Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change.
Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments.
Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic
The Nikolaj Contemporary Art Center is an arts centre in Copenhagen which occupies the former St. Nicholas Church, one of the citys most conspicuous landmarks. It is situated on Højbro Plads a few steps away from Amagertorv, the church building is famous for its fanciful Neo-Baroque 90-meter long spire. The tower offers some of the best views of the city centre, the original church building was constructed in the early thirteenth century and was Copenhagens third oldest church. In 1530, the ex-monk Hans Tavsen preached the first Lutheran sermon within Copenhagen in St Nicholas Church, the fire of 1795 burned down most of the building, and from 1805, it was no longer an official church. Though church ruins were demolished, the tower remains standing in the present day. Butcher stalls occupied the area around the tower until the half of the 1800s when they were closed. The current building, which opened in 1912, is by a design of the architect, Hans Christian Amberg, the current spire is a modern reconstruction of the original, financed in 1909 at the initiative and expense of the brewer Carl Jacobsen.
He financed the 1915–1917 repairs, the tower has served as a naval museum and its attic was at one time a library. It was the focus of Hans Christian Andersens drama, Love of Nicolai Tower performed in 1829 at the Royal Theatre, the art centers focus is on Danish and international modern art. Within the building there is a cafe, the first art exhibitions occurred at Nikolaj in 1957. Nikolaj gained prominence after the Fluxus performances of the 1960s, Nikolaj is focussing on contemporary art with two annual exhibitions, one by children, and another one by an older artist who is deemed to have had a pioneering effect on modern art. Jananne Al-Ani and Kutluğ Ataman have exhibited at Nikolaj
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No
Holmens Kanal is a short street in central Copenhagen. The street was originally a canal, hence the name, but was filled in the 1860s, today it is dominated by bank and government buildings. As part of his upgrade of the fortifications of Copenhagen, King Christian IV extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm, the royal naval shipyard, to the beach. The canal lost its use after the naval fleet relocated to Nyholm. The severe cholera outbreak which hit Copenhagen in the summer of 1953 made it clear that the canal posed a hazard to the health of the population, the new street was inaugurated in 1864. It was the first street in Copenhagen to be installed with pavements, a new building for the National Bank of Denmark designed by Johan Daniel Herholdt was built in the street between 1865 and 1870. 2, Erichsen Mansion No 7, Grøns Varehus No,22, Church of Holmen The large statue of Niels Juel was installed in 1881 to commemorate his achievements in the Battle of Køge Bay in 1677.
It was designed by the sculptor Theobald Stein and cast in bronze, in 2002 the City Council decided to move the statue to a new site on the waterfront to make way for a more efficient distribution of the traffic at its busy junction. This decision was met with criticism, including protests from the Royal Naval Museum
Copenhagen Fire of 1728
The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 was the largest fire in the history of Copenhagen, Denmark. It began on the evening of 20 October 1728 and continued to burn until the morning of 23 October and it destroyed approximately 28% of the city, left 20% of the population homeless, and the reconstruction lasted until 1737. Although the number of dead and wounded was relatively low compared to the extent of the fire, the exact time that the fire started is unknown. Various sources mention times between 6,00 and 8,00 p. m. and 7,30 p. m. is the best estimate, the exact location of the origin of the fire is known. Almost directly across the street from Vesterport was Lille Sankt Clemens Stræde, on the corner facing Vestervold, there was a small house on lot Vester Kvarter 146 owned by Signe, widow of Boye Hansen. The lot is almost identical to the one on the corner of present-day Frederiksberggade, among the widows tenants were restaurant manager Peder Rasmussen and his wife, Anne Iversdatter. It was on the floor of the restaurateurs apartment that the fire started.
