The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Bryggebroen is one of the new bicycle/pedestrian bridges in Copenhagen inner harbour and is a 190 metres combined pedestrian and bicyclist bridge directed east-west. The bridge is joined to Kalvebod Brygge and Cykelslangen bridge and Islands Brygge and thus connects Vesterbro on Zealand, the bridge has become a popular place for attaching love padlocks. The bridge which opened to public on 14 September 2006 is 5.5 metres wide, divided by a path and cycling path. The name of the bridge was among the suggestions in a project organized by the Danish daily Politiken in which more than 200 suggestions were submitted. The name Bryggebroen was elected by the newspaper as the winner because it connects the two quays Islands Brygge and Kalvebod Brygge, the Copenhagen street name committee accepted the name and it became official. When the bridge was opened, the area surrounding it was still a site which created a need for a construction of a temporary wooden bridge on the west side. Also, it was necessary to create a path, south of the shopping mall Fisketorvet.
Both construction resulting in expenses of approx
Canal Tours is an operator of canal tours in the main harbour and canals of Copenhagen, Denmark. The firm carries 800,000 passengers a year on four different guided tours, formerly known as Havnens Motorfærger and Canal Tours Copenhagen, Canal Tours has been operating harbour and canal tours since 1904. On 14 March 2011 DFDS sold DFDS Canal Tours to the Swedish company Strömma Turism & Sjöfart AB, the company offers different guided sightseeing tours which depart from either Gammel Strand or Nyhavn. They typically last 60 minutes with departures up to three times an hour, all the tours are in Danish, English and a third language which varies between German, Italian and Portuguese. Since 2010, all the routes have been joined together to form a single itinerary. The Green/Blue route covers the harbour from Fisketorvet Shopping Centre to the south to the Trekroner Fortress to the north. A roundtrip takes about 150 minutes, day tickets valid for 24 hours are available and there are no reservations.
Official website Map of routes and time table
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront and entertainment district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Stretching from Kongens Nytorv to the front just south of the Royal Playhouse, it is lined by brightly coloured 17th and early 18th century townhouses and bars, cafes. The canal harbours many historical wooden ships, Nyhavn was constructed by King Christian V from 1670 to 1673, dug by Swedish prisoners of war from the Dano-Swedish War 1658–1660. It is a gateway from the sea to the old city at Kongens Nytorv. It was notorious for beer and prostitution, Danish author Hans Christian Andersen lived at Nyhavn for some 18 years. The first bridge across Nyhavn opened on 6 February 1875 and it was a temporary wooden footbridge. It was replaced by the current bridge in 1912, as ocean-going ships grew larger, Nyhavn was taken over by internal Danish small vessel freight traffic. After World War II land transport took over this role and small vessel traffic disappeared from the Port of Copenhagen, in the mid-1960s, the Nyhavn Society was founded with the aim of revitalising the area.
In 1977, Nyhavn was inaugurated as a ship and museum harbour by Copenhagen’s Lord Mayor Egon Weidekamp. In 1980 Nyhavn quay was pedestrianised, it had used as a parking area in the previous years which had coincided with a dwindling of harbour activities. Since it has become a spot for tourists and locals alike, serving the function of a square according to architects Jan Gehl. The northern side of Nyhavn is lined by brightly coloured townhouses built with wood, between 1845 and 1864, Hans Christian Andersen lived at No. 67, where a plaque now stands. From 1871-1875 Andersen lived at Nyhavn 18, which houses an Andersen-themed souvenir shop. The southern side of Nyhavn has lavish mansions lining the canal, Nyhavn Veteran Ship and Museum Harbour, occupying the inner section of Nyhavn, between the Nyhavn Bridge and Kongens Nytorv, is lined with old ships. P. Møller, while the side of the canal was put at the disposal of the Nyhavn Society and privately owned. Harbor ships include, Lightvessel XVII Gedser Rev – lightvessel built in Odense in 1895, in operation until 1972, acquired by the National Museum and now serving as a museum ship.
Mira – two-masted schooner built in Fåborg in 1898, considered one of the finest ships of the Danish small vessel traffic of the time, for many years it transported chalk from Stevns
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
Copenhagen Metro is a 24/7 rapid transit system in Copenhagen, serving the municipalities of Copenhagen, and Tårnby. The 20. 4-kilometre system opened between 2002 and 2007, and has two lines, M1 and M2, the driverless light metro supplements the larger S-train rapid transit system, and is integrated with DSB local trains and Movia buses. Through the city center and west to Vanløse, M1 and M2 share a common line, the metro has 22 stations, of which nine are underground. In 2013, the metro carried 55 million passengers, the system is owned by Metroselskabet, which is owned by the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, and the Ministry of Transport. The 34 trains are of the AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro class and stationed at the Control, the trains are 2.65 m wide and three cars long, their 630-kilowatt power output is supplied by a 750-volt third rail. The metro trains were planned to be four cars long. Platforms are – although shorter than originally planned – built to accommodate trains with four cars, operation of the system is subcontracted to Metro Service.
Trains run continually, twenty-four hours a day, with the headway varying from two to twenty minutes. Planning of the Metro started in 1992 as part of the redevelopment plans for Ørestad with construction starting in 1996, stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, opened in 2003, followed by stage 3, from Lergravsparken to Lufthavnen, in 2007. Construction of the M3+M4 City Circle Line is underway, scheduled to open in 2020, this line will form a circle around the city center, be entirely underground and not share any track with M1 and M2. Kongens Nytorv and Frederiksberg will serve as interchanges between M1, M2 and M3+M4, a two-station branch towards Nordhavn is planned to open in 2019. A planned expansion towards Sydhavn will include a linkup with Ny Ellebjerg on the S-train network and these stations will be connected to the regional train network following the completion of the new Copenhagen-Ringsted railway. The Sydhavn extension has been approved, the planning of the metro was spurred by the development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen.
The principle of building a transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992. Initially, three modes were considered, a tramway, a rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit, the tram solution would have been a street tram, without any major infrastructure investments in the city centre, such as a dedicated right-of-way. Through Ørestad it would have had level crossings, except for a crossing with the European Route E20. It would have had a driver and have operated at about a 150-second interval—twice the cycle time of the traffic lights
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is situated on Amager. Amager has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge and its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km from Copenhagen city centre, Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, and the only one with a large population. As of 2016,192,709 people live on the island, including its northern tip, the northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality. The middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, and Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island, most of the western part is land that was reclaimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s. This enlargement, from the sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isnt suitable for agricultural use, however the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality.
Amager has in the past been referred to as the kitchen of Copenhagen, at the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden. Amager has long been populated, and well used, thanks to its rich soil, in 1521, Christian II invited some Dutch farmers to move to Amager and grow vegetables to supply the Danish Court and Copenhagen. It was only in the late 19th century that Copenhagen began to expand onto the island, the area houses such major facilities as the Bella Center, a convention and exposition center, and Fields, the second-largest shopping center in Scandinavia. This project was initiated by the Danish government, the beach area to the east of the island, known as Amager Strandpark, which had fallen into disrepair since its inception in the 1930s, was extensively redeveloped between May 2004 and August 2005. A 2-km-long artificial island, was constructed just off the mainland from which it is separated by a small lagoon, until the 1970s, Amager was used as a place to dump litter, this led to a slang term for the island Lorteøen.
Large parts of Kalvebod Fælled are rich in nature and have many grazing cows and this area allows the citizens of Copenhagen to experience nature, without travelling far from the city. Amager is home to the Amager Bio, a cinema, top bands from the last 40 years have played there, both those of international origin and from Denmark. Various communities are located on Amager, including Islands Brygge, and the towns of Dragør, the Øresund Bridge connects Sweden to Denmark at Amager. The construction of the bridge has had a significant impact on the geography of the island. The Copenhagen Metro connects Amager to central Copenhagen, the metro line from Vanløse to Amager divides into M1 and M2 lines at Christianshavn and continue to Vestamager and Lufthavnen
Copenhagen Opera House
The Copenhagen Opera House is the national opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. It is one of the most expensive houses ever built with construction costs well over US$500 million. It is located on the island of Holmen in central Copenhagen, the A. P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation donated the Opera House to the Danish state in August 2000. Architect Henning Larsen and engineers Ramboll and Buro Happold and Theatre Consultant Theatreplan designed the facility, the acoustics were designed by Arup Acoustics and Speirs and Major Associates designed the architectural lighting. A. P. Møller had the say in the design of the building, adding steel to the glass front. Construction began in June 2001 and was completed on October 1,2004 and it opened on January 15,2005, in the presence of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, and Queen Margrethe II. The tenor Plácido Domingo made a gala guest appearance as Sigmund in Wagners Die Walküre on April 7,2006, in a production by Kasper Bech Holten), the Denmark leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place here.
The Opera is located in Copenhagen just opposite the main castle Amalienborg at the shore of the harbour, the specific part of the island where the Opera was built is named Dokøen, which means the Dock Island. Just a few meters west of the opera, one can see an old dock. The house is administered by the Royal Danish Theatre and is one of the best-equipped in the world and it has a main stage with five other stages directly connected, where large setups can be moved easily in and out. The theatre can seat between 1492 and 1703, depending on the size of the orchestra, the 1492 seats are all individually angled in order to provide the best experience. The orchestra pit is one of the largest in any house, with room for 110 musicians. However, the overhang is very slight and the authorities have permitted this to happen, if the orchestra is small or absent, the pit can be covered and additional seats can be added to the auditorium. Just like the old Royal Danish Theatre in Copenhagen, The Queen has her own box on the side of the auditorium.
Guided tours cover most of the building, including both the auditorium and backstage areas, besides the main stage, the building includes a small stage for experimental theatre, a so-called black box theatre called Takkelloftet. It was named after the original Takkelloftet, a building just south of the Opera 280 meters long, thus the opera maintains a connection to the marine history of its location. Everything on the stage and in the area is totally black. There are up to approximately 200 seats for this stage, in this room, some of the walls are decorated using the same Jura Gelb limestone as outdoor
A waterway is any navigable body of water. A shipping route consists of one or several waterways, Waterways can include rivers, seas and canals. Vessels using waterways vary from small animal-drawn barges to immense ocean tankers and ocean liners, media related to Waterways at Wikimedia Commons Waterscape - Britains official guide to canals and lakes
DSB (railway company)
DSB, an abbreviation of Danske Statsbaner, is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia. While DSB is responsible for train operation on most of the Danish railways, goods transport. DSB runs a rail system, called S-train, in the area around the Danish capital, Copenhagen. DSB operates some trains in Sweden, DSB was founded in 1885 when the state-owned companies De jysk-fynske Statsbaner and De sjællandske Statsbaner merged. The first railways in Denmark were built and operated by private companies, the railways in Funen and Jutland were built by Peto and Betts who supplied the locomotives. Most of the staff was recruited from Britain, notably from the Eastern Counties Railway. The network was extended by new construction and by acquisition of the privately operated lines from Silkeborg to Herning and from Grenaa to Randers, the Danish state took over Det sjællandske Jernbaneselskab on January 1,1880, forming De sjællandske Statsbaner. After the merger, new lines were constructed and a new generation of rolling stock, after Busses retirement, however, DSB ceased to design its own locomotives and increasingly came to rely on outside suppliers, mainly Borsig of Berlin.
The nineteen-thirties were a decade of innovation and modernisation for DSB, new railway bridges were built across the Little Belt, the Storstrøm and Oddesund, eliminating the costly and time-consuming process of transfer by steam ferry. The suburban lines in and around Copenhagen were electrified for multiple-unit operation at 1,500 Volts DC, coinciding with the opening of the Little Belt Bridge in 1935, DSB introduced their new express train concept known as lyntog. Instead, DSB looked to foreign suppliers, general Motors diesel-electric locomotives had proved themselves in the US and Canada before the war. They were followed by the successful class MX with a lower axle load for branch line services. After the success of the Deutsche Bundesbahns VT11.5 class on Trans Europ Express services, DSB acquired eleven power cars, the 1960s were marked by an increasingly poor economy for DSB, leading to a steady staff reduction throughout the decade. However, this was accompanied by the appearance of new technology, notably the utilisation of electronic equipment, improving the safety.
DSBs position was strengthened by the oil crisis in 1973. On regional services in Funen and Jutland, the prewar design MO class railcars were displaced by MR class DMUs, in 1990, after a delay of several years, the IC3 trains came into use, initially as lyntog, and in 1991 as ordinary intercity trains. The IC3 trains, being a specimen of the Flexliner type of units, have a distinct appearance due to the rubber-framed ends. The Great Belt fixed link was opened for traffic in 1997
Public transport modes include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail, high-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport runs to a timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. Share taxis offer services in many parts of the world. Paratransit is sometimes used in areas of low demand and for people who need a door-to-door service, there are distinct differences in urban public transit between Asia, North America, and Europe. In Asia, mass transit operations are run by profit-driven privately owned and publicly traded mass transit. In North America, mass transit operations are run by municipal transit authorities. In Europe, mass transit operations are run by both state-owned and private companies. Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger.
Services can be profitable through high ridership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated. Fully subsidized, zero-fare services operate in some towns and cities, for geographical and economic reasons, there are differences internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries, conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, and the earliest public transport was water transport, on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades, the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger railway opened in 1806, it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the usability of different types of public transport, and its overall appeal, can be measured by seven criteria, although they overlap somewhat.
These are speed, safety, proximity, speed is calculated from total journey time including transfers. Proximity means how far passengers have to walk or otherwise travel before they can begin the public transport leg of their journey, timeliness is how long they have to wait for the vehicle. Directness records how far a journey using public transport deviates from the shortest route, an airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports
Copenhagen City Bikes
Copenhagen City Bikes or Bycykler København was the bicycle sharing system of Copenhagen, Denmark. Riders paid a deposit at one of 110 special bike stands and had unlimited use of a bike within the specified downtown area. The scheme was funded by commercial sponsors, in return, the bikes carried advertisements, which appeared on the bike frame and the solid-disk type wheels. When the programme was abolished in October 2012, some 1, 500–1,700 bikes were still in service, following the first-generation bike sharing scheme from Amsterdam in the 60s, the first second-generation bike sharing system was introduced in 1991 in Farsø. Indeed, once the foundation had raised 2 million Danish kroner, by 1996, with 10 additional sponsors including the Coca Cola Company,1,500 cycles were made available throughout the city. By 2003, as a result of additional sponsors, the foundation was able to increase the number of city bikes to 2,500, the scheme served as an example for many other cities worldwide to adopt similar approaches.
In the final years the city bikes were available from 110 cycle stands distributed throughout the downtown area, the cycles could be used in daylight hours during the summer months by using a 20 DKK coin to retrieve them from the cycle stands. The coin was refunded when you returned the bike, Copenhagen had an extensive and well-designed system of cycle paths, earning it a reputation as one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. In recognition of Copenhagens emphasis on bicycling, the city was chosen by the Union Cycliste Internationale as their first official Bike City, Bike City Copenhagen covered the period 2008 to 2011 and consisted of big cycling events for professionals as well as amateurs. The programme managers expected that of the 1, 500-1,700 bikes on the street, after more than a year of being the only major danish city without a city bike scheme, Copenhagen launched its new City Bikes in october 2014. The new, white city bikes feature GPS navigation and a motor, cycling in Copenhagen Utility cycling Segregated cycle facilities Modal share Goboat OPENbike website