The Flathead Range is a mountain range of the Northern Rocky Mountains located south-east of Whitefish, Montana in the Great Bear Wilderness, part of the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex. It is east of the southeast of the Whitefish Range, its west side is drained by the South Fork Flathead River. The highest peak is Great Northern Mountain at 8,705 ft List of mountain ranges in Montana "Flathead Range". BC Geographical Names. Flathead Range in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Winston Churchill Range
The Winston Churchill Range is a mountain range in the Park Ranges of the Canadian Rockies located in Jasper National Park. The range was named after former British prime minister; the eastern boundary of the range begins on the western side of Sunwapta River from the Jasper and Banff boundary and extends north to Sunwapta Falls. The western boundary of the range is defined by the Athabasca River valley to the east of Warwick Mountain; the valley narrows as it approaches the Continental Divide, separates Mt. Columbia from Mt. King Edward, the latter of, not part of the range; this range includes the following mountains and peaks
Castle Mountain is a mountain located within Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies halfway between Banff and Lake Louise. It is the easternmost mountain of the Main Ranges in the Bow Valley and sits astride the Castle Mountain Fault which has thrust older sedimentary and metamorphic rocks forming the upper part of the mountain over the younger rocks forming its base; the mountain's castellated, or castle-like, appearance is a result of erosive processes acting at different rates on the peak's alternating layers of softer shale and harder limestone and quartzite. The mountain was named in 1858 by James Hector for its castle-like appearance. From 1946 to 1979 it was known as Mount Eisenhower in honour of the World War II general Dwight D. Eisenhower. Public pressure caused its original name to be restored, but a pinnacle on the southeastern side of the mountain was named Eisenhower Tower. Located nearby are the remains of Silver City, a 19th-century mining settlement, the Castle Mountain Internment Camp in which persons deemed enemy aliens and suspected enemy sympathizers were confined during World War I.
While looking nearly inaccessible from the Trans-Canada Highway, the peak can be ascended from the backside on the northeastern slopes. The trail to Rockbound Lake leads hikers around the eastern side; the massif contains several high points including Helena Ridge, Stuart Knob and Television Peak, the latter being named for the TV repeater located on top. Technicians use a helicopter rather than hiking the long ascent to the top. Castle Mountain is the easternmost member of the Main Ranges in the Bow Valley. Passing through the mountain is the Castle Mountain Fault, a thrust fault which separates it and the other nearby peaks of the Main Ranges from the Sawback Range to the northeast, the westernmost of the Front Ranges in the region. Castle Mountain's upper sections, including its cliff faces, consist of late Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian age sedimentary rocks such as limestone and shale along with some metamorphic quartzite. Deposited in an ancient shallow sea, these deposits were thrust over younger layers of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic age which now form the forested sloping, base of Castle Mountain.
It is an example of a castellated mountain in which erosion has sculpted a series of flat or sloping terraces composed of softer shale and sharp cliffs which reveal alternating layers of shale interspersed by harder layers of quartzite and limestone. On January 25, 2017, the Government of Canada and the Siksika Nation announced an agreement to settle a land claim in the region of Castle Mountain, known as Miistukskoowa to the Siksika; the agreement ended an outstanding claim dating back to the 1880s when land located at Castle Mountain was set aside as a timber berth for the use and benefit of the First Nation. The basis of the claim was that these lands were wrongfully taken from the First Nation in 1908 without their consent and without proper compensation. In 1911, these lands at Castle Mountain were added to Rocky Mountain Park, now known as Banff National Park; the agreement provides the Siksika Nation with $123 million in financial compensation, the option to purchase on the open market up to 17,491 acres of land outside of the boundaries of Banff National Park and apply to Canada to have the lands added to its reserve, economic opportunities inside Banff National Park, ongoing park access for cultural and educational purposes.
First Nation members voted to approve the settlement on March 4, 2016. Canada gave its final approval on August 15, 2016. James Hector, who accompanied the Palliser Expedition, encountered Castle Mountain in August 1858 while leading a side expedition to find the headwaters of the Bow River, he noted that it "...looks like a gigantic castle" and named it Castle Mountain. He made the first recorded ascent of its slopes, but is not believed to have reached its summit; the official journal of the Palliser Expedition records his ascent: At 1,000 feet above the valley, before we had got quite out of the woods, we came to a cliff, about 80 feet high, composed of quartzite and indurated sandstone of a pinkish hue. Above the point is a grassy slope, having an inclination of 33°, so slippery that it was only with great trouble that we got over it. After this we reached the first of the cliff ranges; when 2,000 feet above the valley we passed round to the N side of the mountain, found that a deep valley separated it from a lower spur composed of splintery shale of a dull red colour.
The mass of the mountain, which yet rose more than 2,000 feet above us, seemed to be composed of thick bedded limestones, these breaking away as the soft shales below them have been destroyed has given rise to the castellated appearance. The first climber to reach the top of Castle Mountain was Arthur P. Coleman, a professor at the University of Toronto, in 1884. Lawrence Grassi and P. Cerutti, both from Canmore, were the first to climb Eisenhower Tower in 1926. In 1881, Joe Healy received some ore in trade from a First Nations person, discovered to contain a high silver content; the following year he settled at Castle Mountain as a prospector. News of Healy's ore soon spread.
Morrissey ridge is a mountain range of the Border Ranges located south-east of Fernie. Ranges of the Canadian Rockies BCGNIS entry "Morrissey Ridge" Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia entry "Morrissey Ridge"
The Fairholme Range is a mountain range east of the Bow River valley in the Canadian Rockies. The range is bounded by the Trans-Canada Highway on the west side while the northern section of the range extends into Banff National Park to the southern shores of Lake Minnewanka. John Palliser named the range in 1859 after his sister Grace Fairholme, who had married William Fairholme. Peaks of this range include: In the spring and summer of 2003, Parks Canada performed a prescribed burn in selected areas of the range in order to reduce fire hazard, manage pine beetle population and increase sheep habitat. In total, 5300 hectares of land were affected
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List