The Lysterfield Park is a public park located in the Greater Melbourne region of Victoria, Australia. The 1,398-hectare park is situated 30 kilometres southeast of the Melbourne central business district, adjacent to the suburb of Lysterfield in the City of Casey; when combined with the adjacent Churchill National Park, the two parks comprise 1,668 hectares in the Dandenong Valley and the Dandenong Ranges that are a haven for native birds and reptiles, provide recreational opportunities. Lysterfield Park was created following the decommissioning of the Lysterfield Reservoir and placement of its catchment under the management of the National Park Service in 1979. Gazetted on 19 May 1981 with 1,151 hectares, extensions to the park were made in 1984, 1988, 1995 and 1997. Lysterfield Park was the venue for mountain biking events of the 2006 Commonwealth Games, it trail MTB riding. The trails are well signposted and give clear indication of the level of difficulty they present to the rider. Trail management over recent years 2012 - 2015 has led to vastly improved drainage, usage of natural and man-made features and as a result trail conditions are much improved.
Lysterfield's location and variety of trails and natural environment make it one of the better known MTB locations near Melbourne. In 2008, several emergency markers were installed in the park to allow callers to emergency services to give their location more precisely. Protected areas of Victoria Swimming at Lysterfield Park Parks Victoria's Lysterfield Park page Commonwealth Games' Lysterfield Park page Mountain Bike Trail Map
Alpine National Park
The Alpine National Park is a national park located in the Central Highlands and Alpine regions of Victoria, Australia. The 646,000-hectare national park is located northeast of Melbourne, it is the largest National Park in Victoria, covers much of the higher areas of the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, including Victoria's highest point, Mount Bogong at 1,986 metres and the associated subalpine woodland and grassland of the Bogong High Plains. The park's north-eastern boundary is along the border with New South Wales, where it abuts the Kosciuszko National Park. On 7 November 2008 the Alpine National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. Ecologically, Alpine refers to areas where the environment is such that trees are unable to grow and vegetation is restricted to dwarfed shrubs, alpine grasses and ground-hugging herbs. In Victoria this is those areas above 1,800 metres AHD . Below this is the sub-alpine zone, an area of open forest dominated by snow-gums, with significant areas of grasslands.
This zone includes basins. In wetter areas these basins form Sphagnum bogs. Water enters the alps as rain. Bogs and frost hollows collect the water as snow run off. A key element of these bogs is Sphagnum Moss, which acts as a sponge, absorbing up to twenty times its weight in water; these bogs release the water over summer, ensuring creeks flow throughout most of the year maintaining the alps’ creeks and streams. The greatest risk to this system is damage to the Sphagnum bogs. Trampling by feral animals reduces their ability to absorb and release water. Fire can remove riparian vegetation increasing run-off and erosion. Below the sub-alpine zone is the montane zone. On the alps southern fall, this exists as wet forest and rainforest, a consequence of the higher rainfall on this side of the park. Tall forests of Alpine Ash and Mountain Ash grow in deep soils while species like Mountain Gum are found in shallower soils or drier sites; the understory is shrubby, with a dense ground-layer of grasses, lilies and the like.
Rainforests are areas where the canopy cover is high, greater than 70%. The tree species are specialists, such as Myrtle Beech in Cool Temperate Rainforest and Lilly Pilly in Warm Temperate Rainforest. Rainforest species are shade tolerant and able to regenerate below an undisturbed canopy or in small gaps created when a tree falls. Rainforest merges with the surrounding damp or wet, eucalypt forests; these forests are home to a diverse bird life and many mammals, some of which are restricted to a particular ecological niche within the ecosystem. This can include particular vegetation for foraging, or the presence of older trees with their larger hollows, a requirement for some arboreal mammals and birds. Rainforest species regenerate without fire and may be intolerant to fire, while other eucalypt species require fire. Fire can affect the breeding of some mammals. Fire in Spring, for example, is considered to put juvenile Spot-tailed Quolls at risk; the montane zone on the alps drier, northern fall consists of dry forest and woodland with eucalypt species such as stringybarks and peppermints.
Dry forest and woodlands surround the wet forests on the southern side of the alps. These forests provide habitat for a wide range of species. Dry forest and woodland abut private land in many areas and as a consequence have been subject to clearing and fragmentation. Thus, the major threat in these areas is fire management, weed invasion and lack of connectivity between patches; the national park protects many threatened species, including the spotted tree frog, she-oak skink, smoky mouse, broad-toothed mouse and mountain pygmy possum. Alpine Bogs and Associated Fens have now been listed as a threatened ecological community by the Australian government; the park has been affected by bushfires with lightning strikes starting large fires in January 2003 and again in December 2006, each fire burning over 10,000 square kilometres over a number of weeks. The largest previous fire was the Black Friday fires of 1939. While fire is a feature of most Australian ecosystems, some alpine ecosystems, such as Alpine Bogs and Fens, are susceptible due to the sensitivity of the component species.
The 2003 fires created a mosaic of unburnt areas. In some areas where the 2006-07 fires burnt over the same ground and communities have struggled to recover. A lightning strike on the slopes of Mount Feathertop near Harrietville in January 2013 started a 35,000-hectare bushfire which burnt for around two months. For much of the European history of the national park, agricultural activity was conducted in the park, with quotas of cattle allowed to graze on the High Plains during summer. Australia's alpine area was first used for grazing around the 1840s. Concerns about the environmental effects led various governments to remove grazing from parts of the alps over the next century. Grazing was temporarily halted in Mount Buffalo National Park in the 1920s and stopped altogether in 1952. Cattle were taken out of Kosciuszko National Park in NSW during the 1950s and 1960s due to concerns about the effect of grazing on water quality for the Snowy River Scheme. Grazing was removed from Mounts Feathertop
Hattah-Kulkyne National Park
The Hattah-Kulkyne National Park is a national park in the Mallee district of Victoria, Australia. The 48,000-hectare national park is situated adjacent to the Murray River 417 kilometres northwest of Melbourne with the nearest regional centre being Mildura; the national park was proclaimed on 7 June 1960 and is a popular destination for bushwalkers and school camping trips. The park is in the Mallee district, famous for its red dirt and semi-arid shrub-like vegetation eucalypts. There are several lakes in the area, the largest of, Lake Hattah. During the dry season most of the lakes and their streams dry out completely. Although there are limited road and tracks, there are several major high tension power and telegraph lines that run through or near the park, around which large areas are cleared. For management purposes, the Hattah-Kulkyne National Park is managed with the Murray-Sunset National Park, Wyperfeld National Park, Lake Albacutya Park and Murray-Kulkyne Park as part of the Victorian Mallee Parks.
Over 200 bird species have been recorded in the park, overlapped by the Murray-Sunset and Annuello Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because it contains mallee habitat supporting a suite of threatened mallee bird, including the malleefowl, black-eared miner and mallee emu-wren. Protected areas of Victoria Hattah-Kulkyne and Murray-Kulkyne Biosphere Reserve "Hattah Lakes". Environmental sites in the Basin. Murray-Darling Basin Authority. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014
The Tasman Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand. It measures about 2,800 kilometres from north to south; the sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, the first recorded European to encounter New Zealand and Tasmania. The British explorer Captain James Cook extensively navigated the Tasman Sea in the 1770s as part of his first voyage of exploration; the Tasman Sea is informally referred to in New Zealand English as The Ditch. The diminutive term "The Ditch" used for the Tasman Sea is comparable to referring to the North Atlantic Ocean as "The Pond"; the south of the sea is passed over by depressions going from west to east. The northern limit of these westerly winds is near to 40°S. During the southern winter, from April to October, the northern branch of these winds from the west changes its direction toward the north and goes up against trade winds. Hence, the sea receives frequent winds from the southwest during this period.
