Michigan Technological University
Michigan Technological University is a public research university in Houghton, Michigan. Its main campus sits on 925 acres on a bluff overlooking Portage Lake. Michigan Tech was founded in 1885 as the first post-secondary institution in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and was created to train mining engineers to operate the local copper mines. Science, technology and business have been added to the numerous engineering disciplines, Michigan Tech now offers more than 130 degree programs through its five colleges and schools. Michigan Tech's athletic teams are nicknamed the Huskies and compete in the NCAA Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference; the men's hockey team competes in Division I as a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association, has won three national championships. The women's basketball team were national runners-up in 2011. Michigan Tech was founded in 1885 as the Michigan Mining School. After much agitation by Jay Abel Hubbell, the state legislature established the school to train mining engineers.
Hubbell donated land for the school's first buildings. The school started with twenty-three students, it was housed in the Houghton Fire Hall from 1886 through 1889. MTU's first president was Marshman E. Wadsworth. Enrollment grew to such a point; the name was changed to the Michigan College of Mines in 1897. This name lasted through World War I until 1925, but by this time the school began offering a wider variety of degrees and once again decided to change its name to the Michigan College of Mining and Technology in 1927. Fred W. McNair was the college's second president. By 1931, enrollment had reached nearly 600. Over the next few years, due to the Great Depression, money was scarce, causing department heads and the president of the university, William Hotchkiss, to take pay cuts. Under President Grover C. Dillman, the school underwent many notable changes, including the construction of the Memorial Union Building, the purchasing an ice rink and a golf course as well as the procurement of the village of Alberta, Michigan.
In 1956, J. Robert Van Pelt became the new president of the university, he created a focus on research. This included the school's first analog computation class in 1956–1957. In the final years of his presidency, the school changed from a college to a university, changing its name a final time to Michigan Technological University; the change from the Michigan College of Mining and Technology was necessary for two reasons, according to Van Pelt. First, the college had expanded too and the current name was no longer an accurate title. Including "mining" in the name of the college was misleading; the name "Michigan Technological University" was chosen in order to retain the nickname "Michigan Tech", in use since 1927. Richard J. Koubek has been president since July 1, 2018. Although engineering still accounts for some 59 percent of all enrollment as of fall 2010, the university now offers more than 120 undergraduate degree programs and 70 graduate degree programs. Along with its new name, the school gained new constitutional status in 1964.
This gave responsibility for control of the university to its Board of Control rather than the state legislature. The main Michigan Tech campus is located on US 41 in Houghton, it is the safest campus in Michigan, the third safest in the United States, according to Reader's Digest. The main part of campus can be traversed in about 10 minutes; the offices of the Michigan Tech Fund are located in the Huntington Bank Building in Hancock. The Lakeshore Center in downtown Houghton houses the offices of Human Relations, Vice President for Research, other departments. Faculty are involved in several distance education programs with clients including General Motors; the Portage Lake Golf Course opened for play in April 1902. In 1945, the members could no longer support the needs of the course and sold it to Michigan Tech for one dollar. Since many improvements have been made such as the addition of another nine holes in 1969. In 1984, the new clubhouse was constructed. In 1996, a sprinkler system was installed to keep it playable.
The Portage Lake Golf Course is located two miles southeast of campus. With 18 holes on 160 acres, it offers two nines of distinctly different challenges. Mont Ripley is the oldest ski area in Michigan in the snowiest city in the Midwest. It's University-owned, so Michigan Tech students ski or snowboard for free. Mont Ripley has twenty-two trails, a terrain park, a tubing park, sits on 112 acres, has a scenic overlook of the Keweenaw Waterway. It's about two miles from campus. In 2019, Michigan Tech's Mont Ripley earned the University a No. 13 rating on College Census' 25 Best Colleges for Skiing and Snowboarding list. Michigan Tech offers more than 130 undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering and physical sciences, computing and economics, environmental studies, arts and social sciences; the university is divided into colleges. The average overall ACT scores for incoming students is 27.2 in fall 2017, compared to 21.2 nationally. It has the highest tuition of all public universities in Michigan, exceeding both Michigan State and the University of Michigan.
The College of Engineering's environmental engineering and mechanical engineering enrollments rank in the top ten nationally and their respective graduate programs are ranked in the top 50 in the US. The electrical engineering department
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
Calumet is a village in Calumet Township, Houghton County, in the U. S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, once at the center of the mining industry of the Upper Peninsula. Known as Red Jacket, the village includes the Calumet Downtown Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the village may itself be included within the Calumet Historic District, a larger area, NRHP-listed and, a National Historic Landmark District. It is bordered on the north by Calumet Township, on the south by the unincorporated towns of New Town and Blue Jacket, on the east by Blue Jacket and Calumet Township, on the west by Yellow Jacket and Calumet Township; the population was 726 at the 2010 census. Calumet's nickname is Copper Town U. S. A. What is now Calumet was settled in 1864 under the name of "Red Jacket", named for a Native American Chief of the Seneca tribe; until 1895 the name "Calumet" was used by the nearby town of Michigan. Red Jacket grew due to the copper mines in the area, it was incorporated as a town in 1867.
