Copenhagen Consensus is a project that seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics, using cost–benefit analysis. It was conceived and organized by Bjørn Lomborg, the author of The Skeptical Environmentalist, the project considers possible solutions to a wide range of problems, presented by experts in each field. These are evaluated and ranked by a panel of economists, the emphasis is on rational prioritization by economic analysis. The panel is given a budget constraint and instructed to use cost–benefit analysis to focus on a bottom line approach in solving/ranking presented problems. The project has held conferences in 2004,2007,2008,2009,2011 and 2012, the 2012 conference ranked bundled micronutrient interventions the highest priority, and the 2008 report identified supplementing vitamins for undernourished children as the world’s best investment. In 2011 the Copenhagen Consensus Center carried out the Rethink HIV project together with the RUSH Foundation, in 2007 looked into which projects would contribute most to welfare in Copenhagen Consensus for Latin America in cooperation with the Inter-American Development Bank.
The initial project was co-sponsored by the Danish government and The Economist, the book containing the Copenhagen Consensus 2012 research and outcomes is in the process of publication. In May 2012, the third global Copenhagen Consensus was held, the aim was to provide an answer to the question, If you had $75bn for worthwhile causes, where should you start. A panel including four Nobel laureates met in Copenhagen, the panel’s deliberations were informed by thirty new economic research papers that were written just for the project by scholars from around the world. The panel members were the following, four of whom are Nobel Laureate economists, family planning ranked highest on the Slate priority list, whereas it didnt feature in the top 16 of the Expert Panels prioritisation. Nobel Prize winners marked with Jagdish Bhagwati François Bourguignon Finn E. Kydland Robert Mundell Douglass North Vernon L, in a subsequent joint statement settling their differences and Yohe agreed that the failure of Lomborgs emissions reduction plan could be traced to faulty design.
In 2009, the Copenhagen Consensus established a Climate Change Project specifically to examine solutions to climate change, the process was similar to the 2004 and 2008 Copenhagen Consensus, involving papers by specialists considered by a panel of economists. Potential problems include environmental impacts e. g. from changing rainfall patterns, measures to cut carbon and methane emissions, such as carbon taxes, came bottom of the results list, partly because they would take a long time to have much effect on temperatures. Eight economists met May 24–28,2004 at a roundtable in Copenhagen, a series of background papers had been prepared in advance to summarize the current knowledge about the welfare economics of 32 proposals from 10 categories. For each category, one assessment article and two critiques were produced, after a closed-door review of the background papers, each of the participants gave economic priority rankings to 17 of the proposals. The rated opportunities were further classified into four groups, Very Good, Good and Bad, the highest priority was assigned to implementing certain new measures to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS.
The economists estimated that an investment of $27 billion could avert nearly 30 million new infections by 2010, policies to reduce malnutrition and hunger were chosen as the second priority. Third on the list was trade liberalization, the experts agreed that modest costs could yield large benefits for the world as a whole, the fifth priority identified was increased spending on research into new agricultural technologies appropriate for developing nations
Copenhagen was the Duke of Wellingtons war horse, which he most famously rode at the Battle of Waterloo. Copenhagen was of mixed Thoroughbred and Arabian parentage, with his dame being sired by the Epsom Derby winner John Bull, Copenhagen was foaled in 1808 and was named in honour of the British victory at the Second Battle of Copenhagen. Copenhagen did race in England for a period, winning two races and finishing at least third in nine races out of his 12 career starts. Copenhagen was sent to Spain with Sir Charles Vane in 1813 and was sold to the Duke of Wellington. Becoming his favourite, Copenhagen was the Dukes mount in the Battle of Waterloo, the horse was retired to the Dukes estate Stratfield Saye House and lived there for the remainder of his life, dying on 12 February 1836 at the age of 28 years. His grave site is marked with a headstone that is situated under a 173–174-year-old Turkey Oak. Copenhagen was bred by General Grosvenor, who was a nephew of the Earl of Grosvenor, Copenhagens sire, was second in the 1786 Derby and won several stakes races before he was retired in 1791 to the Earl of Grosvenors stud.