In the Australian summer the southern branch of the trade winds goes up against west winds and produces further wind activity in the area. The sea circumscribes a water body of 2,300,000 kilometres in area; the depth of the sea is 5,493 metres. The base of the sea is made up of globigerina ooze. A small zone of pteropod ooze is found to the south of New Caledonia and to the southern extent of 30°S, siliceous ooze can be found; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Tasman Sea as follows: On the West. A line from Gabo Island to the Northeast point of East Sister Island thence along the 148th meridian to Flinders Island. On the North; the parallel of 30°S from the Australian coast Eastward as far as a line joining the East extremities of Elizabeth Reef and South East Rock to the Southward along this line to the South East Rock. On the Northeast. From the South East Rock to the North point of Three Kings Islands thence to North Cape in New Zealand. On the East. In Cook Strait.
A line joining the South extreme of the foul ground off Cape Palliser and the Lighthouse on Cape Campbell. In Foveaux Strait. A line joining the Light on Waipapapa Point with East Head of Stewart Island. On the Southeast. A line running from South West Cape, Stewart Island, through The Snares to North West Cape, Auckland Island, through this island to its Southern point. On the South. A line joining the Southern point of Auckland Island to South East Cape, the Southern point of Tasmania; the Tasman Sea's mid-ocean ridge developed between 85 and 55 million years ago as Australia and Zealandia broke apart during the breakup of supercontinent Gondwana. It lies midway between the continental margins of Australia and Zealandia. Much of Zealandia is submerged, so the ridge runs much closer to the Australian coast than New Zealand's; the Tasman Sea features a number of mid-sea island groups, quite apart from coastal islands located near the Australian and New Zealand mainlands: Lord Howe Island Ball's Pyramid Norfolk Island, in the extreme north of the Tasman Sea, on the border with the Coral Sea Middleton Reef Elizabeth Reef North: Coral Sea Northeast and East: Pacific Ocean East: Cook Strait South and Southeast: Southern Ocean West: Bass Strait A deep-sea research ship, the RV Tangaroa, explored the sea and found 500 species of fish and 1300 species of invertebrates.
The tooth of a Megalodon, an extinct shark, was found by researchers. Moncrieff and Hood were the first to attempt a Trans-Tasman crossing by plane in 1928; the first successful flight over the sea was accomplished by Charles Kingsford Smith that year. The first person to row solo across the sea was Colin Quincey in 1977; the next successful solo crossing was completed by his son, Shaun Quincey, in 2010. Axis naval activity in New Zealand waters Crossing the Ditch List of seas Coral sea Rotschi, H..
Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park
The Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park is a national park, located in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. The 21,650-hectare national park is situated 275 kilometres northeast of Melbourne, extends west from Beechworth across the Hume Freeway and the Albury-Melbourne railway line to the west of Chiltern; the park was established under the National Parks Act, 2002 to protect a diverse range of threatened species and ecosystems. The distinctive features of the park include the Woolshed Falls, picturesque Mt Pilot summit, culturally significant Aboriginal rock art at Yeddonba and historical relics of the goldmining era scattered throughout; the park is used for a number of recreational activities including bushwalking, trail riding, rock climbing, camping, bird watching and prospecting. At the time of European settlement, box-ironbark forests covered 3,000,000 hectares or 13% of Victoria; as a result of settlement, nearly 80% of these forests were cleared and the remaining areas were badly degraded by grazing.
