The Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations was a United States-supported militant group responsible for a number of terrorist activities directed at the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. It was founded by a group that included Orlando Bosch and Luis Posada Carriles, was composed chiefly of Cuban exiles opposed to the Castro government, it was formed in 1976 as an umbrella group for a number of anti-Castro militant groups. Its activities including a number of bombings and assassinations, including the killing of human-rights activist Orlando Letelier in Washington, D. C. and the bombing of Cubana Flight 455. The FBI described CORU as "an anti-Castro terrorist umbrella organization." According to declassified CIA documents, the Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations was set up at a meeting in the small town of Bonao in the Dominican Republic in June 1976. The meeting was attended by a number of Cuban exile militant groups; the FBI said that at the meeting, "these groups agreed to jointly participate in the planning and carrying out of terrorist operations and attacks against Cuba."
Bosch, according to the document, was committed to violent acts against other countries he believed supported Cuba, including Colombia and Panama. The groups included the terrorist organizations Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Orlando Bosch, who became leader of CORU stated that "Our war strategy was created there—everything. All the top leaders of the paramilitaries in Miami were there."Carriles and Bosch were both present at the meeting in Bonao, at which CORU was formed, along with Guillermo Novo and Gaspar Jiménez. A number of violent actions followed in the months after this meeting, for some of which CORU directly claimed responsibility; the group used the reputation they had gained from these attacks to generate support for a larger attack, including through a fundraising dinner held in Caracas, at which donors paid $1000 a plate. This larger plot turned out to be the bombing of Cubana Flight 455, which killed 73 people, which remained the group's largest attack. CORU continued to carry out violent attacks against the Cuban government until the 1990s.
They participated in attacks against democratic governments elsewhere. Other members helped supply the Contras in Nicaragua, to trains them as well. Over the 1980s, the US government shifted away from using violent militant activities as its tool against Cuba, the prominence of CORU declined. Altogether, CORU was responsible for more than 50 bombings, in Miami, New York, Panama and Argentina. Orlando Bosch, a prominent Cuban exile, was the head of CORU. Born in Cuba, Bosch met Fidel Castro while at the University of Havana, was a member of some groups that took part in the Cuban Revolution, before being forced to flee to Miami, he became disillusioned with the movement, tried to organize a failed coup against Castro in 1960. He was a CIA operative at various points in the 1960s, before being arrested in 1968 for attacking a Polish freighter. After serving four years in prison, he went to Venezuela where he was arrested and jailed by Venezuelan authorities for blowing up Cuban and Panamanian buildings in Caracas.
He moved to Curaçao soon after, where he claimed to have continued his activities against the Cuban government, including a series of bombings against Cuban consulates as part of a group called "Accion Cuba."Another prominent member of CORU was Luis Posada Carriles. Born in Cuba, Carriles emigrated to Miami in 1961, got involved with anti-Castro activities, he was trained to be a part of the Bay of Pigs Invasion by the CIA, but did not take part in the actual event. He was recruited by the CIA as a "Maritime Training Branch" instructor in 1965, he was expected to provide information on his fellow Cuban exiles. He spent the next several years working on several CIA projects, including a plot to blow up a Soviet and a Cuban ship in Mexico. Other members of CORU included Guillermo Novo, who unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Che Guevara at the United Nations in 1964. Novo participated in the assassination of Orlando Letelier in 1976. Julio Labatut was a professional florist, an important member of CORU.
Labatut had close ties to the Puerto Rican police. In an interview in 2001, he was asked if he had ordered the assassination of Carlos Muñiz Varela, a Cuban exile who worked as a travel agent. In response, he said "Don't call it an assassination, it was an execution and it should have been carried out before he was born." Perez Franco, who became the president of Brigade 2506, another anti-Castro organization, was a founding member of CORU, along with Lopez Estrada, who became its military chief. A month after its founding meeting, CORU members attempted to kidnap the Cuban ambassador to Mexico. On 17 July 1976, the Cuban embassy in Bogota, was attacked with machine guns; the attack has been attributed to CORU by historians. On 9 August 1976, two security agents at the Cuban consulate in Buenos Aires were kidnapped. CORU claimed credit. On 1 September 1976, the Guyanese embassy in Port of Spain was destroyed by a bomb: the attack was attributed to CORU. On 21 September, CORU members and the Chilean Secret police set off a car bomb in Washington, D.
