Institute of Historical Research
The Institute of Historical Research is a British educational organisation providing resources and training for historical researchers. It is part of the School of Advanced Study in the University of London and is located at Senate House; the Institute was founded in 1921 by A. F. Pollard; the IHR was founded in 1921 by British historian Albert Pollard. Appointed Professor of Constitutional History at University College London in 1903, his inaugural address, a year argued for the need for a postgraduate school of historical research. With a generous and anonymous donation of £20,000 from Sir John Cecil Power in 1920 towards the founding of the institute, Pollard's dream was realised; the Institute was formally opened by H. A. L. Fisher on 8 July 1921; the IHR was directly administered by the Senate of the University of London, rather than being part of one of the federal colleges. It was the first organisation to be administered under such an arrangement, as such provided the model for other Institutes, many of which joined the IHR in the University of London's School of Advanced Study.
The IHR's first premises were in "temporary" huts on Malet Street, on a site now occupied by Birkbeck College. Despite the temporary nature of this accommodation, the IHR was not to move until 1947, when it took up residence in the north block of Senate House; the new location was built by architect Charles Holden, along with the rest of the University, at a projected cost of £3,000,000 and duration of 30 years for the whole project. Still occupying this position, many rooms in the IHR overlook the grass lawn in between Senate House and SOAS, where Senate House's unbuilt fourth court would have been. With the start of World War II in September 1939 the Institute's work and construction of its permanent building were disrupted, with the Ministry of Information occupying Senate House, closing the Institute in May 1940; the IHR was struck by a bomb on the night of 22–23 September 1940. The impact resulted in "the destruction of six books and the entire collection of London maps, as well as of furniture".
1921–39: Prof. Albert Frederick Pollard 1939–44: Sir Cyril Thomas Flower 1944–48: Prof. V. H. Galbraith, FBA 1948–60: Prof. Sir John Goronwy Edwards, FBA, FSA 1960–67: Prof. Francis Wormald, CBE, FBA, FSA 1967–77: Prof. Arthur Geoffrey Dickens, CMG, FBA 1977–90: Prof. Francis Michael Longstreth Thompson, FBA 1990–98: Prof. Patrick Karl O'Brien, FBA 1998–2003: Prof. David Nicholas Cannadine, FSA, FRSA, FRSL, FRHistS 2003–08: Prof. David Richard Bates, FSA, FRHistS 2008–14: Prof. Miles Taylor, FRHistS 2014–17: Prof. Lawrence Neil Goldman, FRHistS 2018–: Prof. Jo Fox, FRHistS, FRSA The IHR's role comprises the following: To promote the study of history and an appreciation of the importance of the past among academics and the general public, in London, in Britain and internationally, to provide institutional support and individual leadership for this broad historical community To offer a wide range of services which promote and facilitate excellence in historical research and scholarship in the UK, by means of its library, conferences, fellowships and publications To further high quality research into particular aspects of the past by its research centres – the Centre for Metropolitan History and the Victoria County History of England To provide a welcoming environment where historians at all stages in their careers and from all parts of the world can meet formally and informally to exchange ideas and information, to bring themselves up to date with current developments in historical scholarship In order to fulfill its role as defined above, the IHR maintains different academic institutions, such as a library, the seminar programme as well as several integrated bodies and programmes.
It publishes the results of historical research. From its inception, the founders of the Institute of Historical Research envisaged a combination of scholarship and library; this tradition is continued in. The library itself collects sources for the History of Western Europe and areas affected by the European expansion, it now contains over 190,000 volumes. There are sizable holdings for the British Isles, as well as for Germany, France, the Low Countries, Spain, Latin America, the US and colonial history, ecclesiastical and crusader history as well as small holdings for Eastern Europe and Scandinavia; the library is good for sources on local history both of the British Isles and Europe. It contains the largest collection of Low Countries material outside of the region, the most complete collection of French cartularies outside France as well as collections of poll books for the United Kingdom and a complete run of the Victoria County History books; the collections have been supplemented by donations and bequests from many different scholars, such as the Wright collection.