The forests of the Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park are living testament to these claims with some of its natural systems deteriorated as a result of grazing, clearing and mining. When gold was discovered in the area during the mid 1800s, extensive alluvial and reef mining, quartz mining and gravel quarrying began. Fossicking and gem hunting are still permitted within the park today. Evidence of these activities including disturbed ground, mullock heaps and old mineshafts may be found scattered throughout the park. Pastoralists driving cattle through Chiltern, known at the time as Black Dog Creek, discovered the forests of box and ironbark during the 1930s; the species were renowned for their strong durable timber and soon felled for fencing and firewood. In fact, firewood collection continued until 2002. A landscape, dominated by large, mature trees and grassy forest floors deteriorated into packed stands of multi-stemmed coppice regrowth; the clearing of land for agriculture and grazing impacted negatively on this landscape.
Grazing continued through the Chiltern section of the park until the 1980s and the Mt Pilot section until the 1990s. Common problems associated with these activities including the introduction of pest species, soil compaction and erosion, increased salinity and habitat fragmentation were all reported as a result; the Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park is an amalgamation of two separate parks, each with distinct geological and ecological profiles. The Chiltern Regional Park, first known as the Chiltern State Park, was a 4,250-hectare Box-ironbark forest, reserved in 1980 following the 1977 Land Conservation Council recommendations; the Mt Pilot Multipurpose Park was established under the 1977 LCC recommendations. The Environment Conservation Council replaced the LCC in 1997 and gave rise to the Chiltern Box-ironbark National Park of 4,320 hectares; when the Victorian State parliament gave assent to the National Parks Act, 2002 it initiated the creation of a protected system of parks and reserves.
The Chiltern Box-ironbark National Park and the Mt Pilot Multipurpose Park, in addition to Woolshed falls and surrounding land, were brought together to form Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park as it is known today. The Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park falls within the Victorian Riverina and Northern Inland Slopes sub-bioregions; the Chiltern section of the park comprises low-lying hills formed from Ordovician sedimentary rock which are distinctly contrast to the rugged Devonian granite of the Mt Pilot section. The park protects a total 18 ecological vegetation classes of which four are threatened: Box-Ironbark, Spring-soak Woodland, Gilgai Plain Woodland/Wetland Mosaic and the Valley Grassy Forest; the park supports over 600 native species of flora and has the most intact assemblage of fauna with more birds and reptiles recorded than any other Box-ironbark forest. Most notably, the Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park provides a critical habitat for the recovery of the barking owl and brush-tailed phascogale.
It is part of the Warby–Chiltern Box–Ironbark region Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of Box–Ironbark forest ecosystems and several species of threatened woodland birds dependent on them. The park supports a diverse range of native fauna with 276 different species of mammals and reptiles being reported; as well as common species including the grey kangaroo and laughing kookaburra, the park is home to 43 fauna species listed as threatened. Some significant species are described in more detail below; the squirrel glider is a small to medium-sized arboreal marsupial that occupies a vast range of habitats throughout Eastern Australia. It is listed as a threatened species under the FFG Act 1988; the gliders have specific feeding and nesting requirements and use trees to move through the landscape. They are susceptible to changes in forest conditions. Squirrel gliders have a reported home range size of 3.9 hectares in northeast Victoria.
This size can vary and is influenced by the availability of food and the quality of the forest habitat. The glider’s diet consists of arthropods and insect exudates with foraging ac
French Island National Park
The French Island National Park is a national park located in the Greater Melbourne region of Victoria, Australia. The 11,100-hectare national park is situated 61 kilometres southeast of Melbourne on French Island within Western Port and accessible only via water; the park comprises a diverse range of habitats including open woodland. The adjacent 2,800-hectare French Island Marine National Park compliments the French Island National Park by protecting extensive sea grass beds and mud flats that provide habitat for fish and invertebrates. Protected areas of Victoria
Greater Bendigo National Park
The Greater Bendigo National Park is a national park located in the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. The 17,020-hectare national park was created in 2002 from the former Whipstick State Park, Kamarooka State Park, One Tree Hill Regional Park, Mandurang State Forest and the Sandhurst State Forest. Much of the park lies within the Bendigo Box-Ironbark Region Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for swift parrots and other woodland birds. Protected areas of Victoria