Copenhagen was foaled when Meteor was 25 years old and the stallion died in 1811 when Copenhagen was three years old, the Rutland Arabian was owned by the Duke of Rutland and had limited success in the stud. Lady Catherine raced under General Grosvenors name as a five-year-old in 1801, Lady Catherine produced a half-sister to Copenhagen, Chantress by Popinjay, in 1810 and is noted in the stud-book to have been sent to Ireland. In honour of Copenhagens notable military service, Lady Catherine is the only half-bred mare listed in the General Stud Book, the circumstances surrounding Copenhagens birth differ based on source. General Grosvenor allegedly took Lady Catherine to Denmark to be his mount during the siege of Copenhagen, the General Stud Book entry for his dam does not support the notion that he was foaled outside of the United Kingdom. Copenhagen stood 15 hands high and had a muscular physique on a compact frame. Copenhagen allegedly never refused his corn but had a habit of eating while lying down.
Wellington said of Copenhagen, There may have been many faster horses, no doubt many handsomer and his enduring qualities were often attributed to his Arabian blood. Copenhagen raced until he was a four-year-old in the name of General Grosvenor, Copenhagen did not race as a two-year-old and was retired from racing in May 1812. He was a successful racehorse, winning two races during his short racing career, once against a relative of the Derby-winning mare Eleanor. In his first start at the Craven Meeting in April, Copenhagen was third in a 100-guinea sweepstakes race, losing to the filly Sorcery and an unnamed filly by Dick Andrews. A few days later, Copenhagen won a 50-guinea match race against Mr. Fishers colt brother to Spaniard and was beaten by the filly Tippitywichet in a match race, at Northampton, Copenhagen was third in a 70-guinea County Purse race after finishing second in all of the heats
Battle of Copenhagen (1801)
The Danish fleet at the inlet of the Copenhagen harbour formed a blockade preventing the British fleet from entering the harbour. The Danish mainly used older ships not meant to sail in the sea as blockades, Denmark defended the capital with these ships and bastions on both side of the harbour inlet, Trekroner, Lynetten as well as Quintus and Strickers. It was the attempt by the British to scare Denmark, as the British had already entered Øresund with a navy in August 1800. Now Britain would have Denmarks entire navy and merchant fleet, so it would not fall in to the hands of the French. The British were not aware that the modern Royal Danish Navy and many merchant ships were hidden in the Roskilde fjord. The battle was the result of failures of diplomacy in the latter half of the 18th century. At the beginning of 1801, during the French Revolutionary Wars, the Royal Navy searched neutral ships trading with French ports, seizing their cargoes if they were deemed to be trading with France. It was in the British interest to guarantee its naval supremacy, the Russian Tsar Paul, having been a British ally, arranged a League of Armed Neutrality comprising Denmark, Sweden and Russia, to enforce free trade with France.
The British viewed the League to be much in the French interest. The League was hostile to the British blockade and, according to the British, its existence threatened the supply of timber, in early 1801, the British government assembled a fleet at Great Yarmouth, with the goal of breaking up the League. The British needed to act before the Baltic Sea thawed and released the Russian fleet from its bases at Kronstadt, If the Russian fleet joined with the Swedish and Danish fleets, the combined fleets would form a formidable force of up to 123 ships-of-the-line. The British fleet was under the command of Admiral Hyde Parker, frustrated by the delay, Nelson sent a letter to Captain Thomas Troubridge, a friend and a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty. This prompted the Earl of St Vincent to send a private note, the British fleet reached the Skaw on 19 March, where they met a British diplomat, Nicholas Vansittart, who told them that the Danes had rejected an ultimatum. Although the Admiralty had instructed Parker to frustrate the League, by force if necessary, he was a naturally cautious person, in the end Nelson was able to persuade Sir Hyde to attack the Danish fleet currently concentrated off Copenhagen.
Promised naval support for the Danes from Karlskrona, in Sweden, the Prussians had only minimal naval forces and could not assist. Attacking the Danish fleet would have been difficult as Parkers delay in sailing had allowed the Danes to prepare their positions well, the northern end of the line terminated at the Tre Kroner forts armed with 68 guns. North of the fort, in the entrance to Copenhagen harbour, were two ships-of-the-line, a frigate, and two brigs, all rigged for sea, and two more hulks. Batteries covered the water between the Danish line and the shore, and further out to sea a large shoal, the Middle Ground, constricted the channel
Football Club Copenhagen is a professional Danish football club in Copenhagen, Denmark. F. C. Copenhagen is the most successful club in the history of Danish football having won the Danish Football Championship eleven times, Copenhagen is the highest ranked Scandinavian club in the UEFA team rankings list. In 1992, F. C. Copenhagen was founded through the amalgamation of 15-time Danish football champions Kjøbenhavns Boldklub, Copenhagen plays its matches at the Telia Parken, which serves as the venue for Denmark national football team matches. Copenhagen qualified for the 2006–07 edition of the UEFA Champions League, three years later, they became the first Danish club ever to reach the knockout stage of the Champions League. Football Club Copenhagen is, in ways, both an old and a new club. Even though that the club was established in 1992, it is rooted in more than 100 years of club tradition, the clubs first team represents two separate clubs, Kjøbenhavns Boldklub founded in 1876 and Boldklubben 1903 founded in 1903.
The two Copenhagen clubs merged their first teams to found Copenhagen on 1 July 1992, Copenhagen used Boldklubbens club license to play in the Danish Superliga championship, while Kjøbenhavns Boldklub became the official reserve team of the club. With the rebuilding of the Parken Stadium, Denmarks national team stadium, the initial ambition of the club was continually to qualify for one of the European competitions each season. To reach this goal, the club needed a solid economy, a big fan base. Benny Johansen managed the club and started its maiden season well, FCK made its first appearance in the European tournaments when it beat Swiss team Grasshoppers 2–1 in the 1992 UEFA Intertoto Cup. FCK won the Intertoto Cup that year and thereby qualified for the UEFA Cup, the club won the 1992–93 Superliga season one point ahead of Odense Boldklub and two points ahead of third-place Brøndby IF. For the 1993–94 Superliga season, expectations were high, the season opened with a 0–6 thrashing at the hands of Italian team Milan in the 1993–94 Champions League qualification.
FCK went on winter break after the first half of the Superliga season in third place, in the spring of 1994, Copenhagen gained on leading team Silkeborg IF. In the penultimate match of the season, the two met at the Parken Stadium. In front of an attendance of 26,679, FCK won the match 4–1. The club was one point ahead of Silkeborg, but because FCK lost 3–2 to Odense in the game of the season. For the next three seasons, Copenhagen had little success in the Superliga, despite winning two Danish Cups, the team won the 1995 Cup final against Akademisk Boldklub with a 5–0 win, qualifying for European football once again, despite mediocre results in the league. Kim Brink took over as manager in 1996, but despite winning the second Cup trophy for the club, in February 1997, Flemming Østergaard, given the ironic nickname Don Ø, joined the board of the club as vice chairman and CEO
Each bore has the capacity for two tracks making six tracks in all. The eastern tunnel was taken out of service in the 1970s but is maintained to ensure the integrity of the ground overhead. The tunnel is just over a third of a mile long, the first of the multiple tunnels was built as part of the construction of The Great Northern Railway and was opened in 1850. This section of the railway was designed by the engineer Thomas Brassey and was built by Pearce and Smith, the name is taken from Copenhagen Fields, an open space directly above the tunnels, that was once the location of the Ambassador of Denmarks residence in the 17th century. This became a pleasure garden and was a public meeting area. From this site on 21 April 1834 thousands marched in support of The Tolpuddle Martyrs who had sentenced to transportation to Australia for forming a trade union. Market Road Gardens, a space directly above the tunnels, are a present-day surviving remnant of the Fields. The area above the tunnel portal was used for a rail line going to the Caledonian Road Coal.
This was situated close to the Metropolitan Cattle Market, located on the ground above the tunnels from 1855 to 1963. Many trains carried cattle along this line on their last journey to the abattoirs there and it was this area above the southern parapet that was the setting for the final scenes of the 1955 British film comedy, The Ladykillers. The original tunnel is now the middle of three parallel bores, a second tunnel to the west was built in 1877 and a third one to the east in 1886. The western bore carried up and down traffic, the central one was used for down passenger traffic. Following electrification in the 1970s the layout was remodelled, by this time both Kings Cross Goods Yard and Top Shed had closed, so it was possible to remove the goods lines and simplify the layout. In the current configuration lines approaching the tunnel from the north are grouped into Up Fast & Slow, the tracks in the eastern bore were lifted and it is now used to carry cables and provide occasional road access.
