World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Italo Zilioli is an Italian former professional cyclist. Born in Turin, as a professional, he won 58 races, including the 1966 Züri-Metzgete, he totalled 5 stages at the Giro d'Italia: he however never won the major tour of his country, placing 2nd in three occasions and third in one as a member of Filotex. Zilioli lives in the province of Cuneo and is responsible for the stage starts for Giro d'Italia. Italo Zilioli at Cycling Archives Italo Zilioli – official Tour de France results
Ugo Agostoni, was an Italian professional road bicycle racer. Agostoni was professional from 1911 to 1924 during which time he won the Giro dell'Emilia, a stage in the 1912 Giro d'Italia while he was riding for the Peugeot cycling team and another stage in the 1920 Giro d'Italia. Agostoni’s greatest win was in Milan–San Remo in 1914. Agostoni was killed during World War II. From 1946 onwards, a race has been organized in his honor called the Coppa Ugo Agostoni, won by several great cycling champions such as Felice Gimondi, Franco Bitossi, Eddy Merckx, Roger De Vlaeminck, Francesco Moser, Jan Ullrich and Gianni Bugno. Ugo Agostoni at Cycling Archives
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Lissone is a town and comune in the province of Monza and Brianza, Italy. Lissone is 18 kilometres from Milan. Lissone is bounded by the municipality of Vedano al Lambro, Muggiò, Seregno, Sovico and Biassono; the city is served by the SS36- Highway of Lake of Como and Spluga and by the Milan–Chiasso railway line. Lissone received the honorary title of city by a presidential decree on November 27, 1982. Lissone is served by Lissone-Muggiò railway station. Pierantonio Tremolada, bishop of Brescia, born in Lissone
Molteni was an Italian professional road bicycle racing team from 1958 until the end of 1976. It won 663 races, many of them earned by Eddy Merckx. Other riders included Gianni Marino Basso, who contributed 48 and 34 wins respectively; the Molteni family continues in cycling with sponsorship of Salmilano. The sponsors Molteni were Italian salami manufacturers near Milan; the Molteni team began in 1958 with Renato Molteni as team manager. It was started by Pietro Molteni; the team was managed by his son, Ambrogio Molteni, a former professional rider. The former Italian road champion, Giorgio Albani, finished his career with Molteni in 1959 and came back two years as directeur sportif; the team had success with Gianni Motta in the 1966 Giro d'Italia and Michele Dancelli in the classics. Merckx joined at the end of 1970, having twice won the Tour de France and two editions of the Giro d'Italia. Molteni became predominantly Belgian and took many of Merckx's teammates from Faemino, including his directeur sportif, Guillaume Driessens.
Albani replaced Driessens and directed the team with Robert Lelangue from 1972 to 1976. Other directeurs sportifs included Marino Fontana. After 1976 Molteni retired from the peloton. Tour de France General classification 1971, 1972, 1974 Giro d'Italia General classification 1966, 1972, 1973, 1974 Vuelta a España General classification 1973 World Championships road race 1966 1971 and 1974 Giro di Lombardia 1964, 1971, 1972 Italy road race championships 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967 Luxembourg road race championships 1968, 1969, 1970 Belgium road race championships 1971 Trofeo Baracchi 1964, 1972 Tour de Romandie General classification 1966 Tour de Suisse General classification 1967, 1974 Tour de Luxembourg General classification 1968, 1969, 1970 Paris–Luxembourg General classification 1968 Milan–San Remo 1970, 1971, 1972, 1975, 1976 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré General classification 1971 Liège–Bastogne–Liège 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1976 Omloop Het Volk 1971, 1973, 1974, 1975 Rund um den Henninger-Turm 1971 Tour of Belgium General classification 1971, 1972 Grand Prix des Nations 1972, 1973 E3 Prijs Vlaanderen 1973 Amstel Gold Race 1973, 1975 Gent–Wevelgem 1973 Paris–Brussels 1973 Paris–Roubaix 1973 Tour of Flanders 1975 Rudi Altig Peter Post Franco Balmamion Michele Dancelli Gianni Motta Marino Basso Eddy Merckx Herman Van Springel Roger Swerts Joseph Bruyère Media related to Molteni at Wikimedia Commons
Franco Bitossi is an Italian former professional cyclist for Filotex. He was born in Camaioni di Carmignano. Bitossi cycled for three years as an amateur and became a professional in October 1961, after he had reached the required age of 21; as a professional cyclist, from 1961 until 1978, he won a total of 171 races. In 1965 he won the Tour de Suisse and the Züri-Metzgete, which he won again in 1968. In 1967 he won the Tirreno–Adriatico, Giro di Lombardia and Coppa Agostoni, while the following year he became the first Italian to win the points classification in the Tour de France. In 1970, he won the Italian championship. In 1972 he became famous for his near victory at the World Championship in Gap, where he was beaten by only a few meters by his teammate Marino Basso. Four years in 1978, he won the Italian Championship again. Bitossi was nicknamed Cuore matto due to a cardiac arrhythmia which compelled him to stop midway in a stage. Franco Bitossi at Cycling Archives