The Livonian War was fought for control of Old Livonia, when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland. During the period 1558–1578, Russia dominated the region with early military successes at Dorpat and Narva. Russian dissolution of the Livonian Confederation brought Poland–Lithuania into the conflict, while Sweden and Denmark both intervened between 1559 and 1561. Swedish Estonia was established despite constant invasion from Russia, Frederick II of Denmark bought the old Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, which he placed under the control of his brother Magnus of Holstein. Magnus attempted to expand his Livonian holdings to establish the Russian vassal state Kingdom of Livonia, which nominally existed until his defection in 1576. In 1576, Stefan Batory became King of Poland as well as Grand Duke of Lithuania and turned the tide of the war with his successes between 1578 and 1581, including the joint Swedish–Polish–Lithuanian offensive at the Battle of Wenden.
This was followed by an extended campaign through Russia culminating in the long and difficult siege of Pskov. Under the 1582 Truce of Jam Zapolski, which ended the war between Russia and Poland–Lithuania, Russia lost all its former holdings in Livonia and Polotsk to Poland–Lithuania; the following year and Russia signed the Truce of Plussa with Sweden gaining most of Ingria and northern Livonia while retaining the Duchy of Estonia. By the mid-16th century, economically prosperous Old Livonia had become a region organised into the decentralised and religiously divided Livonian Confederation, its territories consisted of the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order, the prince-bishoprics of Dorpat, Ösel–Wiek, as well as Courland, the Archbishopric of Riga and the city of Riga. Together with Riga, the cities of Dorpat and Reval, along with the knightly estates, enjoyed privileges enabling them to act independently; the only common institutions of the Livonian estates were the held common assemblies known as landtags.
As well as a divided political administration, there were persistent rivalries between the archbishop of Riga and the landmeister of the Order for hegemony. A schism had existed within the Order since the Reformation had spread to Livonia in the 1520s, although the transformation of the country into a Lutheran region was a gradual process, resisted by part of the Order that to a varying degree remained sympathetic to Roman Catholicism; as war approached, Livonia had a weak administration subject to internal rivalries, lacked any powerful defences or outside support, was surrounded by monarchies pursuing expansionist policies. Robert I. Frost notes of the volatile region: "Racked with internal bickering and threatened by the political machinations of its neighbours, Livonia was in no state to resist an attack."The Order's landmeister and gebietiger, as well as the owners of Livonian estates, were all lesser nobles who guarded their privileges and influence by preventing the creation of a higher, more powerful noble class.
Only the archbishopric of Riga overcame resistance of the lesser nobles. Wilhelm von Brandenburg was appointed as archbishop of Riga and Christoph von Mecklenburg as his coadjutor, with the help of his brother Albert of Brandenburg–Ansbach, the former Prussian hochmeister who had secularised the southern Teutonic Order state and in 1525 established himself as duke in Prussia. Wilhelm and Christoph were to pursue Albert's interests in Livonia, among, the establishment of a hereditary Livonian duchy styled after the Prussian model. At the same time the Order agitated for its re-establishment in Prussia, opposed secularization and creation of a hereditary duchy. By the time the Livonian War broke out, the Hanseatic League had lost its monopoly on the profitable and prosperous Baltic Sea trade. While still involved and with increasing sales, it now shared the market with European mercenary fleets, most notably from the Dutch Seventeen Provinces and France; the Hanseatic vessels were no match for contemporary warships, since the league was unable to maintain a large navy because of a declining share of trade, its Livonian members Riga and trading partner Narva were left without suitable protection.
The Danish navy, the most powerful in the Baltic Sea, controlled the entrance to the Baltic Sea, collected requisite tolls, held the strategically important Baltic Sea islands of Bornholm and Gotland. A long bar of Danish territories in the south and lack of sufficient year-round ice-free ports limited Sweden's access to Baltic trade; the country prospered due to exports of timber and most notably copper, coupled with the advantages of a growing navy and proximity to the Livonian ports across the narrow Gulf of Finland. Before the Livonian war, Sweden had sought expansion into Livonia, but the intervention of the Russian tsar temporarily stalled these efforts through the Russo-Swedish War of 1554–1557, which culminated in the 1557 Treaty of Novgorod. Through its absorption of the principalities of Novgorod and Pskov, the Tsardom of Russia had become Livonia's eastern neighbour and grown stronger after annexing the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan; the conflict between Russia and the Western powers was exacerbated by Russia's isolation from sea trade.
