The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Coping or scribing is the woodworking technique of shaping the end of a moulding or frame component to neatly fit the contours of an abutting member. Joining tubular members in metalworking is referred to as a cope, or sometimes a "fish mouth joint" or saddle joint. Most English-speaking countries outside the United States use the terms scribing. Coping is used in the fitting of skirting and other mouldings in a room, it allows for clean joints between intersecting members. The other method of fitting these mouldings, used is the mitre joint, but this technique relies upon knowing the precise angle between the walls for neat results. Coping is only used for internal corners. External corners are always mitred; the main reason that scribed joints are used is that timber shrinks in width far more than it does in length. By using a scribed joint rather than an internal mitre joint, the effect of shrinkage is minimised, it is possible to arrange the scribed joints pointing away from the most common viewpoint and so present the best appearance.
Coping is commonly used in cabinet making for mouldings and frame components. The rails in frame and panel construction are cope cut to fit the profile of the stiles; the technique is common in the construction of doors and windows. Scribe joinery is commonly used in the building of log homes; the shape of the log underneath is scribed into the bottom of a log to be placed on top. This provides a tight seal between the two adjacent logs, it is commonly used in the building of boats since there is a straight edge but many curves. Traditionally, coping would be performed using a coping saw. There are mechanical means of producing coped joints, including matching rail and stile cutters for the router as used in frame and panel construction. Cope and stick Tube Coping Calculator
An astragal is a moulding profile composed of a half-round surface surrounded by two flat planes. An astragal is sometimes referred to as a miniature torus, it can be an architectural element used at the top or base of a column, but is employed as a framing device on furniture and woodwork. The word "astragal" comes from the Greek for "ankle-joint", αστράγαλος, astrágalos. An astragal is used to seal between a pair of doors; the astragal closes the clearance gap created by bevels on one or both mating doors, helps deaden sound. The vertical member attaches to a stile on one of a pair of either sliding or swinging doors, against which the other door seals when closed. Exterior astragals are kerfed for weatherstripping. An astragal may be known as a “meeting stile seal”, it is sometimes confused with the wooden trim that divides the panes of a multi-light window or door, known as a muntin
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal
The Lancaster Canal is a canal in North West England planned to run from Westhoughton in Lancashire to Kendal in south Cumbria. The section around the crossing of the River Ribble was never completed, much of the southern end leased to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, of which it is now considered part. Of the canal north of Preston, only the section from Preston to Tewitfield near Carnforth in Lancashire is open to navigation for 42 miles, with the canal north of Tewitfield having been severed in three places by the construction of the M6 motorway, by the A590 road near Kendal; the southern part, from Johnson's Hillock to Aspull, remains navigable as part of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The planned continuation to Westhoughton was never built; the line of the canal was first surveyed by Robert Whitworth in 1772. In 1791, John Longbotham, Robert Dickinson and Richard Beck resurveyed the proposed line, a final survey was carried out the same year by John Rennie. In 1792 the promoters sought an Act of Parliament urgently, as proposals by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal to alter their route would have affected the profitability of the southern section.
It received the Royal Assent on 11 June 1792, was entitled An Act for making and maintaining a navigable canal, from Kirkby Kendal in the county of Westmorland, to West Houghton in the county palatine of Lancaster, a navigable branch from the said intended canal at or near Barwick, to or near Warton Cragg, another navigable branch, from, at or near, Galemoss, by Chorley, to or near Duxbury in the said county palatine of Lancaster. The Act created the Company of Proprietors of the Lancaster Canal Navigation, gave them powers to raise £414,100 by the issuing of shares, an additional £200,000, either by mortgage or by issuing more shares, if required. John Rennie was appointed as engineer in July 1792, with William Crossley the elder as his assistant, Archibald Millar as resident engineer and superintendent. A second Act of Parliament was obtained in May 1793 to authorise the construction of the Glasson branch, so that the canal had a connection to the sea. Work started immediately on the level ground from Preston to Tewitfield, in 1794 on the Lune Aqueduct, built of stone, although Rennie thought brick should have been used, as it would have been cheaper.
By 1797 the aqueduct was open, carrying the canal 62 feet above the river, boats were now able to travel the 42.4 miles from Preston to Tewitfield. In 1813, work began on the canal north from Tewitfield, completed to Kendal in 1819. Construction on the 2.5-mile Glasson Dock branch began in 1819, it opened in 1826, with six locks carrying the canal down to the sea. With the coming of the railways, the proprietors sought to lease the canal to a railway company in 1860. After a Bill to authorise the arrangement with the London and North Western Railway was defeated in the House of Lords in 1863, it was reintroduced the following year, became an Act of Parliament on 29 July 1864; the canal company received £12,665.87 per year for the lease of the northern end of the canal, which allowed them to continue paying dividends and to make investments. The railway company offered to buy the canal, this was formalised by an Act of Parliament obtained on 16 July 1885, although they took over the canal on 1 July.
The canal had always suffered problems with leakage due to limestone fissures in the bed, in 1939 the London and Scottish Railway, who were by now owners of the canal, obtained an Act to close the first 0.5-mile section at Kendal. In 1941-42 the by unused section north of Kendal Gas Works was closed because of leakage, the owners attempted to close the whole canal in 1944, but opposition in the House of Lords resulted in a stay of execution. In years, the main commercial traffic was coal from Preston to Kendal Gas Works, built in 1824 on land bought from the canal company, between 6,500 and 7,500 long tons were carried each year; as there was no railway to the gas works, this traffic had ensured the maintenance of the canal, but it was transferred to road vehicles in 1944, the canal carried its final commercial traffic in 1947. In 1955, an Act of Parliament authorised the closure of the canal, along with several others, covering 771 miles in total; the Inland Waterways Association organised several protest meetings, the one held in Lancaster led to the formation of the Lancaster Canal Boat Club.
One immediate effect of the 1955 Act of Parliament was that the canal was drained of water north from Stainton because of leakage, the last 2 miles in Kendal were filled in. Although it was closed, pleasure boats continued to use the section below Tewitfield. Above the locks, a 100-yard section at Burton was drained because of problems with leakage, a pipe replaced the canal, so that the water supply to the lower canal was maintained; this ended navigation north of Tewitfield, so that when the M6 motorway was being constructed, the canal was culverted in three places, despite a local campaign for bridges to be built, so that restoration would be possible in the future. The route of the canal south from Kendal is still apparent, with most of the bridges remaining in place. Although severed by the motorway construction, it was not drained because the channel was used to supply water to a pipeline which ran from the canal near Garstang to a chemical works near Fleetwood; as a result, this section can still be used by small boats.
In 1976, the Lancaster Canal Trust mounted a campaign for the construction of slipways on this section, to make
A tile is a thin object square or rectangular in shape. Tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, baked clay, or glass used for covering roofs, walls, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite and mineral wool used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games; the word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are used to form wall and floor coverings, can range from simple square tiles to complex or mosaics. Tiles are most made of ceramic glazed for internal uses and unglazed for roofing, but other materials are commonly used, such as glass, cork and other composite materials, stone. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts.
Decorative tilework or tile art should be distinguished from mosaic, where forms are made of great numbers of tiny irregularly positioned tesserae, each of a single color of glass or sometimes ceramic or stone. The earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin, with sections elsewhere. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis; the use of sun-dried bricks or adobe was the main method of building in Mesopotamia where river mud was found in abundance along the Tigris and Euphrates. Here the scarcity of stone may have been an incentive to develop the technology of making kiln-fired bricks to use as an alternative. To strengthen walls made from sun-dried bricks, fired bricks began to be used as an outer protective skin for more important buildings like temples, city walls and gates.
Making fired. Fired bricks are solid masses of clay heated in kilns to temperatures of between 950° and 1,150°C, a well-made fired brick is an durable object. Like sun-dried bricks they were made in wooden molds but for bricks with relief decorations special molds had to be made. Rooms with tiled floors made of clay decorated with geometric circular patterns have been discovered from the ancient remains of Kalibangan and AhladinoTiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools. Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship and close fit of the tiles. Tiling from this period can be seen in Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura; the Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed brick tiles, including Darius the Great's palace at Susa, buildings at Persepolis. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, glazed up to a centimeter thick.
Early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls. Seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples; the dome of Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period. The golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces and assembled by pouring liquid plaster between them. After hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings, but the mosaic was not limited to flat areas. Tiles were used to cover both the exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this technique include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz, the Molana Mosque. Other important tile techniques of this time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih, or straps.
Mihrabs, being the focal points of mosques, were the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed. The 14th-century mihrab at Madrasa Imami in Isfahan is an outstanding example of aesthetic union between the Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament; the pointed arch, framing the mihrab's niche, bears an inscription in Kufic script used in 9th-century Qur'an. One of the best known architectural masterpieces of Iran is the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, from the 17th century, its dome is a prime example of tile mosaic and its winter praying hall houses one of the finest ensembles of cuerda seca tiles in the world. A wide variety of tiles had to be manufactured in order to cover complex forms of the hall with consistent mosaic patterns; the result was a technological triumph as well as a dazzling display of abstract ornament. During the Safavid period, mosaic ornaments were replaced by a haft rang technique. Pictures were painted on plain rectangle tiles and fired afterwards. Besides economic reasons, the seven colors method gave more freedom to artists and was less time-consuming.
It was popular until the Qajar period, when the palette of colors was extended by orange. The seven colors of Haft Rang tiles were black, ultramarine