The copper mines were rich. In addition to copper mining and smelting, the region supported the dairy industry and truck farming. Many immigrants settled there in the late 19th century. By 1900, Red Jacket had a population of 4,668, Calumet Township, which contained Red Jacket and nearby mining towns, had a population of 25,991. However, in 1913, Red Jacket suffered from the Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the population began to decline. In the same year, the town was the site of the Italian Hall Disaster. Striking miners and their families were gathered on Christmas Eve for a party in Italian Hall, when the cry of "fire" precipitated a stampede that crushed or suffocated seventy-three victims, the majority of them children; the identity of the person who started the stampede has never been determined. Folk singer Woody Guthrie's song, "1913 Massacre", is based on this event. Loss of wartime demand caused the copper price to drop following World War I. With the decreased demand for copper, thousands left Red Jacket in the 1920s, many moving to Detroit, Michigan where the automobile industry was booming.
During the Great Depression all mines were shut down. As a result, many miners and their families left to find work. In 1950, the population of Calumet was 1,256 people. Small-time mining continued in the area during World War II until it was shut down by a labor strike in 1968; the Calumet Historic District is another area of interest, listed like the Calumet Downtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1984, Calumet's name was borrowed by Hollywood. Calumet was moved from Michigan to Colorado, where it was invaded by Soviet paratroopers in the film Red Dawn. One of the film's producers grew up on the Keweenaw Peninsula. Hunk Anderson, head football coach of Notre Dame and Chicago Bears George Brunet, baseball pitcher, attended high school in Calumet Ben Johnson, ice hockey player. Calumet is at an elevation of 1,209 feet above sea level. Parts of the Keweenaw National Historical Park are located inside the village limits; the village of Calumet now sits on over 2,000 miles of underground mine shafts and stopes, empty for many decades.
Houghton County Memorial Airport serves Houghton County and the surrounding communities. One of the biggest parts of the food culture of not only Calumet, but the entire Copper Country is the pasty; this was a main part of copper miners' diets. A pasty is a mixture of meat, rutabaga and onions wrapped in a crust made of flour and lard. Traditionally Cornish, they have sparked local events such as the Pasty Fest, where there are eating contests, events, a tug of war event where the losers take a dive into an inflatable pool filled with ketchup; the Calumet Theatre is a theater and opera house, constructed in 1900. In 1898, the copper mining industry was booming, the town had an enormous surplus in its treasury; the town council decided to spend some of the surplus on a theater. The theater hosted a large number of famous actors and opera singers. With the close of the mines, the theater became a movie theater and fell into general disrepair for many years. In 1975, the town began a large project to repair and restore the theater, now used for many local and touring productions.
The theatre was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 5, 1971. The Theatre is home to The Red Jacket Jamboree, an old-time radio variety show heard on Public Radio Stations; every two years there is an all school reunion, for graduates of Calumet High School. Many activities occur at this time, including parade. Debuting in 2005, The Great Deer Chase Mountain Bike Race takes place every August in Calumet; the Race is held at Swedetown Trails. Pasty Fest is a one day event that takes place e
Native copper is an uncombined form of copper that occurs as a natural mineral. Copper is one of the few metallic elements to occur in native form, although it most occurs in oxidized states and mixed with other elements. Native copper was used by pre-historic peoples. Native copper occurs as isometric cubic and octahedral crystals, but more as irregular masses and fracture fillings, it has a reddish, and/or brownish color on fresh surfaces, but is weathered and coated with a green tarnish of copper carbonate. Its specific gravity is 8.9 and its hardness is 2.5–3. The mines of the Keweenaw native copper deposits of Upper Michigan were major copper producers in the 19th and early 20th centuries, are the largest deposits of native copper in the world. Native Americans mined copper on a small scale at this and many other locations, evidence exists of copper trading routes throughout North America among native peoples, proven by isotopic analysis; the first commercial mines in the Keweenaw Peninsula opened in the 1840s.
Isle Royale in western Lake Superior was a site of many tons of native copper. Some of it was extracted by native peoples, but only one of several commercial attempts at mining turned a profit there. An archived record of native copper found up river from Lake Superior, on the west branch of the Ontonagon River, via being dragged by a glacier is seen in the Ontonagon Boulder, Ontonagon Boulder now in the possession of the Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Another major native copper deposit is in Bolivia; the name copper comes from the Greek kyprios, "of Cyprus", the location of copper mines since pre-historic times. Specimens from notable native copper localities worldwide Copper Inuit Thurner, Arthur W. Strangers and Sojourners - A History of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula ISBN 0-8143-2396-0. B "Prehistoric Copper in Wisconsin". Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center. Archived from the original on 2005-08-30. Retrieved 2005-06-26
Hancock is a city in Houghton County, United States and is located on Copper Island, part of the Keweenaw Peninsula, on the Keweenaw Waterway directly opposite Houghton, Michigan. The population was 4,634 at the 2010 census; the earliest building in what is now the City of Hancock was a log cabin erected in 1846 on the site of the Ruggles Mining Claim, halfway up atop the hillside. It was owned by Christopher Columbus Douglass, who came to live there in 1852; the Quincy Mining Company founded Hancock in the year of 1859 after purchasing the land from Douglass and building an office and mine on the site. The city was named after a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Hancock's first store was built by the Leopold brothers in 1858. Samuel W. Hill, an agent for the Quincy Mining Company, platted the Village of Hancock in 1859. On 20 August 1860, Bishop Frederic Baraga and Reverend Edward Jacker selected lots nine and ten of block eight in the village for the purpose of constructing a church.
It was on the northeast corner of what is now Ravine Streets. The Quincy Mining Company donated this ground, but for a reason unclear the official paperwork didn't go through for this until 2 July 1875. In the earliest days of Hancock, the village had been within the borders of what is now the Portage Charter Township, however, on 1 April 1861, the area was set off and organized into a new township called Hancock Township; the Portage Stamp Mill was founded nearby at Portage Lake in 1861. In the year 1860, the Keweenaw Waterway was dredged, widening the then-Portage River to allow more aqua transportation to Hancock, neighbouring Houghton. However, the waterway was opened to ships in 1859. On 10 March 1863, the Village of Hancock was organized and the first officers were elected in the office of William Lapp, the justice of the peace and a pioneer lawyer of the time. Hervey Coke Parke was elected as the first village president; this is considered as the founding date of Hancock. M. J. McGurrin opened the first drug store in the village in 1865.
There were a few small grocery stores where James Artman sold handmade harnesses. The population of the town may have been about four hundred people in all, the majority of whom were miners who had occupied smaller houses near the vicinity of their workplace, the mines. On Sunday, 11 April 1869, Hancock is struck by the worst fire in the community's history when a stovepipe in a local saloon where the post office is now located had exploded and engulfed the building in flames, it soon spread across the village with the help of a strong west wind. The fire ended up destroying some 150 buildings, including every store in the village and all of the business places in general, the wooden bridges that had stretched across the ravines, an additional 120 homes. At the time, Hancock had no fire department or fire equipment in the village, this short-lived fire had obliterated three-fourths of Hancock, it took two years to rebuild the village. On 1 March 1871, in response to the devastating fire of 1869, the Hancock Fire Department was organized.
In an 1883 publication the fire chief, Archibald J. Scott, stated that the fire department had 2,500 ft of hose on hand and that the water supply was ample; the Mineral Range Railroad began providing passenger and freight service between Houghton, Dollar Bay and Calumet in 1873. The Mineral Range had their yards along Portage Lake near Tezcuco Street. In 1876, the Reverend Alfred Elieser Backman arrived in Hancock and served as the Copper Country's first pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, he found a divided community of Finnish Lutherans in which some were faithful followers of the Church of Finland, others Laestadian. Backman found the situation too unstable for his handling and was replaced by the Reverend Juho Kustaa Nikander who had arrived that same month in January 1885. By the year 1889, four pastors from the Church of Finland were serving Finnish communities in the Upper Peninsula, among them was Reverend J. K. Nikander, along with Rev. Jacob Juhonpoika Hoikka, Rev. Kaarle L. Tolonen of Ishpeming, Rev. Johan W. Eloheimo of Calumet.
The four pastors met and founded the Suomi Synod on 25 March 1890, though they had conceived the idea as early as November 1889. Suomi College was founded in September 1896 by J. K. Nikander, on 21 January 1900, Suomi College had completed their first building, "Old Main" on Quincy Street; as many as two-thousand people traveled to Hancock to see the laying of the cornerstone. Akin to a large handful of historic buildings in the city, it is made of Jacobsville Sandstone and is built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style of architecture. For eight years, who had served as the College's first President, resided in Old Main; the Houghton County Traction Company offered street car service from Houghton through Hancock to Calumet and Hubbell beginning in 1902. In fall of 1902 the Kerredge Theatre was completed by William and Ray Kerredge in response to the wildly popular Calumet Theatre. Hancock was incorporated as a city on 10 March 1903 and subsequently divided into four wards; the then-incumbent village president Archibald J. Scott was elected as the city's first mayor.
A few years in 1906, the famous Scott Hotel on East Quincy Street was completed. Prior to World War I and around the time of the tempestuous Copper Country Strike of 1913–14, the population of the city had dropped from its all-time high of 8,981 to 7,527 as many families moved away with the heads of their households to seek
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or