading track, enhancing the safety of crossings, updating signals. A significant portion of the funds were to extend the METRO Blue Line to the Target Field station on the west side of Interstate 394 and 5th Street; this terminal station is integrated into the Minnesota Twins' new ballpark, Target Field, which opened in March 2010. The line has six trains running in the morning and evening rush hour periods, limited service on weekends and holidays. Bus feeder lines, including the Northstar Link from St. Cloud to Big Lake station, bring residents along the corridor to the nearest train station. Once in downtown, commuters can walk upstairs to the METRO Blue and Green Lines, take a bus into other areas of the city, or go into one of the nearby buildings integrated into the Minneapolis skyway system. In the first year, 2010, Metro Ridership fell well short of its goal of 3,400 weekday trips from this station.
Metro Transit has a goal for of 5,900 by 2030 intending to save those commuters 900,000 hours over the course of a year when compared to taking a dedicated bus line. Ridership in the first 15 days averaged 2,207 per day, short of a goal of 2,460. By the end of January 2010, goals were exceeded by 3%. Ridership for 2010 was projected to be 897,000 though ended up at 715,000; because ridership varies through the course of a year, Metro Transit's month-to-month goals are different from the yearly average goal. At Target Field Station, the parallel rail lines of the old Great Northern Railway and the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway travel eastbound past the Federal Reserve Bank, the site of the old Minneapolis Great Northern Depot, across the Mississippi River on the Minneapolis BNSF Rail Bridge and across Nicollet Island. At a wye, the route turns northwest in the GN East side line, which joins the parallel ex-Northern Pacific main line; the ex-Great Northern and ex-Northern Pacific lines are merged into BNSF and this is now the BNSF Northern Transcon line.
The route travels north through the Northtown Classification Yards, over Interstate 694 and makes its first
Minnesota's 6th congressional district
Minnesota's 6th congressional district includes most or all of Benton, Sherburne, Wright and Washington counties. The district is Republican-leaning with a CPVI of R+12, it is represented by Republican Tom Emmer. Rick Nolan ran unsuccessfully for Minnesota's 6th congressional district seat in the United States House of Representatives in the election of November 7, 1972. Rick Nolan was elected in his second run on November 1974, to the 94th Congress. Rick Nolan was reelected in 1976 to the 95th Congress. Nolan was reelected to the 96th Congress on November 7, 1978. Vin Weber was elected to serve in the 97th Congress. Gerry Sikorski, was elected to the 98th Congress on November 2, 1982. Gerry Sikorski was reelected to the 99th Congress on November 6, 1984, he continued to serve through 101st Congress and 102nd Congress. The elected representatives were: Bill Luther 104th Congress, 105th Congress, 106th Congress and 107th Congress Rod Grams 103rd Congress and Gerry Sikorski 100th Congress, 101st Congress and 102nd Congress.
Although Bachmann's home was not within the new boundaries of the 6th district, she ran for reelection and won. Minnesota's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
Red River Trails
The Red River Trails were a network of ox cart routes connecting the Red River Colony and Fort Garry in British North America with the head of navigation on the Mississippi River in the United States. These trade routes ran from the location of present-day Winnipeg in the Canadian province of Manitoba across the Canada–United States border, thence by a variety of routes through what is now the eastern part of North Dakota and western and central Minnesota to Mendota and Saint Paul, Minnesota on the Mississippi. Travellers began to use the trails by the 1820s, with the heaviest use from the 1840s to the early 1870s, when they were superseded by railways; until these cartways provided the most efficient means of transportation between the isolated Red River Colony and the outside world. They gave the Selkirk colonists and their neighbours, the Métis people, an outlet for their furs and a source of supplies other than the Hudson's Bay Company, unable to enforce its monopoly in the face of the competition that used the trails.
Free traders, independent of the Hudson's Bay Company and outside its jurisdiction, developed extensive commerce with the United States, making Saint Paul the principal entrepôt and link to the outside world for the Selkirk Settlement. The trade developed by and along the trails connecting Fort Garry with Saint Paul stimulated commerce, contributed to the settlement of Minnesota and North Dakota in the United States, accelerated the settlement of Canada to the west of the rugged barrier known as the Canadian Shield. For a time, this cross-border trade threatened Canada's control of its western territories; the threat diminished after completion of transcontinental trade routes both north and south of the border, the transportation corridor through which the trails once ran declined in importance. That corridor has now seen a resurgence of traffic, carried by more modern means of transport than the crude ox carts that once travelled the Red River Trails. In 1812, Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, started a colony of settlers in British North America where the Assiniboine River joins the Red River at the site of modern Winnipeg.