The new Ivangorod port built by Tsar Ivan on the eastern shore of the Narva River in 1550 was considered unsatisfactory on account of its shallow waters. Thereafter the tsar demanded that the Livonian Confederation pay about 6,000 marks to keep the Bishopric of Dorpat, based on the claim that every
Garrison is the collective term for any body of troops stationed in a particular location to guard it, but now simply using it as a home base. The garrison is in a city, fort, ship or similar. "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town. "Garrison towns" were used during the Arab Islamic conquests of Middle Eastern lands by Arab-Muslim armies to increase their dominance over indigenous populations. In order to occupy non-Arab, non-Islamic areas, nomadic Arab tribesmen were taken from the desert by the ruling Arab elite, conscripted into Islamic armies, settled into garrison towns as well as given a share in the spoils of war; the primary utility of the Arab-Islamic garrisons was to control the indigenous non-Arab peoples of these conquered and occupied territories, to serve as garrison bases to launch further Islamic military campaigns into yet-undominated lands. A secondary aspect of the Arab-Islamic garrisons was the uprooting of the aforementioned nomadic Arab tribesmen from their original home regions in the Arabian Peninsula in order to proactively avert these tribal peoples, their young men, from revolting against the Islamic state established in their midst.
In the United Kingdom, "Garrison" specifically refers to any of the major military stations such as Aldershot, Colchester, Tidworth and London, which have more than one barracks or camp and their own military headquarters commanded by a colonel, brigadier or major-general, assisted by a garrison sergeant major. In Ireland, Association football has been termed the "garrison game" or the "garrison sport" for its connections with British military serving in Irish cities and towns. In Israel, a "garrison unit" is a regular unit defending a specified Israeli zone in need of protection from attack from combatants. Israeli garrison units placed in the disputed territories of West Bank are recognized under UN Resolution 242 as occupied pending peaceful recognition by all regional combatants, it was an old custom in ancient Italy to send out colonies for the purpose of securing new conquests. The Romans, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of their own citizens in conquered towns as a kind of garrison.
Nouveau petit Larousse illustré, 1952
Bogdan Matveyevich Khitrovo was a high-placed Russian statesman, or boyar, who served Tsar Alexis and his son Fyodor III, supporting the party of Maria Miloslavskaya. He is noted for his patronage of icon-painter Simon Ushakov and Simeon of Polotsk, the first Russian poet, it appears that Khitrovo was born in Grigoryevskoye, his father's estate in the region of Kaluga. He would endow the Lyutikov Monastery in nearby Vorotynsk with a number of generous gifts, including an icon featuring his own portrait, he made a name for himself in the mid-1640s as a governor of Temnikov. At that time he established a chain of forts along the Volga river, including Simbirsk, which has an equestrian monument in his honor. Starting in 1648, Khitrovo pursued a brilliant career at court, he was in charge of many prikazes between 1649 and 1664 and he held the office of Master of Arms, or Lord of the Kremlin Armoury, from 1654 until his death. This position allowed him to oversee the activities of major icon-painters in the employ of the Tsar.
In the face of opposition from such eminent personages as Avvakum, Khitrovo encouraged the artists' interest in Western art, which resulted in an unprecedented flowering of naturalism in Russian icon-painting. Khitrovo was related through his mother to the powerful Fyodor Rtishchev, with whom he shared a keen interest in Western culture and a penchant for philanthropy, he led Russian forces during a prolonged war with Poland and took part in the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Andrusovo. During the last 16 years of his life he performed the task of administering the Kremlin palaces, as well as other state estate, including several million of serfs; the old boyar made a bequest of the Khitrovo Gospel, as well as other books and icons, to the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra and other monasteries. According to his will, all his kholops were set free, his tomb is in the crypt of the Novodevichy Convent cathedral. Khitrovo's Biography, by V. A. Gurkin
Reiter or Schwarze Reiter were a type of cavalry in 16th to 17th century Central Europe including Holy Roman Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Tsardom of Russia, others. Contemporary to the Cuirassier and Lancer cavalry, they used smaller horses, for which reason they were known as Ringerpferde, they were recruited in the North German Plain west of the Oder at the time of the Schmalkaldic War of 1546/7. The Reiter raised firearms to the status of primary weapons for cavalry, as opposed to earlier Western European heavy cavalry which relied upon mêlée weapons. A Reiter's main weapons were a sword. In general, commanders expected Reiters to be able to engage their opponents both with firearms and with swords. In the 16th century and up to about 1620, Reiters formed up in deep blocks and used their firearms in a caracole attack in the hopes of disordering enemy infantry before charging home and engaging in hand-to-hand combat. However, enterprising commanders such as Henry IV and Gustavus Adolphus preferred to employ their Reiters and other heavy cavalry in a more aggressive manner, ordering them to press the charge and fire their pistols at point-blank range or to use their swords instead.
Using either or both of these tactics, Reiters could be effective when properly employed. A particular case in point is the Battle of Turnhout in 1597, where a force of Dutch Reiters under Maurice of Nassau defeated the opposing Spanish cavalry and successfully engaged the Spanish infantry with a combination of pistol volleys and sword-in-hand charges; the Reiters consisted of Germans and served in the armies of the German states, in Sweden as "raitars", in Poland as Polish: "rajtaria", elsewhere. Reiter regiments operated in Russian armies between the 1630s and the early 18th century. In the 17th century the Reiters merged into generic cavalry regiments and were no longer seen as a distinct class of horseman
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys services; the measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation. Inflation affects economies in various negative ways; the negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity, allowing the central bank more leeway in carrying out monetary policy, encouraging loans and investment instead of money hoarding, avoiding the inefficiencies associated with deflation.
Economists believe that the high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Today, most economists favor a steady rate of inflation. Low inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more in a downturn, reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy; the task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is given to monetary authorities. These monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, through the setting of banking reserve requirements.
Rapid increases in the quantity of money or in the overall money supply have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used. For instance, when gold was used as currency, the government could collect gold coins, melt them down, mix them with other metals such as silver, copper, or lead, reissue them at the same nominal value. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without increasing the amount of gold used to make them; when the cost of each coin is lowered in this way, the government profits from an increase in seigniorage. This practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered; as the relative value of the coins becomes lower, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and services as before. These goods and services would experience a price increase. Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money to create fiat currency.
During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, reacted by printing more money, leading to inflation. Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty rejected the use of paper money, reverted to using copper coins. Large infusions of gold or silver into an economy led to inflation. From the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, Western Europe experienced a major inflationary cycle referred to as the "price revolution", with prices on average rising sixfold over 150 years; this was caused by the sudden influx of gold and silver from the New World into Habsburg Spain. The silver spread throughout a cash-starved Europe and caused widespread inflation. Demographic factors contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic. By the nineteenth century, economists categorized three separate factors that cause a rise or fall in the price of goods: a change in the value or production costs of the good, a change in the price of money, a fluctuation in the commodity price of the metallic content in the currency, currency depreciation resulting from an increased supply of currency relative to the quantity of redeemable metal backing the currency.
Following the proliferation of private banknote currency printed during the American Civil War, the term "inflation" started to appear as a direct reference to the currency depreciation that occurred as the quantity of redeemable banknotes outstripped the quantity of metal available for their redemption. At that time, the term inflation referred to the devaluation of the currency, not to a rise in the price of goods; this relationship between the over-supply of banknotes and a resulting depreciation in their value was noted by earlier classical economists such as David Hume and David Ricardo, who would go on to examine and debate what effect a currency devaluation has on the price of goods. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Rapid increases in the money supply have taken place a number of times in countries experiencing political crises, produ
Alexis of Russia
Aleksey Mikhailovich was the tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. At the time of his death Russia spanned 2,000,000,000 acres. Born in Moscow on 19 March 1629, the son of Tsar Michael and Eudoxia Streshneva, the sixteen year old Alexei acceded to the throne after his father's death on 12 July 1645. In August, the Tsar's mother died, following a pilgrimage to Sergiyev Posad he was crowned on 28 September in the Dormition Cathedral, he was committed to the care of his tutor Boris Morozov, a shrewd boyar open to Western ideas. Morozov's pursued a peaceful foreign policy, securing a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and avoiding complications with the Ottoman Empire, his domestic policy aimed at limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a useless and expensive court offices. On 17 January 1648 Morozov procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, ten days both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky.
Morozov was accused of sorcery and witchcraft. In May 1648 Muscovites rose against his faction in the Salt Riot, the young Tsar was compelled to dismiss them and exile Boris to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Four months Boris secretly returned to Moscow to regain some of his power; the popular discontent demonstrated by the riot was responsible for Alexis' 1649 issuance of a new legal code, the Sobornoye Ulozhenie. In 1648, using the experience of creating regiments of the foreign system during the reign of his father, Alexis began reforming the army; the main direction of the reform was the mass creation of New Order Regiments: Reiters, Soldiers and Hussars. These regiments formed the backbone of the new army of Tsar Alexis. To fulfill the reform goals, a large number of European military specialists were hired for service; this became possible because of the end of the Thirty Years' War, which created a colossal market for military professionals in Europe. Throughout his reign, Alexei faced rebellions across Russia.
After resolving the 1648 Salt Riot Alexei faced rebellions in 1650 in the cities of Pskov and Great Novgorod. Alexei put down the Novgorod rebellion but was unable to subdue Pskov, was forced to promise the city amnesty in return for surrender; the Metropolitan Nikon distinguished himself at Great Novgorod and in 1651 became the Tsar's chief minister. By the 1660s, Alexei's wars with Poland and Sweden had put an increasing strain on the Russian economy and public finances. In response, Alexei's government had begun minting large numbers of copper coins in 1654 to increase government revenue but this led to a devaluation of the ruble and a severe financial crisis; as a result, angry Moscow residents revolted in the 1662 Copper Riot, put down violently. In 1669, the Cossacks along the Don in southern Russia erupted in rebellion; the rebellion was led by Stenka Razin, a disaffected Don Cossack who had captured the Russian terminus of Astrakhan. From 1670 to 1671, Razin seized multiple towns along the Volga River.
The turning point in his campaign was his failed siege of Simbirsk in October 1670. Razin was captured on the Don in April 1671, was drawn and quartered in Moscow. In 1651 Safavid troops attacked Russian fortifications in the North Caucasus; the main issue involved the expansion of a Russian garrison on the Koy Su River, as well as the construction of several new fortresses, in particular the one built on the Iranian side of the Terek River. The successful Safavid offensive resulted in the destruction of the Russian fortress and its garrison being expelled. In 1653 Alexis thinking about sending the Zaporozhian Cossacks decided to send an embassy to Persia for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In August 1653 courtier Prince Ivan Lobanov-Rostov and steward Ivan Komynin traveled from Astrakhan to Isfahan. Shah Abbas II agreed to settle the conflict, stating that the conflict was initiated without his consent. In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged from the Khmelnytsky Uprising, encouraged Alexei to attempt to annex the old Rus’ lands.
On 1 October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it out, in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon, elected patriarch in 1652. The campaign of 1654 was an uninterrupted triumph, scores of towns, including the important fortress of Smolensk, fell into the hands of the Russians. Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Tsar Alexei for protection from the Poles, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought about Russian dominance of the Cossack Hetmanate in Left-Bank Ukraine. In the summer of 1655, a sudden invasion by Charles X of Sweden swept the Polish state out of existence, in what became known as the Deluge; the Russians, unopposed appropriated nearly everything, not occupied by the Swedes. When the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands made by Alexei; however Alexei and the king of Sweden quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, at the end of May 1656, with encouragement by the Habsburg emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, Alexei declared war on Sweden.
Great things were expected by Russia of the Swedish war. Dorpat was taken. In the meantime Poland had so far recovered herself as to become a much mo
The Moskva River is a river of western Russia. It rises about 140 km west of Moscow, flows east through the Smolensk and Moscow Oblasts, passing through central Moscow. About 110 km south east of Moscow, at the city of Kolomna, it flows into the Oka River, itself a tributary of the Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea. Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва; the city is named after the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term, although several theories exist. To distinguish the river and the city, Russians call the river Moskva-reka instead of just Moskva; the river is 503 km long, with a vertical drop of 155 m. The area of its drainage basin is 17,600 km2; the maximum depth is 3 metres above Moscow city limits, up to 6 metres below it. It freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In Moscow, the river freezes occasionally.
The absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120 metres above sea level. The main tributaries are the Ruza, Yauza and Severka rivers. Sources of water are estimated as 12 % rain and 27 % subterranean. Since completion of the Moscow Canal, the Moskva River has collected a share of Upper Volga water; this has enabled reliable commercial shipping, interrupted by summer droughts. The average discharge, including Volga waters, varies from 38 m3/s near Zvenigorod to 250 m3/s at the Oka inlet; the speed of the current, depending on the season, varies from 0.1 m/s to 1.5–2.0 m/s. Moscow, the capital of Russia, is situated on its banks; the river flows through the towns of Mozhaysk, Zhukovsky, Voskresensk, — at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka — Kolomna. As of 2007, there are its canals within Moscow city limits. Within the city, the river is 120–200 metres wide, the narrowest point being under the Kremlin walls. Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on the Moskva River and from the Upper Volga reservoirs.
Canals, built within Moscow city limits, have created a number of islands. Some of them have names in Russian, some have none. Major, permanent islands are: Serebryany Bor. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s. Tatarskaya Poyma known as Mnyovniki. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s Balchug Island known as Bolotny Ostrov, lying just opposite the Kremlin; the island was formed by the construction of the Vodootvodny Canal in the 1780s, has no official name in Russian. Moscow residents informally call it "Bolotny Ostrov" while members of Moscow's English-speaking community refer to it as Balchug. One uninhabited island north of Nagatino. Three uninhabited islands east of Nagatino, connected by the Pererva lock system. There is a fleet of river ice-breaker cruisers which ply routes from moorings at the Hotel Ukraine and Gorky Park to the Novospassky Monastery and back. Duration of trips ranges from 1.5 to 3 hours. "Moskva". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920