In classical antiquity, the cornucopia called the horn of plenty, was a symbol of abundance and nourishment a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers or nuts. Mythology offers multiple explanations of the origin of the cornucopia. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus, who had to be hidden from his devouring father Kronus. In a cave on Mount Ida on the island of Crete, baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amaltheia, who fed him with her milk; the suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns, which had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god. In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns; this version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules mural painting by the American Regionalist artist Thomas Hart Benton.
The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek and Roman deities those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth. In Roman Imperial cult, abstract Roman deities who fostered peace and prosperity were depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia, "Abundance" personified, Annona, goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Hades, the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions, was a giver of agricultural and spiritual wealth, in art holds a cornucopia. In modern depictions, the cornucopia is a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit and vegetables. In most of North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving and the harvest. Cornucopia is the name of the annual November Food and Wine celebration in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. Two cornucopias are seen in the state seal of Idaho; the Great Seal of North Carolina depicts Liberty Plenty holding a cornucopia.
The coat of arms of Colombia, Panama and Venezuela, the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia feature the cornucopia, symbolizing prosperity. In Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of fantasy novels, the witch Tiffany Aching was in possession of the Cornucopia, badge of office of Summer, when she contracted avatarism as well as ped fecundis during the events of Wintersmith; this causes problems including a massive flock of chickens. The motif of the cornucopia is used in the book series The Hunger Games. In the eponymous gladiatorial games described in the series, a large horn-like cache filled with weapons and equipment is placed at the starting point: this cache serves as the focal point of fighting during the games' first minutes, is called the "Cornucopia". In the film adaptation, the national anthem of Panem, the series' primary setting, is called "the Horn of Plenty", mentioned several times in the lyrics; the horn of plenty is used for body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility and abundance
Ghost (Swedish band)
Ghost is a Swedish rock band, formed in Linköping, Sweden in 2006. In 2010, they released a 3-track demo followed by a 7" vinyl titled "Elizabeth", their debut full-length album Opus Eponymous; the Grammis-nominated album was praised and increased their popularity. Their second album and major label debut Infestissumam was released in 2013, debuted at number one in Sweden, won the Grammis Award for Best Hard Rock/Metal Album; the band released their third studio album, Meliora, in 2015, to much critical acclaim and high record sales, reaching number one in their home country of Sweden, number eight in the United States. Its lead single, "Cirice", earned them the 2016 Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance; the band released their fourth studio album, Prequelle, in 2018. Ghost is recognizable owing to its eccentric on-stage presence. Seven of the group's eight members, its'Nameless Ghouls', wear identical, face-concealing costumes. Prior to a 2017 lawsuit filed by former members of the band, lead singer Tobias Forge obscured his identity behind the character "Papa Emeritus".
The character, which consists of Forge in a prosthetic mask and makeup can be best described as a'demonic anti-pope'. The Papa Emeritus Character has gone through four incarnations - I, II, III, Nihil; as of the 2018 album Prequelle and subsequent world tour, Forge portrays a character known as "Cardinal Copia", described as being unrelated to any of the Papa Emeritus characters and whose costume consists of either Cardinal vestments or a black or white tuxedo alongside a prosthetic mask with black eye makeup and the multi-colored eyes, present in each Papa character. Ghost was formed in 2006, when future band leader Tobias Forge wrote the song "Stand By Him", he said, "I said that this is the most heavy metal riff that has existed... When the chorus came to me, it haunted my dreams; every time I picked up the guitar, I ended up playing that progression, when I fit the words in, it seemed to cry out for a Satanically-oriented lyric." Forge contacted his former Repugnant bandmate Gustaf Lindström to record the song.
In early 2008, the two entered the studio to record three songs: "Stand by Him," "Prime Mover" and "Death Knell". Afterwards Forge remarked to Lindström: "This does not sound like two dudes that look like you and I", thus Forge decided that they should be an anonymous "theater band", use their love of horror films and "the traditions of Scandinavian metal" in the band's imagery. While other members of the band would wear black hooded robes and be called "Nameless Ghouls", Forge would go by "Papa Emeritus", dressed in Papal regalia and his face painted to resemble a skull. Forge chose the name Ghost for the group. Forge had no aspirations on becoming the band's vocalist, instead wanting to play guitar, he offered the position of lead vocalist to Messiah Marcolin, Mats Levén, Christer Göransson and JB Christoffersson, all of whom passed. As a result, Forge became the band's lead singer by default. On 12 March 2010, Forge posted the first three Ghost songs on MySpace and within two days was contacted by records labels and managers wanting to work with the group.
Ghost spent a few weeks in a basement studio in the band's hometown of Linköping recording their debut album. In June 2010, the band released their first single "Elizabeth". Ghost released their first studio album, Opus Eponymous, on 18 October 2010, on the independent record label Rise Above Records; the album reached number 50 on the Sverigetopplistan and was well-received by critics, being nominated for the 2011 Grammis Award for "Best Hard Rock" album. Ghost played their first concert on 23 October 2010 at the Hammer of Doom festival in Würzburg, Germany. Ghost supported gothic metal band Paradise Lost on their "Draconian Times MMXI" tour in April 2011. On 29 May, Ghost made their United States debut at the Maryland Deathfest; the band played at the annual Download Festival in the United Kingdom on 11 June. Following their performance, Phil Anselmo, lead singer of the band Down, performed wearing a Ghost T-shirt and invited three members of the band to join him on the main stage, where they performed Down's "Bury Me In Smoke" together.
In December 2011, Ghost took part in the "Defenders of the Faith III" tour with Trivium, In Flames, Rise to Remain and Insense. The band embarked on their first United States tour, "13 Dates of Doom," beginning in New York on 18 January 2012, ending on 2 February in Los Angeles. Afterwards Ghost joined Mastodon and Opeth as the opening act on the Heritage Hunter Tour throughout North America during April and May 2012. In June, Ghost received the award for "Breakthrough Band" at the Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards. In February 2012, a Nameless Ghoul revealed. Ghost entered the studio in October to record their second album in Nashville, with producer Nick Raskulinecz; the band had planned to record the album at the turn of 2012, but after starting their US tour in January, they were offered another tour after. At the same time the band, their management and Rise Above Records all agreed that the group's next album should be released on a different label, thus Ghost signed with Loma Vista Recordings in partnership with Republic Records—a division of Universal Music Group.
On 15 December 2012, Ghost played a show in Linköping, where they debuted a new song titled "Secular Haze", released online earlier that day, as well as their cover of ABBA's "I'm a Marionette". During the same show, the band introduced Papa Emeritus II as the successor to the first Papa Emeritus. On 20 December, the band announced that their second album, would be released in early 2013. On
The Culinary Institute of America at Copia
The Culinary Institute of America at Copia is a branch campus of the private culinary college the Culinary Institute of America. The CIA at Copia, located at 500 1st Street next to the Oxbow Public Market in downtown Napa, opened its doors in autumn 2016; the CIA venue provides food- and wine-related courses to visitors. The CIA at Copia and The Culinary Institute of America at Greystone make up the school's California branch; the Copia campus was acquired by the Culinary Institute of America in 2015. The building and grounds were Copia, a museum in downtown Napa that operated from 2001 to 2008; the campus opened in 2016 as the Culinary Institute of America at Copia, houses the CIA's new Food Business School. The Copia building totals 78,632 square feet, the property includes an outdoor amphitheater with seating for 1,000 and a variety of outdoor gardens, it has a 250-seat theater, the Theater at Copia, used for lectures and the primary location for the Napa Valley Film Festival, which will be the site for future food and wine industry conferences and community events.
In 2017, the college plans to offer additional hands-on classes in Copia's teaching kitchens, as well as host food industry conferences and other events at the campus. The campus has a 72-seat theater, the Napa Valley Vintners Theater, which hosts daily food and wine classes and an ongoing series of demonstrations by instructors and visiting culinary and beverage experts; the theater can be booked for a meeting or private event. The building has a 90-seat restaurant, Julia's Kitchen, a Julia Child-themed restaurant that operated while Copia existed as a museum; the Restaurant at CIA Copia focuses on serving shared plates served tableside by CIA chefs. It includes a casual outdoor patio with bar. Dishes are inspired by the Napa Valley harvest and CIA gardens, paired with cocktails or wines. Three private dining rooms are available as well; the school has an on-site retail store with linens, pottery created by local artists and bakeware, items for the home and garden, knives and other related items.
The store hosts in-store demonstrations and book signings. The CIA at Copia contains a reserve wine salon, which holds a collection of rare and fine wines not available to consumers; the college plans to open the Chuck Williams Culinary Arts Collection and the Wine Hall of Fame at Copia in 2017. The CIA at Copia's theaters offer cooking and lecture-style events for the public, is publicly available for special and private events, including lectures, dinners and weddings. Official website Restaurants at the Culinary Institute of America The Food Business School of the Culinary Institute of America
Thurii, called by some Latin writers Thurium, for a time Copia and Copiae, was a city of Magna Graecia, situated on the Tarentine gulf, within a short distance of the site of Sybaris, whose place it may be considered as having taken. The ruins of the city can be found in the Sybaris archaeological park near Sibari in the Province of Cosenza, Italy. Thurii was one of the latest of all the Greek colonies in this part of Italy, not having been founded until nearly 70 years after the fall of Sybaris; the site of that city had remained desolate for a period of 58 years after its destruction by the Crotoniats. The fugitive Sybarites first appealed for support to Sparta, but without success: their application to the Athenians was more successful, that people determined to send out a fresh colony, at the same time that they reinstated the settlers who had had been expelled from thence. A body of Athenian colonists was accordingly sent out by Pericles, under the command of Lampon and Xenocritus. Pericles' expressed intent was for it to be a Panhellenic colony, the number of Athenian citizens was small, the greater part of those who took part in the colony being collected from various parts of Greece.
Among them were two celebrated names – Herodotus the historian, the orator Lysias, both of whom appear to have formed part of the original colony. The laws of the new colony were established by the sophist Protagoras at the request of Pericles, adopting the laws of Zaleucus of Locri; the new colonists at first established themselves on the site of the deserted Sybaris, but shortly afterwards removed to a spot at a short distance from thence, where there was a fountain named "Thuria", from whence the new city derived its name of Thurii. The foundation of Thurii is assigned by Diodorus to the year 446 BC; the protection of the Athenian name secured the rising colony from the assaults of the Crotoniats, at least we hear nothing of any obstacles to its progress from that quarter. These disputes at length ended in a revolution, the Sybarites were expelled from the city, they established themselves for a short time in Sybaris on the Traeis but did not maintain their footing long, being dislodged and dispersed by the neighboring barbarians.
The Thurians meanwhile concluded a treaty of peace with Crotona, the new city rose to prosperity. Fresh colonists poured in from all quarters the Peloponnese; the citizens were divided, as we learn from Diodorus, into ten tribes, the names of which sufficiently indicate their origin. They were: the Arcadian, Elean, Amphictyonic, Ionian, Athenian and Nesiotic; the form of government was democratic, the city is said to have enjoyed the advantage of a well-ordered system of laws. The city itself was laid out with great regularity, being divided by four broad streets or plateae, each of, crossed in like manner by three others. Shortly after its foundation, Thurii became involved in a war with Tarentum; the subject of this was the possession of the fertile district of the Siritis, about 50 km north of Thurii, to which the Athenians had a claim of long standing, taken up by their colonists. The Spartan general, banished from Greece some years before, taken up his abode at Thurii, became the general of the Thurians in this war, after various successes, was at length terminated by a compromise, both parties agreeing to the foundation of the new colony of Heracleia in the disputed territory.
Knowledge of the history of Thurii is scanty and fragmentary. Fresh disputes arising between the Athenian citizens and the other colonists were at length allayed by the oracle of Delphi, which decided that the city had no other founder than Apollo, but the same difference appears again on occasion of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily, when the city was divided into two parties, the one desirous of favoring and supporting the Athenians, the other opposed to them. The latter faction at first prevailed, so far that the Thurians observed the same neutrality towards the Athenian fleet under Nicias and Alcibiades as the other cities of Italy. Thurii was, in fact, the city where Alcibiades escaped his Athenian captors who were taking him home for trial, but two years afterwards the Athenian party had regained the ascendency.
Copia is the fourth album from Portland, Oregon ambient musician Matthew Cooper, under the name Eluvium. The album features many more instruments than much of Cooper's past material, such as brass and string instruments; the cover illustration is Jeannie Paske's ink, titled In Search of a View. "Amreik" – 3:18 "Indoor Swimming at the Space Station" – 10:29 "Seeing You Off the Edges" – 5:03 "Prelude for Time Feelers" – 5:48 "Requiem on Frankfort Ave." – 2:41 "Radio Ballet" – 3:12 "" – 0:50 "After Nature" – 1:51 "Reciting the Airships" – 4:35 "Ostinato" – 6:08 "Hymn #1" – 1:32 "Repose in Blue" – 9:18
Retrotransposons are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. These DNA sequences use a "copy-and-paste" mechanism, whereby they are first transcribed into RNA converted back into identical DNA sequences using reverse transcription, these sequences are inserted into the genome at target sites. Retrotransposons form one of the two subclasses of transposons, where the others are DNA transposons, which does not involve an RNA intermediate. Retrotransposons are abundant in plants, where they are a principal component of nuclear DNA. In maize, 49–78% of the genome is made up of retrotransposons. In wheat, about 90 % of the genome consists of 68 % of transposable elements. In mammals half the genome is transposons or remnants of transposons. Around 42% of the human genome is made up of retrotransposons, while DNA transposons account for about 2–3%; the retrotransposons' replicative mode of transposition by means of an RNA intermediate increases the copy numbers of elements and thereby can increase genome size.
Like DNA transposable elements, retrotransposons can induce mutations by inserting near or within genes. Furthermore, retrotransposon-induced mutations are stable, because the sequence at the insertion site is retained as they transpose via the replication mechanism. Retrotransposons copy themselves to RNA and back to DNA that may integrate back to the genome; the second step of forming DNA may be carried out by a reverse transcriptase, which the retrotransposon encodes. Transposition and survival of retrotransposons within the host genome are regulated both by retrotransposon- and host-encoded factors, to avoid deleterious effects on host and retrotransposon as well; the understanding of how retrotransposons and their hosts' genomes have co-evolved mechanisms to regulate transposition, insertion specificities, mutational outcomes in order to optimize each other's survival is still in its infancy. Because of accumulated mutations, most retrotransposons are no longer able to retrotranspose. Retrotransposons known as class I transposable elements, consist of two subclasses, the long terminal repeat and the non-LTR retrotransposons.
Classification into these subclasses is based on the phylogeny of the reverse transcriptase, which goes in line with structural differences, such as presence/absence of long terminal repeats as well as number and types of open reading frames, encoding domains and target site duplication lengths. LTR retrotransposons have direct LTRs. LTR retrotransposons are further sub-classified into the Ty1-copia-like, Ty3-gypsy-like, BEL-Pao-like groups based on both their degree of sequence similarity and the order of encoded gene products. Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy groups of retrotransposons are found in high copy number in animals, fungi and plants genomes. BEL-Pao like elements have so far only been found in animals. Although retroviruses are classified separately, they share many features with LTR retrotransposons. A major difference with Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons is that retroviruses have an envelope protein. A retrovirus can be transformed into an LTR retrotransposon through inactivation or deletion of the domains that enable extracellular mobility.
If such a retrovirus infects and subsequently inserts itself in the genome in germ line cells, it may become transmitted vertically and become an Endogenous Retrovirus. Endogenous retroviruses make up about 8% of the human genome and 10% of the mouse genome. In plant genomes, LTR retrotransposons are the major repetitive sequence class, e.g. able to constitute more than 75% of the maize genome. Endogenous retroviruses are an important type of LTR retrotransposon in mammals, including in humans where the Human ERVs make up 8% of the genome. Non-LTR retrotransposons consist of two sub-types, long interspersed elements and short interspersed elements, they can be found in high copy numbers, as shown in the plant species. Non-long terminal repeat retroposons are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. LINEs possess two ORFs; these functions include reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activities, in addition to a nucleic acid-binding property needed to form a ribonucleoprotein particle. SINEs, on the other hand, co-opt the LINE function as nonautonomous retroelements.
While viewed as "junk DNA", recent research suggests that, in some rare cases, both LINEs and SINEs were incorporated into novel genes so as to evolve new functionality. Long INterspersed Elements are a group of genetic elements that are found in large numbers in eukaryotic genomes, comprising 17% of the human genome. Among the LINE, there are several subgroups, such as L1, L2 and L3. Human coding L1 begin with an untranslated region that includes an RNA polymerase II promoter, two non-overlapping open reading frames, ends with another UTR. A new open reading frame in the 5' end of the LINE elements has been identified in the reverse strand, it is shown to be transcribed and endogenous proteins are observed. The name ORF0 is coined due to its position with respect to ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 encodes an RNA binding protein and ORF2 encodes a protein having an endonuclease as well as a reverse transcriptase; the reve
Copia: The American Center for Wine, Food & the Arts was a non-profit museum and educational center in downtown Napa, dedicated to wine and the arts of American culture. The center and funded by vintners Robert and Margrit Mondavi, was open from 2001 to 2008; the 78,632-square-foot museum had galleries, two theaters, classrooms, a demonstration kitchen, a restaurant, a rare book library, a 3.5-acre vegetable and herb garden. The main and permanent exhibition of the museum, "Forks in the Road", explained the origins of cooking through to modern advances; the museum's establishment benefited the city of Napa and the development and gentrification of its downtown. Copia hosted its opening celebration on November 18, 2001. Among other notable people, Julia Child helped fund the venture, which established a restaurant named Julia's Kitchen. Copia struggled to achieve its anticipated admissions, had difficulty in repaying its debts. Proceeds from ticket sales and donations attempted to support Copia's payoff of debt, educational programs and exhibitions, but were not sufficient.
After numerous changes to the museum to increase revenue, Copia closed on November 21, 2008. Its library was donated to Napa Valley College and its Julia Child cookware was sent to the National Museum of American History; the 12-acre property had been for sale since its closure. The college opened its campus, the Culinary Institute of America at Copia, which houses the CIA's new Food Business School; the original name for the museum was the American Center for Wine and the Arts, though before opening it was additionally named after Copia, the Roman goddess of wealth and plenty. According to Joseph Spence in Polymetis, Copia is a name used to describe the goddess Abundantia in poetry, was referred to as Bona Copia in Ovid's Metamorphoses; the city of Napa has not received as many wine country tourists as the cities north of it. A $300 million flood management project around the turn of the 21st century to widen the Napa River and raise bridges prompted building developments. In the early 2000s, a large development was completed in the downtown area, as well as several hotels.
Copia and the nearby Oxbow Public Market were two large developments constructed around that time to increase tourist and media focus on the city of Napa. The museum opened in two months after the September 11 attacks; the museum's visitor attendance was much lower than. From the late 1800s to around the 1990s, the Rossi-Massa-Vallerga Garden stood at Copia's site. At the time the site was constructed, it was part of Rancho Entre Napa, a large land grant given while California was a Mexican province; the site consisted of garden. The complex consisted of about eight structures—houses, wagon sheds, a barn—arranged around a central space without any dominant building; the oldest of these dated to around 1880. The layout was unique within the city of Napa, may have been unique within California; the site differentiated from most agricultural sites by facing away from the road, with no distinct difference between middle-class and workers' houses, in size, finishing, or location. Many of the buildings shared walls or were built abutting each other, two of the houses were built over a single basement.
Between 1872 and 1880, Giovanni and Antonio Rossi, cousins born in Italy, began operating a vegetable garden on the property. Italian immigrant Giuseppe Vallerga purchased the property and farmed it to supply his produce stand and delivery service. Vegetable production ceased in 1957 upon his death, his son, Joe Vallerga built a grocery store on part of the site, the Vallerga family continued to own the property until the 1990s. In 1996, the city of Napa's Cultural Heritage Commission published a staff report which described the site as being eligible for the National Register of Historic Places; the commission described the site as an "important part of the Italian presence and heritage in Napa County" and recognized the garden as an authentic representation of Italian landscape organization, a distinctive feature of the city's cultural landscape, an influence on the city's agricultural development in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1988, vintner Robert Mondavi, his wife Margrit Mondavi, other members of the wine industry began to look into establishing an institution in Napa County to educate and celebrate American excellence and achievements in the culinary arts, visual arts, winemaking.
Three organizations supported the museum: the University of California at Davis, the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, the American Institute of Wine & Food. In 1993, Robert Mondavi bought and donated the land for Copia for $1.2 million, followed by a lead gift of $20 million. Mondavi chose the downtown Napa location with urging from his wife. James Polshek was hired by the foundation as the architect for the building in October 1994. Subsequently, the "Founding Seventy", supporters from Napa Valley and the surrounding Bay Area, made substantial donations. Initial financing for Copia was $55 million, along with a $78 million bond prior to opening in 2001; when the organization purchased the property, it was an empty lot next to a tire store. Construction of the facility triggered the development of hotels, restaurants, an