From Belle Isle, just south of Copenhagen Tunnel all four lines become bidirectional before passing through Gasworks Tunnel to Kings Cross
Copenhagen is a jazz standard composed in 1924 by bandleader Charlie Davis and recorded in that year by the Wolverine Orchestra featuring Bix Beiderbecke in a foxtrot tempo. The title refers to Copenhagen tobacco, favored by Daviss bass player, lyrics were added by Walter Melrose. On April 5,1924, Daviss jazz band began an engagement at the Ohio Theater in Indianapolis and that evening, members of The Wolverines, including cornetist Bix Beiderbecke, heard the performance and asked Davis to be allowed to perform the tune in their own engagement. The Wolverines subsequently worked out their own arrangement in the course of engagements at Indiana University, the Wolverines recorded it at Gennett Studios in Richmond, Indiana on May 6,1924. The single was released by Gennett Records as 5453-B and by Claxtonola Records as 40336-B as by the Jazz Harmonizers, the A side was Oh Baby, recorded at the same session. Copenhagen was published in the year by the Melrose Bros. At least nine other recordings of the song were released in 1924 alone, the Wolverines recording features a brief cornet solo by Beiderbecke.
Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra recorded Copenhagen on October 30,1924, the recording by Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra, arranged by Don Redman, features a solo by Louis Armstrong. Bix Beiderbecke and the Wolverines 1924–1925, Fletcher Henderson and Louis Armstrong 1924–1925. Essence of Swing, Glen Gray & the Casa Loma Orchestra, the Complete Tommy Dorsey Volume 7. The Benson Orchestra under the direction of Don Bestor,1924, 6/25 Sidney Bechet Bud Freeman Earl Hines Kid Ory Artie Shaw Dorsey Brothers Orchestra Theresa Brewer. 1949 Crawford and Magee, Jazz Standards on Record, 1900–1942, A Core Repertory. Chicago, Center for Black Music Research,1992, copyin Bix, Cornet Solos From Bix Beiderbeckes First Three Recording Sessions. Revisiting Fletcher Hendersons Copenhagen Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol.48, early Jazz, Its Roots and Musical Development
Their combined population stands at 763,908. The Municipality of Copenhagen is the most populous in the country with a population of 602,481 inhabitants, the municipal seat of government is the Copenhagen City Hall. The Lord Mayor of Copenhagen is Frank Jensen, since 2010, the relationship between Copenhagen Municipality and the wider city of Copenhagen is one of an administrative unit within a significantly larger city, cf. the City of London or the City of Brussels. In the Middle Ages, Copenhagen was defined as the area enclosed within the city walls, the city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring and kept as a partial green band around it. In 1856 the ramparts were pulled down allowing for growth and expansion, in 1901 the city expanded to include Amager and Valby, while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the municipality. The Finger Plan in the half of the 20th century led to expansion outside of the municipal boundary.
Copenhagen Municipality was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county, the others being Frederiksberg Municipality and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Copenhagen Municipality is a division covering the central city and certain additional areas. It encloses Frederiksberg Municipality and stretches east to the waterfront, neighboring municipalities are Gentofte and Herlev to the north, Rødovre and Hvidovre to the west, and Tårnby to the south. The City Hall Square is the old centre of the city, from which an old shopping street leads northeast to Kongens Nytorv, christiansborg Palace, which houses the Danish parliament, is located on the islet of Slotsholmen. The municipality is divided into ten administrative and tax districts, the suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is bro. The term is thought to be an abbreviation or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning paved, the two figures for 1 February 1901 are before and after the municipality annexed some nearby parishes.
The apparent decline since the mid-1900s are due to the figures not including the suburban and urban areas - notably Frederiksberg - outside Copenhagen municipality, Copenhagen Municipality is distinct from the wider Copenhagen urban area. The seat of Copenhagens municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall, the council is chaired by the Lord Mayor—currently Frank Jensen—who oversees the civic duties of the fifty-five representatives of the council. The council usually meets every week at 17,30 on a Thursday. All members of the council are elected every four years, in the municipal elections in November 2013, the Social Democrats remained in first place with 27. 8% of the vote, while the Red-Green Alliance was in second place with 19. 5%. The Social Democrats have claimed the office of mayor for the past 110 years and it has six political committees and a finance committee. The annual budget for the city is proposed in August and finalized in October, the accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for auditing the City of Copenhagens accounts
Copenhagen (2014 film)
Copenhagen is an independent US-Canadian coming-of-age adventure film. It had its premiere as the opening narrative feature at the 20th anniversary edition of the Slamdance Film Festival 2014. The film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Florida Film Festival, after weeks of traveling through Europe the immature William finds himself at crossroads in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is not just another European city for William, it is the city of his fathers birth. When fourteen-year-old Effy, working in Williams hotel as part of the internship program, Effys mix of youthful exuberance and wisdom challenges William unlike any woman ever has. After several days go by and their blossoms, William. They go exploring at a museum where Effy manages to get William to caress her and they go to an amusement park and enjoy several of the rides there. One night at a bar, William sees Effy being dragged out of the bar by a drunk man. William manages to stop the man from dragging Effy away and beats him up. The two of them arrive at a hotel and William manages to book a room for them, after talking with him for a short while, Effy tells William that she loves him and asks him if he wanted her to which he replies yes.
Effy undresses and kisses William, initially he returns the kiss before stopping and picking up a sheet to cover a naked Effy and they spend the night together, it is not said if the have slept together or not. The next morning, the two of them go for a walk in the park and decide that it will be best for them to go their ways for a while. Effy returns to her moms apartment, where her boyfriend tries to kiss her. Effy, fed up with her moms boyfriend sexually harassing her, rejects his advances, Effys mom breaks up with her obnoxious boyfriend for good and she and Effy grow closer than before. William soon arrives at the home of his grandfather and begins to know about the grandfather he had never known. While attending school, Effy quietly looks at several pictures she had taken with William, at the same time, William stands by the seashore looking at the sunrise, thinking about Effy and of the wonderful time they had shared together. Despite being hundreds of miles apart from other, Effy. The film was shot in Copenhagen and it is the first feature film by Student Academy Award winner Mark Raso
Copenhagen is a play by Michael Frayn, based around an event that occurred in Copenhagen in 1941, a meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. It premiered in London in 1998 at the National Theatre, running for more than 300 performances, starring David Burke, Sara Kestelman and it opened on Broadway at the Royale Theatre on 11 April 2000 and ran for 326 performances. Directed by Michael Blakemore, it starred Philip Bosco, Michael Cumpsty and it won the Tony Award for Best Play, Best Featured Actress in a Play, Blair Brown, and Best Direction of a Play. In 2002, the play was adapted as a film by Howard Davies, produced by the BBC, Heisenberg – No one understands my trip to Copenhagen. Time and time again I’ve explained it, to interrogators and intelligence officers, to journalists and historians. The more Ive explained, the deeper the uncertainty has become, well, I shall be happy to make one more attempt. Along the way and Bohr draft several versions of their 1941 exchange, arguing about the ramifications of each version of their meeting.
In most dramatic works where the characters are based on real people, Michael Frayn works to keep this distinction as small as possible. Having studied memoirs and letters and other records of the two physicists, Frayn feels confident in claiming that The actual words spoken by characters are entirely their own. With that in mind, the character descriptions apply to both the characters as well as the physicists themselves. Werner Heisenberg was born in 1901 in Würzburg, Germany and he married Elisabeth Schumacher, the child of a professor, and they had seven children. In 1926, The University of Leipzig offered him the opportunity to become Germanys youngest full professor, Heisenberg is best known for his Uncertainty Principle, In 1927, he and Bohr presented the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. During the Second World War, Heisenberg worked for Germany, researching atomic technology and he continued his research until his death in 1976 in Munich. Niels Bohr was born in 1885, making him 38 when Heisenberg first came to work with him and he married Margrethe Norlund in 1912 in Copenhagen and together they had six sons, two of whom died.
Harry Lustig notes his biographies that Most of the worlds great theoretical physicists, spent periods of their lives at Bohrs Institute. Before the war, his research was instrumental in nuclear research, in America, he worked in Los Alamos on the atomic bomb until the end of the war. He died in 1962 and was survived by his wife, Margrethe Bohr, known in her life as Dronning or Queen Margrethe, was born in 1890 in Denmark. She was closely involved in her husbands work, he would commonly bounce ideas off of her and she died in 1984, survived by several of her children
Copenhagen (2002 film)
Copenhagen is a 2002 British television drama film written and directed by Howard Davies, and starring Daniel Craig, Stephen Rea, and Francesca Annis. It is based in Michael Frayns 1998 Tony Award-winning three-character play of the same name, margrethe Bohr The film was produced by BBC Fictionlab for BBC Four, in association with KCET. The film was first broadcast on BBC Four on 26 September 2002, preceded by a prologue with Frayn, and followed by an epilogue by physicist Michio Kaku and it was broadcast in the United States on PBS. Copenhagen at the Internet Movie Database Copenhagen at the TCM Movie Database Copenhagen at AllMovie