Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. As king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture and he was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose. His motto was, Pietate et Justitia, Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a trip abroad, to Holland, France. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIVs court and he returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College, hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. ChristIan was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his fathers death on 9 February 1670 and he was the first hereditary king of Denmark, and in honor of this, Denmark acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
The war exhausted Denmarks economic resources without securing any gains, to accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark, the damage to the Danish economy was extensive. After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion, in his memoirs, he listed hunting, love-making and maritime affairs as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark and it was succeeded by the similar Norske Lov of 1687. He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king’s personal lack of scientific knowledge and he died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth, Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth
Copenhagen Fire Department
The Copenhagen Fire Department forms the largest municipal fire brigade in Denmark with some 500 fire and ambulance personnel,150 administration and service workers, and 35 workers in prevention. The brigade began as the Copenhagen Royal Fire Brigade on 9 July 1687 under King Christian V, after the passing of the Copenhagen Fire Act on 18 May 1868, on 1 August 1870 the Copenhagen Fire Brigade became a municipal institution in its own right. In 1898, its responsibilities were extended to include the Ambulance Service, the Helmeted Firemen Service was inaugurated in 1930 and the Civil Contingency Planning Department in 1998. The fire department has its headquarters in the Copenhagen Central Fire Station located behind the City Hall, designed by Ludvig Fenger in the Historicist style, it was inaugurated in 1892. Copenhagen Central Fire Station )Danish, Københavns Hovedbrandstation) is located to the rear of Copenhagen City Hall, Christianshavn Fire Station is located at Markmandsgade 15 in Christianshavn.
Frederiksberg Fire Station is located on Howitzvej (No. 26( in Frederiksberg, the building is part of a complex which comprises Solbjerg Church and Frederiksberg Courthouse. Fælledvej Fire Station (Fælledvej Brandstation( is located on Fælledvej (No.20 A( in Nørrebro, Østerbro Fire Station is located on Østbanegade in Østerbro. Vesterbro Fire Station (Vesterbro Brandstation( is located on Enghavevej in Kongens Enghave, tomsgården Fire Station is located at Frederikssundsvej 83 B in Bispebjerg. Glostrup Fire station is located at Bryggergårdsvej 3 in Glostrup, hvidovre Fire Station is located at Avedøre Havnevej 37 in Gvidovre. Copenhagen Fire Brigade website da, Københavns Brandvæsen
Historicism or Historism comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans. This is especially prevalent in architecture, such as revival architecture, through combination of different styles or implementation of new elements, historicism can create completely different aesthetics than former styles. Thus it offers a variety of possible designs. The change is related to the rise of the bourgeoisie during. The Arts and Crafts movement managed to combine a looser vernacular historicism with elements of Art Nouveau, influences of historicism remained strong even until the 1950s in many countries
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Ludvig Peter Fenger was a Danish architect. He was a proponent of the Historicist style and from 1886 to 1904 he was City Architect in Copenhagen, among his works are several churches, the Central Fire Station and Vestre Prison in Copenhagen. He directed the renovations of Church of Holmen and Christian IVs Stock Exchange, ludvig Fenger was born on 7 July 1833 in the village of Slots Bjergby outside Slagelse as the son of the local pastor. After graduating from Slagelse Latin School he attended the Royal Danish Academy, in the time working for architects such as Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll, Christian Hansen. He received the Academys Large Gold Medal in 1866 and went on journeys abroad from 1867 to 1869. He participated in the Second Schleswig War against Germany, was wounded, in 1871 Fenger became a member of the Academy and in 1880 he was made a professor. From 1886 he was a member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1885 he entered politics when he became a member of the Borgerrerpæsentationen in Copenhagen
H. C. Andersens Boulevard
Andersens Boulevard is the most densely trafficated artery in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The 1.3 km long six-lane street passes City Hall Square on its way from Jarmers Plads, from Jarmers Plads traffic continues along Gyldenløvegade which on the far side of The Lakes splits into Aaboulevard and Rosenørns Allé. It was inspired by Viennas Ringstraße as well as Haussmanns wide boulevards in Paris and its final course was determined in a plan from 1872. As it was not intended for traffic, most traffic to. In 1890, Vestre Boulevard was laid out as a promenade with an abundance of trees. When Lange Bridge was replaced with a new bridge in 1903, the Dante Column was installed in front of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in 1922 and the surrounding section of the street was renamed Dantes Plads. During World War II, the central reservation was used for construction of bunkers. Soon after the war, the lanes were widened in response to increasing car traffic, in 1954, a new Lange Bridge opened as a direct continuation of Vestre Boulevard to release the pressure on the more narrow Vester Voldgade.
No.10 was built as an art school for women, Copenhagen Central Fire Station was built in 1898. The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters and the Carlsberg Foundation shares the building at No.35
An ogive is the roundly tapered end of a two-dimensional or three-dimensional object. The term is used in engineering, architecture and geology, villard de Honnecourt, a 13th-century itinerant master-builder from the Picardy in the north of France, was the first writer to use the word ogive. The OED considers the French terms origin obscure, it come from the Late Latin obviata. In ballistics or aerodynamics, an ogive is a pointed, curved surface mainly used to form the approximately streamlined nose of a bullet or other projectile. If this arc is drawn so that it meets the shank at zero angle and this is a very common ogive for high velocity rifle bullets. Values of 4 to 10 are commonly used in rifles, with 6 being the most common, another common ogive for bullets is the elliptical ogive. This is a very similar to the spitzer ogive, except that the circular arc is replaced by an ellipse defined in such a way that it meets the axis at exactly 90°. This gives a rounded nose regardless of the sharpness ratio.
An elliptical ogive is normally described in terms of the ratio of the length of the ogive to the diameter of the shank, a ratio of one half would be, once again, a hemisphere. Values close to 1 are common in practice, elliptical ogives are mainly used in pistol bullets. Missiles and aircraft generally have more complex ogives, such as the von Kármán ogive. One of the characteristics of Gothic architecture is the pointed or ogival arch. In Gothic architecture, ogives are the transverse ribs of arches that establish the surface of a Gothic vault. An ogive or ogival arch is a pointed, Gothic arch, drawn with compasses as outlined above, a very narrow, steeply pointed ogive arch is sometimes called a lancet arch. The most common form is an arch, where the radius is the same as the width. In the Flamboyant Gothic style, an arch, an arch with a pointed head, like S-shaped curves. In woodworking, an ogive is a type of curve a piece of wood can be shaped in, in statistics, an ogive is a free-hand graph showing the curve of a cumulative distribution function.
The points plotted are the class limit and the corresponding cumulative frequency
Architecture of Denmark
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, Gothic churches and it was during this period that, in a country with little access to stone, brick became the construction material of choice, not just for churches but for fortifications and castles. In parallel, the style became popular for ordinary dwellings in towns. Late in his reign, Christian IV became a proponent of Baroque which was to continue for a considerable time with many impressive buildings both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism came initially from France but was adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style and it was not, until the 1960s that Danish architects entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalism. Archaeological excavations in parts of Denmark have revealed much about the way the Vikings lived.
One of the most notable sites is Hedeby, located some 45 km south of the Danish border near the German town of Schleswig, it probably dates back to the end of the 8th century. The houses are deemed to be among the most sophisticated dwellings of their time, oak frames were used for the walls, and the roofs were probably thatched. Viking ring houses, such as those at Trelleborg, near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, have a different, ship-like shape. Each house consisted of a central hall,18 m ×8 m. Those at Fyrkat in the north of Jutland were 28.5 m long,5 m wide at the ends and 7.5 m in the middle, the walls consisted of double rows of posts with planks wedged horizontally between them. A series of posts slanted towards the wall were possibly used to support the building like buttresses. Denmarks first churches from the 9th century were built of timber and have not survived, hundreds of stone churches in the Romanesque style were built in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had a nave and chancel with small rounded windows.
Among the finest examples of brick Romanesque buildings are St. Bendts Church in Ringsted, the church at Østerlars on the island of Bornholm was built around 1150. Like three other churches on the island, it is a round church, the three-storeyed building is supported by a circular outer wall and an exceptionally wide, hollow central column. Construction of Lund Cathedral in Scania started in about 1103 when the region was part of the Kingdom of Denmark and it was the first of great Danish Romanesque cathedrals in the shape of a three-aisled basilica with transepts
Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall is the headquarters of the municipal council as well as the Lord mayor of the Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. The building is situated on The City Hall Square in central Copenhagen, the current building was inaugurated in 1905. It was designed by the architect Martin Nyrop in the National Romantic style and it is dominated by its richly ornamented front, the gilded statue of Absalon just above the balcony and the tall, slim clock tower. The latter is at 105.6 metres one of the tallest buildings in the low city of Copenhagen. In addition to the clock, the City Hall houses Jens Olsens World Clock. The current city hall was designed by architect Martin Nyrop and the design for the building was inspired by the city hall of Siena, construction began in 1892 and the hall was opened on September 12,1905. Before the city moved to its present location, it was situated at Gammeltorv/Nytorv. The first city hall was in use from about 1479 until it burned down in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, the second city hall was built in 1728 and was designed by J. C.
Ernst and J. C. Krieger. It burned down in the Copenhagen fire of 1795 and it was not until 1815 that a new city hall, designed by C. F. Hansen, was erected on Nytorv. It was intended to both the city hall and a court. Today it is still in use as the city court of Copenhagen, in 2007, the National Bank of Denmark issued a 20 DKK commemorative coin of the tower
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Copenhagen metropolitan area
The Copenhagen metropolitan area is a large commuter belt surrounding Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It is known to include Copenhagen Municipality and surrounding municipalities stretching westward across Zealand and it has densely-populated core surrounded by suburban settlements. The metropolitan area several current definitions and historical, now defunct. The most widely accepted is the area which is managed by the Finger Plan. The modern post 2007 version includes the four provinces Københavns by, Københavns omegn, Nordsjælland and Østsjælland, with a land area of 2.778 km². It should not be confused with the Øresund Region, the area has been planned according to the Finger Plan, which has given it six fingers of S-trains and a western connection S-line. Urbanization stretching out from central Copenhagen, one railroad and two metro lines over Amager been formed. The Amager railroad continues to Sweden by bridge, Copenhagen metropolitan area is the largest of the commonly used definitions for the Copenhagen area.
Until 2007 the area consisted of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg Municipalities, Copenhagen County, Frederiksborg County, by this definition, the metropolitan area has a population of 2,016,285 covering an area of 3,030 square kilometres over 34 municipalities with a density of 665/km². The administrative entity responsible for the Capital Region of Denmark defines their administrative area as the area of Copenhagen. As such the population is 1,713,624 on an area of 2,561 km² with a density of 669. 1/km². It should however be noted that the Capital Region does not contain all of the Roskilde, furthermore, it does contain the remote island of Bornholm. While actually a transnational region of co-operation, rather than a metropolitan area and this goes back to the Initiativgruppen, who was tasked with creating the metropole of the north. As of 1 October 2011 the Øresund Region is populated by 3,783,158 inhabitants with a density of 181. 3/km², according to OECD, this region includes vast areas which are not recognized as part of the functional metropolitan area.
Copenhagen is by far the largest city, and the core of the region. However the Øresund Region covers large areas that are located remotely from both Copenhagen and the Øresund sea and this is an illustration of the population and population density around the Øresund sea rather than a formal area. But as such the population around Øresund constitutes by far the largest population centre of Scandinavia, Copenhagen metropolitan area is most commonly recognized, and before 2007 official, equal to the Danish part of this core. The four mentioned Danish provinces, with two million inhabitants at an area of 2.768,6 km2 and a population density of 722 people per square kilometre