C. which killed Orlando Letelier, the Chilean ambassador, was a human rights campaigner at the time. The bomb killed his assistant, Ronni Karpen Moffit. Guillermo Novo was convicted for involvement in thi
ʻOumuamua is the first known interstellar object detected passing through the Solar System. Formally designated 1I/2017 U1, it was discovered by Robert Weryk using the Pan-STARRS telescope at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, on 19 October 2017, 40 days after it passed its closest point to the Sun on 9 September; when it was first observed, it was about 33 million km from Earth, heading away from the Sun. ʻOumuamua is a small object estimated to be between 100 and 1,000 metres long, with its width and thickness both estimated to range between 35 and 167 metres. It has a dark red colour, similar to objects in the outer Solar System. Despite its close approach to the Sun, ʻOumuamua showed no signs of having a coma, but did exhibit non-gravitational acceleration. Nonetheless, the object could be a remnant of a disintegrated rogue comet, according to a NASA scientist; the object has a rotation rate similar to the average spin rate seen in Solar System asteroids, but is more elongated than all but a few other natural bodies.
While a strengthless object would require it to be of a density similar to rocky asteroids, a small amount of internal strength similar to icy comets would allow a low density. ʻOumuamua is tumbling, rather than smoothly rotating, is moving so fast relative to the Sun that there is no chance it originated in the Solar System. It means that ʻOumuamua cannot be captured into a solar orbit, so it will leave the Solar System and resume traveling through interstellar space. ʻOumuamua's planetary system of origin, the amount of time it has spent traveling amongst the stars, are unknown. In July 2019, astronomers reported that ʻOumuamua was an object of a "purely natural origin"; as the first known object of its type, ʻOumuamua presented a unique case for the International Astronomical Union, which assigns designations for astronomical objects. Classified as comet C/2017 U1, it was reclassified as asteroid A/2017 U1, due to the absence of a coma. Once it was unambiguously identified as coming from outside the Solar System, a new designation was created: I, for Interstellar object.
ʻOumuamua, as the first object so identified, was designated 1I, with rules on the eligibility of objects for I-numbers, the names to be assigned to these interstellar objects, yet to be codified. The object may be referred to as 1I; the name comes from Hawaiian ʻoumuamua, meaning'scout', reflects the way this object is like a scout or messenger sent from the distant past to reach out to humanity. It translates to'first distant messenger'; the first character is a Hawaiian ʻokina, not an apostrophe, is pronounced as a glottal stop. Before the official name was decided upon, the name Rama was suggested, the name given to an alien spacecraft discovered under similar circumstances in the 1973 science fiction novel Rendezvous with Rama by Arthur C. Clarke. Observations and conclusions concerning the trajectory of ʻOumuamua were obtained with data from the Pan-STARRS1 Telescope, part of the Spaceguard Survey, the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, its composition and shape from the Very Large Telescope and the Gemini South telescope in Chile, as well as the Keck II telescope in Hawaii.
These were collected by Karen J. Meech, Robert Weryk and their colleagues and published in Nature on 20 November 2017. Post announcement, the space-based telescopes Hubble and Spitzer joined in the observations. ʻOumuamua is dark. It was not seen in STEREO HI-1A observations near its perihelion on 9 September 2017, limiting its brightness to ~13.5 mag. By the end of October, ʻOumuamua had faded to apparent magnitude ~23, in mid-December 2017, it was too faint and fast moving to be studied by the largest ground-based telescopes.ʻOumuamua was compared to the fictional alien spacecraft Rama because of its interstellar origin. Adding to the coincidence, both the real and the fictional objects are unusually elongated. ʻOumuamua has unsteady brightness, which are typical of asteroids. The SETI Institute's radio telescope, the Allen Telescope Array, examined ʻOumuamua, but detected no unusual radio emissions. More detailed observations, using the Breakthrough Listen hardware and the Green Bank Telescope, were performed.
Given the close proximity to this interstellar object, limits were placed to putative transmitters with the low power of 0.08 watts. ʻOumuamua appears to have come from the direction of Vega in the constellation Lyra. The incoming direction of motion of ʻOumuamua is 6° from the solar apex, the most direction for approaches from objects outside the Solar System. On 26 October, two precovery observations from the Catalina Sky Survey were found dated 14 and 17 October. A two-week observation arc had verified a hyperbolic trajectory, it has a hyperbolic excess velocity of 26.33 km/s, its speed relative to the Sun when in interstellar space. By mid-November, astronomers were certain. Based on observations spanning 34 days, ʻOumuamua's orbital eccentricity is 1.20, the highest observed until 2I/Borisov was discovered in August 2019. An eccentri
Avatime Vane is the capital of the Avatime Traditional Area. It is located on the Eastern section of the Akuapem-Togo ranges, an ancient volcanic mountain formation that rises from the lower Volta basin and runs in a North-Easterly direction into Togo Republic. Vane is located on the main Ho-Fume road and is the first settlement located on highlands North East of Dzolokpuita Vane is where the Osie or overlord of Avatime resides. Avatime Vane Lies 1,049 ft on the contour above sea level; the town rests on a major and other minor hills, all which sit in a major valley shielded to the East by the great Gayi Escarpment-an ancient granite rock formation with steep slopes and heights reaching up to 1,200 ft above sea level. Like her other sister settlements with which she forms the Avatime Traditional area Avatime Avatime Vane enjoys a serene and invigorating microclimate; the weather here like the entire Avatime Traditional Area is exceptionally good, with mild breezes and beautiful cloud covers interspersed with sunny skies all day long.
The rains start from the Eastern section of town and are carried Westward by the winds. Avatime Vane's rainfall pattern falls within that of the forest belt of Ghana's; the rainy season starts in May/June and ends in Oct/November whilst the Dry Season begins in November and ends in April. Educational infrastructure in Avatime Vane is good; the town boasts of Primary and Senior High Schools. The antecedents to the present day school system in Avatime Vane dates back to the advent of the German Missionaries in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries who established Mission schools to prepare the people in line with the overall objectives of colonial education. Today, the overall school system in Avatime Vane boasts of over 1,000 pupils from class 1 to SHS 3. In the mid 1980s, the Rako Tree planting project was commenced giving rise to the planting of many tree seedlings. Today, Avatime can best be described as a "Garden Town" due to the green belt of trees which dot its natural topography, it therefore goes without being said.
The chiefs and people of Avatim together with their kinsmen from the Avatime Traditional Area celebrate the AMU or Rice Festival through the week leading to, on the first weekend in the month of November every year. This festival is celebrated in lieu of the agricultural activities forming the major economic activity of the people and rice cultivated as a staple; the cultivation of rice in a mountainous environment with a near temperate climate is a misery to many. Many people do not know that, the rice cultivated in Avatime Vane and its environs is a genetically different from the most prevalent rice varieties cultivated in Ghana, it is the peculiarity of this rice to Avatime that, gave rise to the Amu Festival. Avatime Vane, being a town nestled between a series of mountainous peaks which culminated into the second highest peak in Ghana, is strategically positioned to be developed into a tourist hot bed; the development of a cable car network to link the various peaks will open up the magic of lush vegetative expanses never to be accessed from the ground to millions of tourists.