Although fur posts were scattered throughout the Canadian northwest, settlements of Métis fur traders and bison hunters were located in the vicinity of Selkirk's establishment, this colony was the only agricultural settlement between Upper Canada and the Pacific Ocean. Isolated by geology behind the rugged Canadian Shield and many hundreds of miles of wilderness and their Métis neighbours had access to outside markets and sources of supply only by two laborious water routes; the first, maintained by the Hudson's Bay Company, was a sea route from Great Britain to York Factory on Hudson Bay up a chain of rivers and lakes to the colony, 780 miles from salt water to the Assiniboine. The alternative was the historic route of the rival North West Company's voyageurs from Montreal through Lake Huron to Fort William on Lake Superior. Above Superior, this route followed rivers and lakes to Lac la Croix and west along the international border through Lake of the Woods to Rat Portage, down the Winnipeg River to the Red.
The distance from the Selkirk settlement to Lake Superior at Fort William was about 500 miles, but Lake Superior was only the start of a lengthy journey to Montreal where furs and supplies would be transshipped to and from Europe. Neither of these routes was suitable for heavy freight. Lighter cargoes were carried in York boats in canoes on the border route. Both routes required navigation of large and hazardous lakes and rapid-strewn rivers, swampy creeks and bogs, connected by numerous portages where both cargo and watercraft had to be carried on men's backs, but geology provided an alternate route, albeit across foreign territory. The valleys of the Red and Minnesota Rivers lay in the beds of Glacial Lake Agassiz and its prehistoric outlet Glacial River Warren. At the Traverse Gap, only a mile of land separated the Bois des Sioux River, a source stream of the Red and the Little Minnesota River, a source stream of the Minnesota River; the valley floors and uplands of the watercourses along this graded route provided a natural thoroughfare to the south.
The eyes of the colonists therefore turned to the new United States, both as a source of supplies and an outlet for their furs. The rich fur areas along the upper Mississippi, Des Moines, Missouri Rivers, otherwise occupied by peoples of the First Nations, were exploited by independent fur traders operating from Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin in the late eighteenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, these traders established fur posts in the Minnesota River valley at Lake Traverse, Big Stone Lake, Lac qui Parle, Traverse des Sioux; the large fur companies built posts, including the North West Company's stations at Pembina and St. Joseph in the valley of the Red River; the paths between these posts became parts of the first of the Red River Trails. In 1815, 1822, 1823, cattle were herded to the Red River Colony from Missouri by a route up the Des Moines River Valley to the Minnesota River, across the divide down the Red River to the Selkirk settlement. In 1819, following a devastating plague of locusts which left the colonists with insufficient seed to plant a crop, an expedition was sent by snowshoe to purchase seed at Prairie du Chien.
It returned by flatboat up the Mississippi and Minnesota
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Jerry Newton (politician)
Gerald F. "Jerry" Newton is a Minnesota politician and member of the Minnesota State Senate. A member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, he represents District 37, which includes portions of Anoka County in the northern Twin Cities metropolitan area, he is a former grocery store owner and career soldier. Newton graduated from Osseo High School in Osseo earned his B. A. in government from the University of Maryland in 1973. He received his MA in international relations in 1975 from Boston University, studied at the doctoral level at the Catholic University of Leuven in Leuven, at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. Newton served in the United States Army from 1955–1978, retiring as a sergeant major, after serving in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, spending seven years in the Middle East; the Bronze Star and the Vietnamese Medal of Valor are among his many decorations. He taught government at the University of Maryland from 1975–1976, was a teaching assistant at the University of Minnesota from 1979-1980.
He owned and managed the Blaine Dairy Store and Foley Blvd Dairy Store from 1980-2000. Newton was first elected to the Senate in 2016, he is a member of the following committees: Aging and Long-Term Care Policy Higher Education Finance and Policy Veterans and Military Affairs Finance and Policy Newton was first elected to the house in 2008, succeeding six-term Representative Kathy Tingelstad, who did not seek re-election. He was unseated by Republican Branden Petersen in the 2010 general election, he ran again and was elected in 2012. During his first term, he was a member of the House K-12 Education Policy and Oversight Committee, served on the Agriculture, Rural Economies and Veterans Affairs Subcommittee for the Veterans Affairs Division, of which he was vice chair, on the Finance subcommittees for the K-12 Education Finance Division and the Transportation Finance and Policy Division, he was the Minnesota School Board Association 2009 Legislator of the Year. Active in his local community and government, Newton was a member of the Coon Rapids City Council from 1994–2000, served as acting mayor from 1999-2000.
He was a member of the Anoka-Hennepin School District 11 School Board from 2000-2008. Through the years, he chaired the Anoka Human Rights Council, served on the Anoka County Affordable Housing Coalition, the Coon Rapids Economic Development Authority, the Crystal Housing and Re-Development Authority, the Energy and Natural Resources Committee of the National League of Cities, the Metropolitan Council Transportation Advisory Board, the Association of Metropolitan Municipalities, the Northstar Corridor Development Authority, he initiated the Highway 10 Corridor Coalition. Newton was a founding board member of Free 2 Be, Inc. and is a member of the Metro North Chamber of Commerce and the Coon Rapids Rotary. He is a member of the Coon Rapids American Legion. Newton is best known locally for single-handedly creating the rail crossing quiet zones which set a national standard for enhanced rail crossing safety while silencing train whistles, he wrote the local school district anti-bullying policy which became the base for the State of Minnesota anti-bullying policy.
Jerry Newton at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Official MN House Page for Rep. Newton Campaign Web Page Project Votesmart - Rep. Jerry Newton Profile Session Weekly 1/23/2009: "No shortcut to service: Newton relishes opportunity to make tough decisions"
Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party
The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party is a center-left political party in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It is affiliated with the U. S. Democratic Party. Formed by a merger of the Minnesota Democratic Party and the left-wing Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party in 1944, the DFL is one of only two state Democratic party affiliates of a different name; the DFL was created on April 15, 1944, with the merger of the Minnesota Democratic Party and the Farmer–Labor Party. Leading the merger effort were Elmer Kelm, the head of the Minnesota Democratic Party and founding chairman of the DFL. Orville Freeman was elected the state's first DFL governor in 1954. Important members of the party have included Minneapolis mayor Hubert H. Humphrey and Minnesota Attorney General Walter Mondale, who each went on to be United States Senators, Vice Presidents of the United States, unsuccessful Democratic nominees for president, Humphrey in 1968 and Mondale in 1984. S. senator who ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968 as an anti-Vietnam War candidate.
S. senator from 1991 to 2002. Amy Klobuchar Tina Smith 2nd district: Angie Craig 3rd district: Dean Phillips 4th district: Betty McCollum 5th district: Ilhan Omar 7th district: Collin Peterson Governor: Tim Walz Lieutenant Governor: Peggy Flanagan Secretary of State: Steve Simon State Auditor: Julie Blaha Attorney General: Keith Ellison Minority Leader of the Senate: Tom Bakk Speaker of the House of Representatives: Melissa Hortman Majority Leader of the House of Representatives: Ryan Winkler Chair: Ken Martin Vice Chair: Marge Hoffa Treasurer: Tyler Moroles Secretary: Jacob Grippen Outreach Officer: Shivanthi Sathanandan Politics of Minnesota List of political parties in Minnesota Delton, Jennifer A. Making Minnesota Liberal: Civil Rights and the Transformation of the Democratic Party. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. Haynes, John Earl. "Farm Coops and the Election of Hubert Humphrey to the Senate". Agricultural History 57, no. 2. Haynes, John Earl. Dubious Alliance: The Making of Minnesota's DFL Party.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984. Henrickson, Gary P. Minnesota in the'McCarthy' Period": 1946–1954. Ph. D. diss. University of Minnesota, 1981. Lebedoff, David; the 21st Ballot: A Political Party Struggle in Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1969. Lebedoff, David. Ward Number Six. New York: Scribner, 1972. Discusses the entry of radicals into the DFL party in 1968. Mitau, G. Theodore; the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party Schism of 1948. Minnesota History Magazine 34. Official website