In its early years the IHR library was built up by seeking donations, much of the collection was formed from bequests and gifts by individuals and organisations. By 1926, three-quarters of the collection had been acquired through private benefactions and presentations by governments from Europe and other parts of the World. Among the IHR’s extensive collection of books on European history are a set of volumes of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and other works donated to the University of London by the Nazi government of Germany in 1937; the presentation was made by Germany's ambassador to Britain. The accessions records highlight the collaborative nature of library collection dev
A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects. A research library will include primary sources as well as secondary sources. Large university libraries are considered research libraries, contain many specialized branch research libraries. Research libraries can be either reference libraries, which do not lend their holdings, or lending libraries, which do lend all or some of their holdings; some large or traditional research libraries are reference in this sense, lending none of their material. S. now lend books, but not other material. Academic library Trends in library usage Research Libraries Group JSTOR Saunders, Wilfred Leonard. University and Research Library Studies: Some Contributions from the University of Sheffield Postgraduate School of Librarianship and Information Science. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. ISBN 9780080127262. OCLC 441960. Young, Heartsill. ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
ISBN 978-0838903711. OCLC 8907224. Association of Research Libraries
Online public access catalog
An online public access catalog is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users search a library catalog principally to locate books and other material available at a library. In simple language it is an electronic version of the card catalog. OPAC is the gateway to library's collection. Although a handful of experimental systems existed as early as the 1960s, the first large-scale online catalogs were developed at Ohio State University in 1975 and the Dallas Public Library in 1978; these and other early online catalog systems tended to reflect the card catalogs that they were intended to replace. Using a dedicated terminal or telnet client, users could search a handful of pre-coordinate indexes and browse the resulting display in much the same way they had navigated the card catalog. Throughout the 1980s, the number and sophistication of online catalogs grew; the first commercial systems appeared, would by the end of the decade replace systems built by libraries themselves.
Library catalogs began providing improved search mechanisms, including Boolean and keyword searching, as well as ancillary functions, such as the ability to place holds on items, checked-out. At the same time, libraries began to develop applications to automate the purchase and circulation of books and other library materials; these applications, collectively known as an integrated library system or library management system, included an online catalog as the public interface to the system's inventory. Most library catalogs are tied to their underlying ILS system; the 1990s saw a relative stagnation in the development of online catalogs. Although the earlier character-based interfaces were replaced with ones for the Web, both the design and the underlying search technology of most systems did not advance much beyond that developed in the late 1980s. At the same time, organizations outside of libraries began developing more sophisticated information retrieval systems. Web search engines like Google and popular e-commerce websites such as Amazon.com provided simpler to use systems that could provide relevancy ranked search results using probabilistic and vector-based queries.
Prior to the widespread use of the Internet, the online catalog was the first information retrieval system library users encountered. Now accustomed to web search engines, newer generations of library users have grown dissatisfied with the complex search mechanisms of older online catalog systems; this has, in turn, led to vocal criticisms of these systems within the library community itself, in recent years to the development of newer catalogs. The newest generation of library catalog systems are distinguished from earlier OPACs by their use of more sophisticated search technologies, including relevancy ranking and faceted search, as well as features aimed at greater user interaction and participation with the system, including tagging and reviews; these new features rely on existing metadata, poor or inconsistent for older records. These newer systems are always independent of the library's integrated library system, instead providing drivers that allow for the synchronization of data between the two systems.
While older online catalog systems were exclusively built by ILS vendors, libraries are turning to next generation catalog systems built by enterprise search companies and open source projects led by libraries themselves. The costs associated with these new systems, have slowed their adoption at smaller institutions. An example of a next generation OPAC system is included in the Libramatic software package. Although library catalogs reflect the holdings of a single library, they can contain the holdings of a group or consortium of libraries; these systems, known as union catalogs, are designed to aid the borrowing of books and other materials among the member institutions via interlibrary loan. Examples of this type of catalogue include COPAC, SUNCAT, NLA Trove, City of Cape Town library OPAC, WorldCat, reflecting the collections of libraries worldwide. There are a number of systems that share much in common with library catalogs, but have traditionally been distinguished from them. Libraries utilize these systems to search for items not traditionally covered by a library catalog.
These include bibliographic databases—such as Medline, ERIC, PsycINFO, many others—which index journal articles and other research data. There are a number of applications aimed at managing documents and other digitized or born-digital items such as Digital Commons and DSpace. In academic libraries, these systems assist with efforts to preserve documents created by faculty and students. List of next-generation library catalogs Library computer system
National Library of Scotland
The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections. Its main public building is in Edinburgh city centre on George IV Bridge, between the Old Town and the university quarter. There is a more modern building in a residential area on the south side of the town centre, on Causewayside; this was built to accommodate some of the specialist collections, such as maps and science collections, to provide extra large-scale storage. In 2016 a new public centre opened at Glasgow's Kelvin Hall providing access to the Library's digital and moving image collections; the National Library of Scotland holds 7 million books, 14 million printed items and over 2 million maps. The collection includes copies of the Gutenberg Bible, the letter which Charles Darwin submitted with the manuscript of Origin of Species, the First Folio of Shakespeare and numerous journals and other publications, it has the largest collection of Scottish Gaelic material of any library.
Scotland's national deposit library was the Advocates Library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates. It was opened in 1689 and gained national library status in the 1710 Copyright Act, giving it the legal right to a copy of every book published in Great Britain. In the following centuries, the library added books and manuscripts to the collections by purchase as well as legal deposit, creating a funded national library in all but name. By the 1920s, the upkeep of such a major collection was too much for a private body, with an endowment of £100,000 provided by Alexander Grant, managing director of McVitie & Price, the Library's contents were presented to the nation; the National Library of Scotland was formally constituted by Act of Parliament in 1925. The Nation recognised Grant with a baronetcy, he was created Sir Alexander Grant of Forres in June 1924. In 1928 he donated a further £100,000 – making his combined donations the equivalent of around £6 million today – for a new library building to be constructed on George IV Bridge, replacing the Victorian-period Sheriff Court, which institution moved to the Royal Mile.
