John Cantwell (general)
Major General John Patrick Cantwell, is a retired senior Australian Army officer. Cantwell was born in Ipswich, Queensland, on 9 October 1956 to Daniel Cantwell. Growing up in Toowoomba, he was educated at St. Mary's College. Cantwell was a member of the Australian Army Cadets prior to joining the Australian Army in 1974 as a regular soldier with the rank of private, he attended officer training at Officer Cadet School, Portsea in 1981, was commissioned into the Royal Australian Armoured Corps. As a major, Cantwell commanded A Sqn 4/7RDG, a British tank squadron as an exchange officer with the British in Germany; as a result of that posting, he served in Operation Desert Storm with the Coalition forces in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Cantwell was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia in 1989 in recognition of service to the Australian Army as Adjutant of the Armoured Centre. In August 1996 Cantwell became Commanding Officer and Chief Instructor at the Royal Military College, Duntroon. In January 1999 he took up an appointment as an instructor at the British Joint Services Command and Staff College in the United Kingdom, returning to Australia as the Director of the Force Development Group, Land Warfare Development Centre, on promotion to colonel in December 2000.
Cantwell was promoted to brigadier in January 2003, appointed Director General of Capability and Plans in Australian Defence Headquarters. Following command of the 1st Brigade, in early 2006 he deployed to Iraq as the Director Strategic Operations, Headquarters Multi National Forces Iraq, he was promoted in the field to the rank of major general on 4 December 2006, the first time in 60 years that an Australian was promoted to major general while on operations. He was promoted by General George W. Casey Jr. and Major General David Fastabend of the United States Army. During this ceremony he was appointed an Officer of the Legion of Merit, he assumed the appointment of Deputy Chief of Army on 29 January 2007. Cantwell was advanced to Officer of the Order of Australia in 2007 for distinguished service as the Director of Strategic Operations for the Multi-National Force – Iraq. In February 2008 Cantwell was selected by Chief of the Defence Force, Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, to be the senior military member of the team working on a new Defence White Paper, the paramount Australian security and defence policy document commissioned by the Australian Government.
Following the Victorian bushfires disaster of 7 February 2009, Cantwell was attached to the Office of the Premier of Victoria as the Interim Head of the Victorian Bushfires Reconstruction and Recovery Authority responsible for coordinating all Commonwealth and non-government efforts to recover from the effects of the fires. In 2010 he served a twelve-month tour as Commander of Australian Forces in the Middle East Area of Operations; as a result of Cantwell's "inspired leadership, deep commitment to his people and superior performance on operations" in the Middle East, he was awarded a Distinguished Service Cross in the 2012 Australia Day Honours List, for distinguished command and leadership in action as the Commander Joint Task Force 633 on Operations SLIPPER and KRUGER. He retired from the Australian Army on 7 February 2012 after 38 years of service. Cantwell and his wife Jane, who met while she was serving in the Australian Army, moved to the Sunshine Coast, Queensland in September 2011 before he announced his retirement from the Australian Army in February 2012.
Cantwell is an occasional television commentator on military affairs and contributes articles to various newspapers and magazines in Australia. He is a nationally recognised advocate for better mental health care for Australian veterans, is Patron or Ambassador of several organisations promoting veterans' mental health, he has published two books: Exit Wounds: One Australian's War On Terror. Horner, David. Australia and the'New World Order': From Peacekeeping to Peace Enforcement, 1988–1991. Official History of Australian Peacekeeping and Post-Cold War Operations. Volume 2. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76587-9. Defence Media Release 27 February 2008 Published book Exit Wounds: One Australian's War On Terror
Shire of Noosa
The Shire of Noosa is a local government area about 130 kilometres north of Brisbane in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. The shire covers an area of 868.7 square kilometres. The shire existed as a local government entity from 1910 until 2008, when it was amalgamated with the Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region, again from 1 January 2014, when it was re-established; the Noosa area was home to several Aboriginal groups. These include the Undumbi tribe to the south, the Dulingbara to the north, the Kabi Kabi to the west. In 2003 the Australian Federal Court determined that the native title holders for the Noosa area are the Kabi Kabi First Nation. Although much of the culture and presence of the traditional owners of the Noosa district has been lost during the short period of white settlement, there still exist many subtle reminders; these include: bora rings, used during rituals. Canoe trees, marks on trees where bark was removed for canoes.
Border/navigation trees, marks on trees tribal borders. Stone carvings burial trees middens, shell mound created by thousands of years of discarded shells. Stone axes spoken legends, many local legends which were traditionally passed through the generations survive today. Place names, many local names are versions of the original Aboriginal names, it is represented that the name Noosa comes from the local Aboriginal word for shadow or shady place. An 1870 map of Noosa shows the Noosa River as Nusa River; the word Nusa is derived from the Indonesian word for island. A Keeping Place of indigenous cultural and sacred objects is maintained at the Noosa Shire Museum, Pomona. Although reports of the area can be traced back to Captain Cook's voyages in May 1770, European settlement in the region did not proceed for a century; this early settlement was driven firstly by timber logging and secondly a gold rush in the Gympie area, north of Noosa. The difficulty of transport in the region, which persisted to the 1920s and beyond, was one major reason for this.
In 1871, the Government laid out a port at Tewantin, duly surveyed and by 1877 contained two hotels, a boarding house, police station and telegraph office. In 1872, the Noosa Heads and coastal region south to Peregian Beach was set aside as an Aboriginal Mission, however this was cancelled in 1878 and land was opened for selection on 15 January 1879. With the advent of the railway, Tewantin declined in importance. Noosa is a region, not a town, it contains beaches and a beach national park, the cleanest river in South-East Queensland and an extensive trail network inland, linking a number of lifestyle villages, including Cooroy and Pomona. In the last 50 years Noosa has been transformed from an isolated fishing village to a tourist destination. Although this has had its costs the shire is known for its greener approach to development. Most development in Noosa has been restrained. Noosa has no high rise buildings, due both to local community pressure and to council planning action, much remaining native forest.
34.8% of the Noosa district consists of National Parks, Conservation Parks, State Forests, other protected land. The popularity of Noosa Heads comes from the fact, it one of Australia's few North facing beaches located on the East Coast, hence Noosa Beach is protected from on-shore wind and storms; the area was incorporated as part of the Widgee Divisional Board on 11 November 1879 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. Noosa was created as a separate shire under the Local Authorities Act 1902 in 1910, with an initial population of 2,000; the first elections were held on 22 April 1910 and resulted in James Duke becoming the first shire chairman. The original headquarters for the Shire were constructed in Pomona in 1911. On Saturday 8 September 1917, a Honour Roll was unveiled at the Noosa Shire Hall in Pomona, it was to honour and commemorate those from the district who had left Australia to serve in the armed forces during World War I. In the early 1970s, development commenced in the area around Noosa Sound with Queensland Government backing.
In December 1980, the Shire Chambers moved to Tewantin. The former shire hall in Pomona became. Following the election of Noosa's first green mayor, Noel Playford, in 1988, Noosa's first strategic plan was gazetted, in 1990 development was limited to four storeys. In 1993, a major Council and community complex covering 9 hectares opened at Wallace Park, Noosaville. In 1995, the mayor Noel Playford controversially announced a "population cap" of 56,500 people for Noosa Shire; the population cap was the expected population under the planning scheme if all available land was developed in accordance with the planning scheme. Noosa had performed the calculations for all land in the shire and provided the results in the strategic planning documents. Noosa was the first Council in Australia to do so. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Noosa merged with the Shire of Maroochy and the City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region.
Noosa's mayor, Bob Abbot, won the mayoralty of the new Council over Maroochy's Joe Natoli with 70% of the combined vote. The amalgamation occurred despite the 2007 referendum in Noosa Shire by the Australian Electoral Commission where 95% of voters rejected amalgamation. In 2012, following a change of state government, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. O
Cooroy Post Office
Cooroy Post Office is a heritage-listed post office at 33 Maple Street, Shire of Noosa, Australia. It was built in 1914 by L. Baldry, it was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 August 2012. Post and telegraph facilities were available at Cooroy railway station from 1892; the facilities moved from the station to the present site of the Post Office in 1911 when the townspeople and the Australian Government decided to use the building built for the chambers of the Noosa Shire Council as a post office. It was leased by the Postmaster-General for this purpose. In October 1911, the Queensland Governor approved the sale of the land to the Australian Government for the purpose of a post and telegraph office at a cost of £162/7/6, with first post master appointed being Mr Campbell. E. G. Chinnery was appointed permanent post master in April 1912. A Morse Code telegraph instrument was installed in the building at the start of September 1912; the Australian Government called tenders for a new post office to the design of acting Queensland Government Architect, Thomas Pye, in 1913 to be erected alongside the existing building.
In January 1914 the contact to erected the new building was awarded to L. Baldry for £531/16/0. Local sawmills supplied the timber; the new post office was ready to open in September 1914, with the building described as "a neat and substantial structure" and the predication that it "should provide ample accommoation for many years to come". In November 1914, a new telephone switchboard was installed. Works of the 1940s through to the 1960s, included construction of an additional verandah on the southern side of building, may have included replacement of original casement sash windows in the front elevation with awning sash windows. Other works included the addition of a single-storey flat roofed building to the north of the main office area. In 1996 a disabled access ramp and extension to the non-original verandah were installed across the south side of the building. Cooroy Post Office is at 33 Maple Street, corner of Garnet Street, comprising the whole of Lot 2 RP147678. Cooroy Post Office, dating from 1914, is located on a sloping, regularly-shaped corner site, defined on the west by the town's principal commercial and retail street, Maple Street.
The original post office building is raised above street level and the frontage addresses Maple Street, though the majority of the private letter box bays and rear access is via the Crystal Street frontage. The elevated corner site allows for some views of the building "in the round"; the street corner of the site is marked by a cast iron pillar posting box marked "JS Engineering Co. Brisbane", added at a date; the site is enclosed by an early timber post and "Cyclone" wire fence and is flanked to the east by the automatic telephone exchange, constructed on the eastern half of the site around the late 1960s. The remaining site area is unbuilt; the Maple Street elevation presents a broad projecting wing on its north side, with a timber-planked spandrel approximating half-timbering. Below, a non-original signage panel and paired window bay containing non-original timber-framed awning and fixed sashes screened by a timberframed sunhood; the projecting bay is flanked by the original entrance verandah which screens the remaining west elevation and is accessed via the altered front steps or more recent concrete and timber disabled access ramp.
The verandah return along the southern elevation was added in two stages, c.1960 and 1996. The original verandah carved verandah brackets; the verandah has an integral bellcast form with the main roof structure. The walls beneath the verandah retain sections of exposed stud frame but have been altered to accommodate additional bays of non-original private letter boxes; the main post office entry is through a non-original glazed door from the main verandah, in place of the original paired timber doors. The front elevation is otherwise filled with bays of non-original private letter boxes and a central doorway in lieu of the original single bay of letter boxes, single door located further south and public telephone booth; the utilitarian rear elevation is a composition of hipped-roofed bays relating to the original store rooms and recessed central verandah/porch area. The rear verandah bay has now been infilled, the steps reconfigured and the original fenestration has been altered a number of times from the original larger windows with sunhoods to a series of smaller bathroom windows.
The original design of Cooroy Post Office was an asymmetrically-composed double-fronted building housing a moderately-scaled postal hall and telegraph office with combined public space and small integrated telephone exchange room. The planning arrangement provided dual but independent operation of the postal and telegraphic functions around the single postal hall and counter with minimal space for mail sorting, telegraphic functions and staff facilities; the key alterations to the building concern the addition of extra private letter boxes and public verandahs on the southern side of the building, brick infill of the former timber panels to elevated base of the front elevation, alterations to interior planning for the provision of a retail post shop and the
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Noosa District State High School
Noosa District State High School is a twin campus high school based in Cooroy and Pomona, Queensland. The school was established in 1963,noosa district has 1376 students, it is the longest-established secondary school in Noosa area. The school has two campuses in Pomona; the Pomona Campus was the Cooroora Secondary College before the two schools merged. Years 7 -- 8 are taught at the Pomona campus; the school's motto is Industria Vincit Omnia. The school offers certificates in Hospitality and Business Communication and Technology, Event Production, Media and each year, runs the Australian Business Week program for its Year 11 students; the school has four sports houses – Cooroora, Eerwah and Tinbeerwah. The houses are named after the mountain ranges in the school's area; the school's Principal is Chris Roff, who took up the role in 2012. The Deputy Principals at Cooroy are Stacy Wilmore and Renae Rackley. At Pomona, the current Head of Campus is Michael Small, the Deputy Principal is Amelia Duelberg.
The hall on the Cooroy campus is the biggest in the Noosa area, is used by many private companies such as dance studios, music schools, other state schools. It has advanced lighting and audio systems with fifty static lighting channels and a total of twenty-nine audio channels with twenty Sends, five Receives, two communication channels; the stage was designed to be used for large productions with its many lighting bars, numerous intelligent lights, extra power circuits for the bigger shows. The hall can seat one thousand people; the technical side of the hall is run by the senior live productions classes. Noosa District State High School was one of the first state schools in Queensland to get a functional recording studio. Funding was provided by the P&C, it has a vocal booth and radio room which broadcasts audio throughout the school during breaks as part of the Certificate II and III in Live Production, it is capable of recording an 8 track band. The studio produces videos using a green screen and chromakey and is used by students to prepare and present multimodal presentations for their class assessments in a range of subject areas including English, Sose/History, Science and Business.
The studio was designed by Pete Gorman. Known as TARDIS, the studio produces a Newscast which can be seen on the school website; the studio was named after a machine from the long-running science fiction television programme Doctor Who. Issa Schultz – a Chaser on The Chase Australia Steven Rooke – Australian actor and stage performer Noosa District State High School website Education Queensland website
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon