The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats.
Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed.
Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the Southwest
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. The Baltic Sea is connected by waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal. Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea and they were collected in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør, in the Great Belt at Nyborg. In the Little Belt, the site of intake was moved to Fredericia, the narrowest part of Little Belt is the Middelfart Sund near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers widely agree that the physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill. The Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö, it is used by the Øresund Bridge, including the Drogden Tunnel.
By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg, another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. Its the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, and a limit to the Belt Sea. The shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology, the remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen and in species. While Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people called the Suebi, the origin of the latter name is speculative. Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt and he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder.
Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Pytheas and it is possible that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia in On the Ocean by Pytheas. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean near belt of sea, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning white, fair. This root and its meaning were retained in both Lithuanian and Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian, yet another explanation is that the name originally meant enclosed sea, bay as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe the name derives from the god Balder of Nordic mythology, in the Middle Ages the sea was known by variety of names
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earths surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation and it consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock, Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a variety of materials. Concern over the depletion of the earths finite reserves of oil, the burning of fossil fuels plays the major role in the current episode of global warming. The word petroleum comes from Greek, πέτρα for rocks and Greek, the term was found in 10th-century Old English sources.
It was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, and is now important across society, including in economy and technology. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China, early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. The mythological origins of the oil fields at Yenangyaung, and its hereditary monopoly control by 24 families, Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been explored and used. The still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century.
In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century, both in Pechelbronn as in Wietze, the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. In 1848 Young set up a small business refining the crude oil, Young eventually succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. The production of oils and solid paraffin wax from coal formed the subject of his patent dated 17 October 1850. In 1850 Young & Meldrum and Edward William Binney entered into partnership under the title of E. W. Binney & Co. at Bathgate in West Lothian, the worlds first oil refinery was built in 1856 by Ignacy Łukasiewicz. The demand for petroleum as a fuel for lighting in North America, edwin Drakes 1859 well near Titusville, Pennsylvania, is popularly considered the first modern well
Kockums Naval Solutions
Kockums AB is a shipyard in Malmö, owned by the Swedish defence company Saab Group. While having a history of vessel construction, Kockums most renowned activity is the fabrication of military corvettes and submarines. It competed with other concepts, including Norways Skjold class. Prior to 1999, Kockums was controlled by the Swedish state through the company Svenska Varv AB, having implemented a highly advanced variety of the Stirling engine for low noise submarine propulsion, Kockums was considered to have strategic value for the Swedish Navy. However, in 1999, Kockums main competitor on the submarine market, in 2005, HDW was bought by the German industrial conglomerate Thyssen Krupp. The time after 1999 was beridden with conflicts between Kockums only Swedish customer, the Defence Materiel Administration, and Kockums German owners. The Swedish view was that the advancements made in collaboration between Kockums and FMV ought to be used to create a new generation of submarine for lucrative export.
On the German side, the A26 project was said to be regarded as a project that could lead to uncontrollably growing costs. Superficially, the source of conflict seemed to be that neither ThyssenKrupp nor FMV would accept carrying unforeseen development costs. As several technical innovations to be implemented in the A26 were kept in classified status at the FMV and this deadlock persisted for months until the FMV decided to cancel the order of the A26 submarines. Globally, the conflict concerned the general business strategy, ThyssenKrupp insisted that Kockums ought to discontinue large submarine construction and to focus on the development of small submarines. Meanwhile, anonymous sources from inside Kockums claimed that ThyssenKrupps goal in acquiring Kockums was never to reach synergies with HDW, when the Crimea crisis erupted in March 2014, Swedens defence interests in the future of Kockums came under closer scrutiny. The turning point was described by the chairman of the Swedish parliaments Standing Committee on Defense, Peter Hultquist, in the search for a partner to develop the next generation of submarines, the FMV approached the SAAB Group.
During autumn 2013, Saab tried to reach an agreement to buy Kockums from ThyssenKrupp, ThyssenKrupp demanded to keep its monopoly position in the A26 deal, which Saab refused to accept, causing the negotiations to fail. Saab responded by approaching Kockums engineers, offering them employment at Saab Naval Systems, Thyssen Krupp tried in vain to keep its engineers at Kockums, proposing an extra months salary. The hositility towards ThyssenKrupp reached a new level during the Kockums equipment repossession incident on 8 April 2014, by orders from a manager, Kockums staff tried to sabotage the repossession by locking the gates with the repossession crew and escort still inside. According to a spokesperson from FMV this is the first time they have had to forcefully repossess equipment, shortly after, ThyssenKrupp initiated discussions to sell Kockums to Saab. The deal was finalized on 22 July 2014, making Saab the new owner of Kockums, australia, In November 2014 Saab formally made a bid in SEA1000, the Royal Australian Navys replacement program for the six Collins-class submarines still in service
The krona has been the currency of Sweden since 1873. Both the ISO code SEK and currency sign kr are in use, the former precedes or follows the value. In English, the currency is referred to as the Swedish crown. The Swedish krona was the 11th most traded currency in the world by value in April 2013, one krona is subdivided into 100 öre. However, all öre coins have been discontinued as of 30 September 2010, goods can still be priced in öre, but all sums are rounded to the nearest krona when paying with cash. The introduction of the krona, which replaced at par the riksdaler, was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which came into effect in 1876 and lasted until the beginning of World War I. The parties to the union were the Scandinavian countries, where the name was krona in Sweden and krone in Denmark and Norway, the three currencies were on the gold standard, with the krona/krone defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold. After dissolution of the union in August 1914, Denmark. On 11 September 2012, the Riksbank announced a new series of coins with new sizes to replace the 1 and 5 kronor coins which arrived in October 2016.
The design of the coins follows the theme of singer-songwriter Ted Gärdestads song, vind och vatten and this included the reintroduction of the 2 kronor coin, while the current 10 kronor coin remained the same. The new coins have a new portrait of the king in the design, one of the reasons for a new series of coins is to end the use of nickel. It is expected that vending machines and parking meters will to a high degree stop accepting coins. Cash is already used in Sweden, with many young people avoiding cash as much as possible. Between 1873 and 1876, coins in denominations of 1,2,5,10,25, and 50 öre and 1,2,10, and 20 kronor were introduced. The 1,2 and 5 öre were in bronze, the 10,25,50 öre and 1 krona and 2 kronor were in silver, gold 5 kronor coins were added in 1881. In 1873 the Scandinavian Monetary Union currency was fixed so that 248,000 öre purchased 1 kg of gold, in 2017 the price of gold is 365,289 kronor per kg. So one öre in 1873 bought as much gold as 1.47 krona in 2017, so if it is reasonable to have the smallest denomination coin 1 krona today, in 1873 a reasonable smallest denomination coin was 1 öre. A10 kr gold coin weighed 4.4803 grams with 900 finess so that the weight was 4.03327 grams or exactly 1/248th of a kilogram
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes and these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. The initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price and this is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials, for example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, if it must be done, it must be done well, pollution costs can be macro and micro. An example of the aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint, the set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste, two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, the long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of building material manufacturing. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth, an extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques, many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames
Ferrous metals are able to be recycled, with steel being one of the most recycled materials in the world. Ferrous metals contain a percentage of iron and the addition of carbon. In the United States, steel containers, automobiles, appliances, a typical appliance is about 75% steel by weight and automobiles are about 65% steel and iron. The steel industry has been actively recycling for more than 150 years and it is cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore and manipulate it through the production process to form new steel. Steel does not lose any of its inherent physical properties during the recycling process, the energy saved by recycling reduces the annual energy consumption of the industry by about 75%, which is enough to power eighteen million homes for one year. Basic oxygen steelmaking uses 25–35% recycled steel to make new steel, EAF steelmaking uses almost 100% recycled steel. This steel contains greater concentrations of elements that cannot be removed through the application of oxygen.
It is used to make structural beams, reinforcing bar, downcycling of steel by hard-to-separate impurities such as copper or tin can only be prevented by well-aimed scrap selection or dilution by pure steel. Recycling one metric ton of steel saves 1.1 metric tons of ore,630 kilograms of coal. Also known as borings or swarf Manganese steel – Non magnetic, hardened steel used in the industry, cement mixers, rock crushers. Rails – Rail or tram tracks As of 2008, more than 83% of steel was recycled in the United States and it is the most widely recycled material, in 2000, more than 60 million metric tons were recycled. Scrap metal British Metals Recycling Association Aluminium recycling Steel Recycling Institute
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
In geography, a sound is a large sea or ocean inlet larger than a bay, deeper than a bight, and wider than a fjord, or a narrow sea or ocean channel between two bodies of land. There is little consistency in the use of sound in English-language place names, a sound is often formed by the seas flooding a river valley. This produces a long inlet where the sloping valley hillsides descend to sea-level, the Marlborough Sounds in New Zealand are a good example of this type of formation. Sometimes a sound is produced by a glaciers carving out a valley on a coast receding, the glacier produces a sound that often has steep, near vertical sides that extend deep under water. The sea floor is flat and deeper at the landward end than the seaward end. This type of sound is more properly termed a fjord, the sounds in Fiordland, New Zealand, have been formed this way. A sound generally connotes a protected anchorage, in the more general northern European usage, a sound is a strait or the most narrow part of a strait.
In Scandinavia and around the Baltic Sea, there are more than a hundred straits named Sund and it is a colloquial short name, among others, for Plymouth Sound, England. Pamlico Sound is a lagoon that lies between North Carolina and its barrier beaches, the Outer Banks, in a similar situation. The Mississippi Sound separates the Gulf of Mexico from the mainland, along much of the coasts of Alabama. On the West Coast, Puget Sound, by contrast, is an arm of the ocean. The term sound is derived from the Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse word sund, the word sund is already documented in Old Norse and Old English as meaning gap. This suggests a relation to verbs meaning to separate, such as absondern and aussondern, söndra, sondre, as well as the English noun sin, German Sünde, English has the adjective asunder and the noun sundry, and Swedish has the adjective sönder. In Swedish and in both Norwegian languages, sund is the term for any strait. In Swedish and Nynorsk, it is part of names worldwide, such as in Swedish Berings sund and Gibraltar sund.
The Malampaya Natural Gas Project is named after this area because it is close to it, george Sound in Appalachicola Bay, Florida St
HH Ferry route
The HH Ferry route is a very old shipping route which connects Elsinore at Zealand and Helsingborg, Sweden across the northern, and narrowest part of the Øresund. Due to the distance of less than 3 nautical miles, it is one of the worlds busiest international car ferry routes. The route has been used in times, the oldest known mentioning in text originates from the German traveller Adam of Bremen in the Eleventh Century. Before 1658 it was a Danish domestic route and only thereafter did the route become international, for several centuries has the route been run by Danish shipping lines. The route is served by car ferry shipping line Scandlines. Scandlines ferries operate more than 70 daily departures from each port, every 15 minutes for most of the day, as the distance between Denmark and Sweden here only is around 2.5 nautical miles, the crossing time is just 20 minutes. While Sundbusserne, currently departs every hour with their only bus, Scandlines uses four ferries, MF Tycho Brahe, MS Aurora, MF Hamlet and MF Mercandia IV.
The M/F Mercandia VIII is available and used during the maintenance of the other ferries. The three first mentioned ferries are sister ships and were tailored for this short route and they use dual command bridges and lack natural prows and sterns and hence never need to turn. Aurora and Tycho Brahe are rather low. The Mercandia IV and Mercandia VIII sister ships were not built especially for this route, being vessels of the so-called Superflex type. As the bridge is located in the middle of the ship, although Mercandia IV and Mercandia VIII look very different from the other three ferries, all five ferries fit within the same category, which allows fastest possible return time. The crossing takes 20 minutes and the only need 10 minutes in port so the same ferry regularly departs from both ends of the route inside every hour. Sundbusserne currently uses only the Pernille, a boat for around 200 passengers. A smaller bar is located at its prow and astern two decks are available for passengers, all Scandlines vessels have cafeterias, bars and Aurora has an additional a la carte restaurant.
This isnt intended for travelers, but more for local residents, double or even triple return voyages are not uncommon. Locally this has spawned a new word - to tura or to ture, in each city, the ferry terminals are directly connected to the main railway stations. Trains to Copenhagen depart every 20 minutes and arrive after 35 minutes, two different local train lines depart from Elsinore station
The Nordic countries or Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden. They consist of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, the population of the Nordic countries are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish, with Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people as minorities. Of todays native languages, Danish, Icelandic, the non-Germanic languages spoken are Finnish and several Sami languages. The main religion is Lutheran Christianity, the Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure. Politically, Nordic countries do not form an entity. Especially in English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, Scandinavian Peninsula on the other hand covers mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland. At 3,425,804 square kilometers, the area of the Nordic countries would form the 7th-largest country in the world. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of area, mostly in Greenland.
In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people, the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. Although the area is linguistically heterogeneous, with three unrelated groups, the common linguistic heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The North Germanic languages Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible and these languages are taught in school throughout the Nordic countries. Swedish, for example, is a subject in Finnish schools. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918, there is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest. The Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and it is meant unambiguously to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous.
The Nordic countries are considered to unambiguously refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, unlike the Nordic countries, the term Norden is in the singular. The demonym is nordbo, literally meaning northern dweller, especially outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is often used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries