Paris Fashion Week
Paris Fashion Week is a series of designer presentations held biannually in Paris, France with spring/summer and autumn/winter events held each year. Dates are determined by the French Fashion Federation, Fashion Week is held at venues throughout the city. In addition to shows, there are mens and haute couture shows. Paris Fashion Week is part of the global Big 4 fashion weeks, the schedule begins with New York, followed by London, and Milan and ends in Paris. Although the first fashion week was held in New York, the event itself derives from salon shows in Paris couture salons, a fashion week consists of a week of organized events of multiple designer’s collections. Before this organized event was recognized in New York City, fashion showings were being held in Paris as early as the 1700s and these early showings were only to clients purchasing items and were shown on mannequins. In the 1800s, showings began to change, Charles Frederick Worth, noted for haute couture, began showing multiple pieces together and of a higher design.
Jeanne Paquin is the first designer to make her showings public, Haute Couture, the style of high sewing, was created by Englishman Charles Frederick Worth. In the mid 1800s Mme Pauline von Metternich, an Austrian Princess and wife to the Ambassador of Paris, saw one of Worth’s sketches and employed him to make her a gown. He gained much recognition through his powerful clients and opened his own couture house in Paris in 1858. In 1868 the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture was created to set the specifications to determine what constituted a ‘couture house’. To ensure the copyright of the designers, their creations were photographed on a model or mannequin from the front, back, in 1945 the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture established another set of rules to regulate and determine Haute Couture houses. Others included having at least 20 members on staff, and that every design must include fittings, the first recognized Paris Fashion Week was held in 1973 and organized Haute Couture, Ready-to-Wear, and Men’s Fashion into one grouped showing by the Fédération Française de la Couture.
The event was a fundraiser held at the Palace of Versailles to restore the palace, the amount aimed to reach to repair the palace was estimated at $60 million USD which converts to 53,026,956 Euros. The fundraiser was started because the French government had stated they could not handle the cost of the renovations. It was overseen by the founder of New York Press Week, now known as New York Fashion Week, Eleanor Lambert, in accordance with, the at the time Versailles curator, Gereld van der Kemp. The restorations and renovations included Marie Antoinette’s dressing room, Louis XV’s children’s play room, both American and Parisian designers attended the event including, Anne Klein, Bill Blass, Stephen Burrows, Oscar de la Renta, Hubert de Givenchy, and Yves Saint Laurent. The French designer’s each held their own showing set to various themes whose pieces included, a ship, pumpkin coach
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall is the headquarters of the municipal council as well as the Lord mayor of the Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. The building is situated on The City Hall Square in central Copenhagen, the current building was inaugurated in 1905. It was designed by the architect Martin Nyrop in the National Romantic style and it is dominated by its richly ornamented front, the gilded statue of Absalon just above the balcony and the tall, slim clock tower. The latter is at 105.6 metres one of the tallest buildings in the low city of Copenhagen. In addition to the clock, the City Hall houses Jens Olsens World Clock. The current city hall was designed by architect Martin Nyrop and the design for the building was inspired by the city hall of Siena, construction began in 1892 and the hall was opened on September 12,1905. Before the city moved to its present location, it was situated at Gammeltorv/Nytorv. The first city hall was in use from about 1479 until it burned down in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, the second city hall was built in 1728 and was designed by J. C.
Ernst and J. C. Krieger. It burned down in the Copenhagen fire of 1795 and it was not until 1815 that a new city hall, designed by C. F. Hansen, was erected on Nytorv. It was intended to both the city hall and a court. Today it is still in use as the city court of Copenhagen, in 2007, the National Bank of Denmark issued a 20 DKK commemorative coin of the tower
Fashion design is the art of application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, and has varied over time, Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklace. Because of the required to bring a garment onto the market. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing and they consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a range and combinations of materials to work with. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a range of conventional styles. Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one house, as in-house designers.
They may work alone or as part of a team, freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyers label, some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients, other high-end fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-end fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends, most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of mens and childrens fashions for the mass market. Fashion designers work in different ways, some sketch their ideas on paper, while others drape fabric on a dress form. Finally, a garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created.
Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, worths success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. The term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him, while all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design. It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments, the images were shown to clients, which was much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom
Jakarta Fashion Week
Jakarta Fashion Week is held annually and aimed to provide directions to the Indonesian fashion industry as well as a vehicle to demonstrate its wealth in talents and creativity. Ultimately, the goal is to turn Jakarta as a fashion hub in the region. Many of them will present collections inspired by the rich heritage in different types of traditional fabrics while simultaneously keep their eyes on the present. On top of that, Indonesia’s crop of new talents will be introduced in the Young Fashion Designer Award segment, otherwise known as Fashion Designer Competition. Ever since the award was reactivated in 2004, LPM has helped the careers of new upcoming designers such as Stella Rissa, Jeffrey Tan, Eny Ming, Andreas Odang, Zacky Gaficky, and Billy Tjong. All the shows are invites-only, targeted to celebrities, buyers and foreign media and this exchange is part of a cultural exploration program made possible with the cooperation and support from the Embassy of India. In 2010, Jakarta Fashion Week will be held in Pacific Place Mall Jakarta on 6–12 November 2010, the Jakarta Fashion Week Official Site Kompas-tv The Jakarta Fashion Week 2008 Channel Pacific Place Jakarta Official Site
Los Angeles Fashion Week
Fashion Week in Los Angeles occurs biannually. Multiple show producers hold events throughout the Greater Los Angeles area each March, the City of Los Angeles identified the third weekend of those respective months as the beginning of its Fashion Week. However, new independent event producers have been transitioning Fashion Week related activities to coincide closer in time with the LA Fashion Market Week, Los Angeles Fashion Week was an evolution of press week, which has been around since the early 1970s. Independently produced events, working alongside designers began inviting fashion journalists to see collections from Southern California, since the late 1990s, Fashion Week has been represented by a community of L. A. fashion producers, designers and marketers interested in its success. In 2002, IMGs fashion division, which produces Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week in New York, made its first foray west, Davis Factor and Dean Factor produced Smashbox Fashion Week Los Angeles at Smashbox Studios in Culver City.
In 2003, IMG and Smashbox united under one banner to streamline services and venues, the relationship between IMG and Smashbox Studios lasted for five years, with the October 2008 shows marking their final presentation together. In October 2005, the now-defunct LA Fashion Awards debuted to celebrate, the annual Awards were timed at the closing of Fashion Week and the opening of Market Week in October, at the service of both retail store buyers and press. A nominating committee of more than forty of LAs top fashion journalists, stylists, the Awards were placed on hiatus in October 2008 after sponsorship support was put on hold in the wake of the financial market meltdown that September. In Spring 2007, after just six weeks of preparation, BOXeight Fashion Week had its first show at the Los Angeles Theater, in Fall 2007, it moved to Vibiana LA, the newly restored Cathedral of Saint Vibiana. In 2008, it moved again, this time eastward to BOXeights headquarters on the fringe of downtowns warehouse district, Los Angeles Fashion Week has traditionally been characterized by the diversity of independent productions operating throughout the metro area.
As of October 2016, main productions actively producing multi-brand runway shows are, LA Fashion Week, Art Hearts, Style FW, LA Times, Los Angeles Fashion Week
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Toronto Fashion Week
Toronto Fashion Week, was a semi-annual fashion week held in Toronto, Canada. It occurred during the month of March, to fall and winter collections. It was the largest fashion week held in Canada and the second largest fashion week in North America, the fashion week was founded by the Fashion Design Council of Canada, which is currently operated by Toronto entrepreneur Robin Kay. Due to its name changes, which occur as a result of rotating title sponsorships. Toronto Fashion Week was previously entitled LG Fashion Week, while it was sponsored by LG for three consecutive years. In March 2012, MasterCard took over as the sponsor of the event. The fashion week was sponsored by Beauty by L’Oreal Paris in past years, in July 2016, IMG announced the cancellation of Toronto Fashion Week due to lack of funding. Fashion Week Runway Fashion City of Toronto Official Website Fashion Design Council of Canada Website Toronto Fashion Week Fashion Shows