The wind blew from the southwest that evening, carrying the fire along Lille Sankt Clemens Stræde, Store Sankt Clemens Stræde, Vombadstuestræde, Antiquitetsstræde, by 9,00 p. m the main street of Vestergade was burning on both sides. From here the fire spread along Store Lars Bjørns Stræde, Lille Lars Bjørns Stræde and Studiestræde, that evening, the fire reached Sankt Peders Stræde, where the Valkendorfs Kollegium dormitory was engulfed in flames. Professor Peder Horrebow, who lived at the dormitory, lost most of his possessions, presumably simultaneously, the fire reached Professor Hans Steenbuchs room on Studiestræde. Around midnight, the reached the priests residence by the church Sankt Petri Kirke. On Nørregade, another fire started at a brewery Wednesday evening – possibly between 10 p. m. and 11 p. m, just prior to that the original fire had reached Gammeltorv, where people fought to keep the fire back. For that reason, help was sent late to deal with the new fire, around midnight the wind shifted to the west, and the situation on Nørregade turned critical as the fire was driven towards the street along a wide front.
At first people sought to keep the fire on the side of Nørregade. Simultaneously, the fire moved from present day Nørre Voldgade towards Nørreport, early Thursday morning, a final desperate attempt to keep the flames from spreading was made at Gammeltorv. Already-burning houses were fired upon with cannons to make them collapse, when that did not work, an order was given to blow up the houses with black powder charges. While the building did go down, people were killed and injured, at Nørregade, the fire reached Sankt Petri Kirke around 8 a. m. By 9 a. m. the flames reached bishop Christen Worms residence, the bishop who was travelling, was left with the clothes on his back and three prayer books
Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension.
The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber.
Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth
Nytorv is a public square in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjoining Gammeltorv it forms a space, today part of the Strøget pedestrian zone. The square is dominated by the imposing Neoclassical façade of the Copenhagen Court House, Nytorv was created by Christian IV in 1610 when he cleared an area behind the City Hall in connection with his adaptation of the building in a Renaissance style. Nytorv thrived as a marketplace, as did Gammeltorv, which was located on the side of the city hall. It was at Nytorv that the butchers carried out their work, Nytorv became the location of the citys scaffold and a pillory. Pillories were found at a number of sites around the city. A permanent scaffold was not constructed until 1627, and in 1728, when the City Hall was rebuilt after the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, an octagonal masonry podium was built. Between 1728 and 1740, Ludvig Holberg lived in a house on the corner of Gammeltorv and Nygade, in the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 the City Hall burnt down once again.
This time it was not rebuilt at the site. Since 1728, it had been the location of the Royal Orphanage, the new building, which was to serve both as a City Hall and a courthouse, was designed by Christian Frederik Hansen, the leading Danish architect of the time. Completed in 1815, the project included a jailhouse next door. After the fire and Gammeltorv made up one common space, during the first half of the 20th century, the market activities gradually disappeared from the square which instead became increasingly dominated by cars. This changed in 1962 when the Strøget pedestrian zone was laid out, the square is dominated by the large courthouse with its ionic order columns, which occupies most of its west side. A skyway on each side of the courthouse connects it to the neighbouring buildings, the one to the left, on the other side of Slutterigade, is the former jailhouse. The skyway was used for transportting prisoners and has therefore been nicknamed the Bridge of Sighs, all the other buildings around the square, most by unknown architects and all listed, are Neoclassical townhouses which date from the time immediately after the Great Fire of 1795.
3, opposite the courthouse, on the corner of Strøget, has a facade decorated with pilasters, T ens Lauritzen House at No.7 was built in 1795–96 for Jens Lauritzen, a groceer and brewer, possibly to designs by Andreas Kirk The elegant Jrup. No.9 was built 1796–97 by an architect while No,11, the large property on the corner of Brolæggerstræde, was designed by C. F. Hollander and completed one year later. The three properties on the side of the square were all built between 1795 and 1797 by unknown architects
Gammelholm is a predominantly residential neighbourhood in the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by the Nyhavn canal, Kongens Nytorv, Holmens Kanal, Niels Juels Gade, the new neighbourhood was planned by Ferdinand Meldahl and has been referred to as Meldahls Nine Streets. In the beginning of the 16th century land reclamations annexed the island to Zealand and in 1510, under the reign of Hans of Denmark, a ropewalk at the site is first mentioned in 1555 and an anchor forge was built in 1563. When King Christian IV commenced his modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen, he extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm to the beach. The moat in front of the rampart was expanded to form the Holmen Canal, in the first decades of the 17th century, Christian IV built a considerable amount of housing for higher-ranked naval personnel at Bremerholm. This prompted a demand for a church, leading to the conversion of the anchor forge, now located on the far side of the Holmen Canal.
In 1631 the barracks at Bremerholm were supplemented by Nyboder in the far north of Copenhagen which was built to satisfy the demand for housing for lower-ranked crew members of the nacys vessels, around the same time, a large prison was inaugurated at Bremerholm. Much of the work in the shipyards was based on forced labour carried out by convicts from the facility. The rope walk came to mark the boundary between the square and rest of Bremerholm, together and Nyholm remained for a long time the largest employer in Denmark. In 1778 the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden relocated from Amaliegade to the garden behind Charlottenborg Palace and it was at Gammelholm that the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 broke out. In 1859 the Navy decommissioned their last operations at Gammelholm, at the same time the Canal of Holmen was filled and converted into a prominent new street. Construction in the began in 1861 and was completed in 1876. Apart from the buildings, a number of new institutions. A new building for the Royal Danish Theatre, which had been located nearby since 1754, was built on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and the filled Holmens Kanal.
A new building designed by Meldahl and Ludvig Fenger for the Royal Mint was completed in 1873 on land which was previously part Botanical Garden which had left the area in 1879. Gammelholm was planned with broad streets inspired by Paris, an inspiration Meldahl relied on elsewhere, typically of the time, the residential buildings were not designed by architects but the master builders who constructed them. The area was built up with blocks with elegant, richly decorated Historicist fronts facing the street but drab. Lots were sold at high prices and developers therefore utilized space to the utmost
Gammeltorv is the oldest square in Copenhagen, Denmark. With adjoining Nytorv it forms a common space along the Strøget pedestrian zone, while the square dates back to the foundation of the city in the 12th century, most of its buildings were constructed after the Great Fire of 1795 in Neoclassical style. Another dominating feature is the Caritas Well, a Renaissance fountain erected by King Christian IV in 1610, Gammeltorv has been the focal point of Copenhagens judicial and political life as well as one of its two principal marketplaces. Several former city halls have been located on the square or in its immediate vicinity, its name is not a reference to adjoining Nytorv but to the slightly younger Amagertorv, Copenhagens other major market in early times. Already prior to Absolons construction of his castle on Slotsholmen, there seems to have been a marketplace at Gammeltorv, possibly a Thing. Copenhagens first town hall, of which nothing is known, was built on the east side of the square but destroyed during Hanseatic capture.
In 1374 the square is referred to as Forum and in 1446 the square is referred to as the old square as opposed to the somewhat younger Amagertorv, from 1470 the name Gammeltorv is used consistently. In 1479 a new hall was built om the south side of Gammeltorv. Towards the end of the 16th century, King Frederick II provided for the construction of a tube from Lake Emdrup. Six kilometres long, it was made from carved out tree trunks, King Christian IV rebuilt the town hall in Renaissance style from 1608 to 1610. He moved and redesigned Frederick IIs fountain, creating the Caritas Well and it was at this point that the area behind the town hall was cleared and Nytorv founded. When Kongens Nytorv—King Christian Vs grand new place royale—was established in 1670, in the Great Fire of 1728, the town hall was among the many buildings lost to the flames. A new town hall was erected on its foundation, built to a design of Johan Conrad Ernst, to commemorate the tercentenary of the House of Oldenburgs accent to the Danish throne, the City Magistrate erected an octagonal memorial temple in the square in 1749.
In the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 the city burnt down once again. After this it was moved to a site at Nytorv and the two squares were merged to form one large, rectangular space. After the fire the buildings around the square were rebuilt in the Neoclassical style typical of the time. The square was known for its poultry ladies who gathered around the Caritas Well, selling poultry. They came from the village of Valby unlike the vendours on Amagertorv who came from Amager, after this the Citys attention became directed at the trade at Gammeltorv and on 15 April 1910 a Pork Hall was inaugurated