This expanses are interspersed with settlements and roads built along the contours of the mountain range forming a beauty of natural and human interdependence. A varied species of birds and butterflies not seen anywhere in the tropics can be viewed and photographed from the air. Hiking is another tourist activity, unique to Avatime Vane. Although the terrain will not allow for biking, the traditional hunting and farming trails lead to magnificent caves and rock formation sites and waterfalls; this trails enables all to study the vegetative strata from the ground although in most instances, you can only see up to the canopy formed by the first layer of trees although the forests are three layered. Bird watching is possible from the ground although better from the air
Louisa Lynthia Mark known as "Markswoman", was a British lovers rock singer, best known for her work between the mid-1970s and early 1980s. Her 1975 single "Caught You in a Lie" is regarded as the first lovers rock single. Mark was born in Kensal Rise, London to Grenadian immigrant parents, grew up in Shepherd's Bush, she had her introduction to the music business by working as guest vocalist on Dennis Bovell's Sufferer sound system, followed by a residency at the Metro club in Westbourne Park, via "Star Search" talent contests held at the Four Aces club in Dalston, where she won for ten consecutive weeks. Sound-system operator and record producer Lloyd Coxsone provided dub plates for the contestants to sing over at the contests and, in late 1974, provided the fifteen-year-old Mark with her first recording session, at Gooseberry Studios, where she recorded a cover version of Robert Parker's "Caught You in a Lie", on which she was backed by Matumbi, the single being released in Jamaica by Gussie Clarke.
"Caught You in a Lie" is considered the first lovers rock single. It gave her an instant hit with reggae audiences, was followed by a version of The Beatles' "All My Loving", her career was interrupted after a dispute with Coxsone and she concentrated on finishing her studies. After leaving school, Mark resumed her musical career working with Trojan Records house producer and A&R manager Clement Bushay, songwriter/arranger Joseph "Tunga" Charles, releasing "Keep it Like It Is", she stayed with Bushay for further releases on his own Bushays label including her rendition of Michael Jackson's "Even Though You're Gone", "Six Sixth Street", her début album Breakout. She was unhappy with the album, feeling that it had been released before it had been properly finished, did not record again for over a year. Mark returned to the studio in 1982, recording "Mum and Dad". Mark was voted Artist of The Year in the 1978 Reggae Awards. On the 18 October 2009 edition of his BBC London radio show, Dotun Adebayo reported that Mark had died of poisoning in Gambia, where she had been residing.
On 20 October 2009, Trojan Records confirmed the story, stating cause of death was a stomach ulcer. Breakout, Bushays "Caught You in a Lie", Safari - 7" "All My Loving", Safari - 7" "Even Though You're Gone", Bushays - 12" "Six Sixth Street", Bushays "Caught You in a Lie", Voyage International - 12", B-side by Clinton Grant "People in Love", Radic - 12" "All My Loving, Voyage International - 7" "Caught You in a Lie", Code - 12" "Hello There", Oak Sound - 12", Louisa Mark & Zabandis "Mum and Dad", Bushays, 12" "Keep It Like It Is", Trojan - 7"/12" "Reunited" b/w "Reunited Stepping Out" with Kevin & The Bushrangers, Bushays, BFM 113, 12" "Foolish Fool", Sky Note, 12"
"If I Had You" is a song recorded by singer Karen Carpenter during her solo sessions in New York with producer Phil Ramone for her subsequently shelved debut solo album. In 1989 "If I Had You" was released as a Karen Carpenter solo single, along with "The Uninvited Guest" credited as a Karen Carpenter solo, as its B-side; the single was the first single from the Carpenters' album Lovelines. As of 2019, this is the last Carpenters single released to American radio; the single version has appeared on numerous Carpenters compilations since its release. The single reached number 18 on the'Billboard Adult Contemporary Chart; the original version, featuring the fade-out ending has only appeared on Karen Carpenter's 1996 solo album. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Pranava yoga is meditation on the sacred mantra Om, as outlined in the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. It is called Aum yoga and Aum yoga meditation, it is put, fixing the mind on the sound of the mantra “Aum” – the sacred syllable that both symbolizes and embodies Brahman, the Absolute Reality – as the mantra is repeated in unison with the breath. The purpose of pranava yoga is to become free from limitation; the purpose is well stated in the Upanishads: “What world does he who meditates on Aum until the end of his life, win by That? If he meditates on the Supreme Being with the syllable Aum, he becomes one with the Light, he is led to the world of Brahman Who is higher than the highest life, That Which is tranquil, immortal and supreme.” – Prashna Upanishad 5:1,5,7 Aum, according to Hindu philosophy, is the primordial sound from which the whole universe was created. Aum called the Pranava, is the original Word of Power, is recited as a mantra. A mantra is a series of verbal sounds having inherent sound-power that can produce a particular physical or psychological effect, not just something that has an assigned intellectual meaning.
The word mantra derives from the Sanskrit expression ‘mananaath thraayathe’ which loosely means “a transforming thought”. The power of a mantra lies in its ability to produce an objective, perceptible change in the yogi who repeats it correctly. In the yoga tradition, Aum is the most sacred of the supreme mantra. Aum is called the Pranava, a Sanskrit word which means both controller of life force and life-giver. “That which causes all the pranas to prostrate themselves before and get merged in the Paramatman, so as to attain identity with Him, is for that reason known as the Pranava.” – Atharvashikha Upanishad 1:10a. Aum is called the Shabda Brahman – God as Sound/Vibration. According to yoga theory, the universe has emanated from this primal movement in God. By following the thread of Aum back in meditation to more and more subtle levels of awareness, the yogi regains union with Brahman; the Upanishads are full of references to meditation on Aum. Below is a small sampling: "He who utters Om with the intention ‘I shall attain Brahman’ does verily attain Brahman."
- Taittiriya Upanishad 1.8.1 "The Self is of the nature of the Syllable Om... Meditate on Om as the Self" - Mandukya Upanishad 1.8.12, 2.2.3) "The form of meditation that came to manifest as the foremost of all, for the regeneration of all seekers, was the First Word, indicative of Brahman: the Syllable Om. Meditation on Om should be resorted to by seekers after liberation; this Syllable is the Supreme Brahman." – Atharvashikha Upanishad 1:1,2 "God is the Syllable Om, out of Him proceeds the Supreme Knowledge." -- Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:17 "Om is the Primeval Being. This is the Veda. – Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 5.1.1 "One should meditate on this Syllable." – Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.1 "The Syllable Om is the bow: one's self, indeed, is the arrow. Brahman is spoken of as the target of that, it is to be hit without making a mistake. Thus one becomes united with it as the arrow becomes one with the target." – Mundaka Upanishad 2.2.4 Katha Upanishad 1.2.15, 1.2.16, 1.2.17 Speaking from the perspective of the Infinite Being, enumerating his major manifestation-embodiments, Krishna says: "I am the syllable Om."
He says the same thing in 9:17 and 10:25. What to "do" with aum is outlined by Krishna: "Engaged in the practice of concentration... uttering the monosyllable Om--the Brahman--remembering Me always, he...attains to the supreme goal. I am attainable by that ever-steadfast Yogi who and daily remembers Me."– Bhagavad Gita 6:13. In Him is the highest limit of omniscience. 36 Being unconditioned by time He is teacher of the ancients. His designator is the Pranava. 37 Its japa and bhavanam is the way. From it result the disappearance of obstacles and the turning inward of consciousness. Disease, doubt, laziness, worldly-mindedness, non-achievement of a stage, these cause the distraction of the mind and they are the obstacles. Pain, despair and agitation are the symptoms of a distracted condition of mind. For removing these obstacles the constant practice of the one principle." – Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 1:24-32 Aum meditation is part of Kriya Yoga teachings. In addition to chanting the sound of aum, this meditation involves inhaling and exhaling while chanting aum in a specific mudra.
Sri Anandamoyi Ma“ must become so automatic that you cannot breathe without remembering It.” “Om is the root of all sounds. Every other sound is contained in That, It is used to take one beyond all sound.” Sri Aurobindo“OM is the mantra, the expressive sound-symbol of the Brahman Consciousness in its four domains from the Turiya to the external or material plane. The function of a mantra is to create vibrations in the inner consciousness that will prepare it for the realisation of what the mantra symboli