Government funding was secured. Work on the new building was started in 1938, interrupted by the Second World War, completed in 1956; the architect was Reginald Fairlie. The coat of arms above the entrance was sculpted by Scott Sutherland and the roundels above the muses on the front facade by Elizabeth Dempster. By the 1970s, room for the ever-expanding collections was running out, other premises were needed; the Causewayside Building opened in the south-side of Edinburgh in two phases, in 1989 and in 1995, at a total cost of £50 million, providing much-needed additional working space and storage facilities. Since 1999, the Library has been funded by the Scottish Parliament, it remains one of only six legal deposit libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland, is governed by a board of trustees. The Library holds many ancient family manuscripts including those of the Clan Sinclair, which date back as far as 1488. On 26 February 2009, areas of the building were flooded after a water main burst on the 12th floor.
Firefighters were called and the leaking water was stopped within ten minutes. A number of items were damaged; the last letter written by Mary Queen of Scots made a rare public appearance to mark the opening of a new Library visitor centre in September 2009. The Library joined the 10:10 project in 2010 in a bid to reduce their carbon footprint. One year they announced that they had reduced their carbon emissions according to 10:10's criteria by 18%. On 16 May 2012 the National Library of Scotland Act 2012 was passed by the Scottish Parliament, received Royal Assent in 21 June 2012. In April 2013 the Library advertised for a Wikipedian in residence, becoming the first institution in the Scotland to create such a post. In 2016, the Library recruited a Gaelic Wikipedian in residence. In September 2016 the Library opened a new centre at the refurbished Kelvin Hall, Glasgow, in partnership with Glasgow Life and the University of Glasgow; the centre provides access to moving image collections. As of 2013, the Library holds: manuscripts: 100,000 items maps: 2 million items films: more than 46,000 items newspaper and magazine titles: 25,000 items Bartholomew Archive John Murray Archive Scottish Publishers Association Ask Scotland, Scotland's online information service provided by Scotland’s libraries Books in the United Kingdom Official website
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued. It is estimated to contain 150–200 million+ items from many countries; as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport; the British Library is a major research library, with items in many languages and in many formats, both print and digital: books, journals, magazines and music recordings, play-scripts, databases, stamps, drawings. The Library's collections include around 14 million books, along with substantial holdings of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 2000 BC. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library has a programme for content acquisitions.
The Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. There is space in the library for over 1,200 readers. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum; the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997. The Library is now located in a purpose-built building on the north side of Euston Road in St Pancras and has a document storage centre and reading room near Boston Spa, near Wetherby in West Yorkshire; the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building "of exceptional interest" for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972. Prior to this, the national library was part of the British Museum, which provided the bulk of the holdings of the new library, alongside smaller organisations which were folded in.
In 1974 functions exercised by the Office for Scientific and Technical Information were taken over. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs and thousands of tapes; the core of the Library's historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the "foundation collections". These include the books and manuscripts of Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Hans Sloane, Robert Harley and the King's Library of King George III, as well as the Old Royal Library donated by King George II. For many years its collections were dispersed in various buildings around central London, in places such as Bloomsbury, Chancery Lane and Holborn, with an interlibrary lending centre at Boston Spa, 2.5 miles east of Wetherby in West Yorkshire, the newspaper library at Colindale, north-west London. Initial plans for the British Library required demolition of an integral part of Bloomsbury – a seven-acre swathe of streets in front of the Museum, so that the Library could be situated directly opposite.
After a long and hard-fought campaign led by Dr George Wagner, this decision was overturned and the library was instead constructed by John Laing plc on a site at Euston Road next to St Pancras railway station. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this single new building and the collection of British and overseas newspapers was housed at Colindale. In July 2008 the Library announced that it would be moving low-use items to a new storage facility in Boston Spa in Yorkshire and that it planned to close the newspaper library at Colindale, ahead of a move to a similar facility on the same site. From January 2009 to April 2012 over 200 km of material was moved to the Additional Storage Building and is now delivered to British Library Reading Rooms in London on request by a daily shuttle service. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013 and the newspaper library at Colindale closed on 8 November 2013; the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites.
The British Library Document Supply Service and the Library's Document Supply Collection is based on the same site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, make up around 70% of the total material the library holds; the Library had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson in collaboration with his wife MJ Long, who came up with the plan, subsequently developed and built. Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley, it is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century. In the middle of the building is a six-storey glass tower inspired by a similar structure in the Beinecke Library, containing the King's Library with 65,000 printed volumes along with other pamphlets and maps collected by King George III between 1763 and 1820.
In December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti