New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Belgian Congo was a Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. The former colony adopted its present-day name, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1964. Colonial rule in the Congo began in the late 19th century. King Leopold II of Belgium attempted to persuade the Belgian government to support colonial expansion around the then-largely unexplored Congo Basin, their ambivalence resulted in Leopold's establishing a colony himself. With support from a number of Western countries, Leopold achieved international recognition for a personal colony, the Congo Free State, in 1885. By the turn of the century, the violence used by Free State officials against indigenous Congolese and a ruthless system of economic exploitation led to intense diplomatic pressure on Belgium to take official control of the country, which it did by creating the Belgian Congo in 1908. Belgian rule in the Congo was based on the "colonial trinity" of state and private-company interests; the privileging of Belgian commercial interests meant that large amounts of capital flowed into the Congo and that individual regions became specialised.
On many occasions, the interests of the government and of private enterprise became linked, the state helped companies to break strikes and to remove other barriers raised by the indigenous population. The colony was divided into hierarchically organised administrative subdivisions, run uniformly according to a set "native policy"; this contrasted the practice of British and French colonial policy, which favoured systems of indirect rule, retaining traditional leaders in positions of authority under colonial oversight. During the 1940s and 1950s the Belgian Congo experienced extensive urbanisation, the colonial administration began various development programmes aimed at making the territory into a "model colony". One result saw the development of a new middle-class of Europeanised African "évolués" in the cities. By the 1950s the Congo had a wage labour force twice as large as that in any other African colony. In 1960, as the result of a widespread and radical pro-independence movement, the Congo achieved independence, becoming the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville under Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and President Joseph Kasa-Vubu.
Poor relations between political factions within the Congo, the continued involvement of Belgium in Congolese affairs, the intervention by major parties during the Cold War led to a five-year-long period of war and political instability, known as the Congo Crisis, from 1960 to 1965. This ended with the seizure of power by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in November 1965; until the part of the 19th century, few Europeans had ventured into the Congo basin. The rainforest and accompanying malaria and other tropical diseases, such as sleeping sickness, made it a difficult environment for European exploration and exploitation. In 1876, King Leopold II of Belgium organized the International African Association with the cooperation of the leading African explorers and the support of several European governments for the promotion of African exploration and colonization. After Henry Morton Stanley had explored the region in a journey that ended in 1878, Leopold courted the explorer and hired him to help his interests in the region.
Leopold II had been keen to acquire a colony for Belgium before he ascended to the throne in 1865. The Belgian civil government showed little interest in its monarch's dreams of empire-building. Ambitious and stubborn, Leopold decided to pursue the matter on his own account. European rivalry in Central Africa led to diplomatic tensions, in particular with regard to the unclaimed Congo River basin. In November 1884 Otto von Bismarck convened a 14-nation conference to find a peaceful resolution to the Congo crisis. Though the Berlin Conference did not formally approve the territorial claims of the European powers in Central Africa, it did agree on a set of rules to ensure a conflict-free partitioning of the region; the rules recognised the Congo basin as a free-trade zone. But Leopold II emerged triumphant from the Berlin Conference and his single-shareholder "philanthropic" organization received a large share of territory to be organized as the Congo Free State; the Congo Free State operated as a corporate state controlled by Leopold II through a non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine.
The state included the entire area of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo and existed from 1885 to 1908, when the government of Belgium reluctantly annexed the area. Under Leopold II's administration, the Congo Free State became a humanitarian disaster; the lack of accurate records makes it difficult to quantify the number of deaths caused by the ruthless exploitation and the lack of immunity to new diseases introduced by contact with European colonists – like the 1889–90 flu pandemic, which caused millions of deaths on the European continent, including Prince Baudouin of Belgium, who succumbed to the deadly virus in 1891. William Rubinstein wrote: "More it appears certain that the population figures given by Hochschild are inaccurate. There is, of course, no way of ascertaining the population of the Congo before the twentieth century, estimates like 20 million are purely guesses. Most of the interior of the Congo was unexplored if not inaccessible." Leopold's Force Publique, a private army that terrorized natives to work as forced labour for resource extraction, disrupted their societies and killed and abused natives indiscrimina
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtaining copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, other factors; as in all mining operations, the ore must be beneficiated. The processing techniques depend on the nature of the ore. If the ore is sulfide copper minerals, the ore is crushed and ground to liberate the valuable minerals from the waste minerals, it is concentrated using mineral flotation. The concentrate is then sold to distant smelters, although some large mines have smelters located nearby; such colocation of mines and smelters was more typical in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when smaller smelters could be economic. The sulfide concentrates are smelted in such furnaces as the Outokumpo or Inco flash furnace or the ISASMELT furnace to produce matte, which must be converted and refined to produce anode copper; the final refining process is electrolysis.
For economic and environmental reasons, many of the byproducts of extraction are reclaimed. Sulfur dioxide gas, for example, is captured and turned into sulfuric acid — which can be used in the extraction process or sold for such purposes as fertiliser manufacture. Oxidised copper ores can be treated by hydrometallurgical extraction; the earliest evidence of cold-hammering of native copper comes from the excavation at Çaÿonü Tepesi in eastern Anatolia, which dates between 7200 to 6600 BCE. Among the various items considered to be votive or amulets there was one that looked like a fishhook and one like an awl. Another find, at Shanidar Cave in Mergasur, contained copper beads, dates to 8,700 BCE; the world's oldest known copper mine, as opposed to usage of surface deposits, is at Timna Valley, since the fourth millennium BC, with smelting and surface deposit usage since the sixth to fifth millennium. Pločnik archaeological site in southeastern Europe contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making at high temperature, from 5,000 BCE.
The find in June 2010 extends for additional 500 years the earlier record of copper smelting from Rudna Glava, dated to 5th millennium BCE. Copper smelting technology gave rise to the Copper Age, aka Chalcolithic Age, the Bronze Age; the Bronze Age would not have been possible without humans developing smelting technology. Most copper ores contain only a small percentage of copper metal bound up within valuable ore minerals, with the remainder of the ore being unwanted rock or gangue minerals silicate minerals or oxide minerals for which there is no value. In some cases, tailings have been retreated to recover lost value as the technology for recovering copper has improved; the average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 0.6% copper, with a proportion of economic ore minerals being less than 2% of the total volume of the ore rock. A key objective in the metallurgical treatment of any ore is the separation of ore minerals from gangue minerals within the rock; the first stage of any process within a metallurgical treatment circuit is accurate grinding or comminution, where the rock is crushed to produce small particles consisting of individual mineral phases.
These particles are separated to remove gangue, thereafter followed by a process of physical liberation of the ore minerals from the rock. The process of liberation of copper ores depends upon whether they are sulfide ores. Subsequent steps depend on the nature of the ore containing the copper. For oxide ores, a hydrometallurgical liberation process is undertaken, which uses the soluble nature of the ore minerals to the advantage of the metallurgical treatment plant. For sulfide ores, both secondary and primary, froth flotation is used to physically separate ore from gangue. For special native copper bearing ore bodies or sections of ore bodies rich in supergene native copper, this mineral can be recovered by a simple gravity circuit; the modern froth flotation process was independently invented the early 1900s in Australia by C. V Potter and around the same time by G. D. Delprat. All primary sulfide ores of copper sulfides, most concentrates of secondary copper sulfides, are subjected to smelting.
Some vat leach or pressure leach processes exist to solubilise chalcocite concentrates and produce copper cathode from the resulting leachate solution, but this is a minor part of the market. Carbonate concentrates are a minor product produced from copper cementation plants as the end-stage of a heap-leach operation; such carbonate concentrates can be treated by a solvent extraction and electrowinning plant or smelted. The copper ore is crushed and ground to a size such that an acceptably high degree of liberation has occurred between the copper sulfide ore minerals and the gangue minerals; the ore is wet, suspended in a slurry, mixed with xanthates or other reagents, which render the sulfide particles hydrophobic. Typical reagents include potassium ethylxanthate and sodium ethylxanthate, but dithiophosphates and dithiocarbamates are used; the treated ore is introduced to a water-filled aeration tank containing surfactant such as methylisobutyl carbinol. Air is forced through the slurry and the air bubbles attach to the hydrophobic copper sulfide particles, which are conducted to the surface, where they form a froth and are skimmed off.
These skimmings are subjected to a cleaner-scavenger cell to remove excess silicates and to remove other sulfide minerals that can deleteriousl
Copperbelt Province is a province in Zambia which covers the mineral-rich Copperbelt, farming and bush areas to the south. It was the backbone of the Northern Rhodesian economy during British colonial rule and fuelled the hopes of the immediate post-independence period, but its economic importance was damaged by a crash in global copper prices in 1973; the province adjoins Katanga province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, mineral-rich. The main cities of the Copperbelt are Kitwe, Mufulira, Luanshya and Chililabombwe. Roads and rail links extend north into the Congo to Lubumbashi, but the Second Congo War brought economic contact between the two countries to a standstill, now recovering, it is informally referred to at times as'Copala' or'Kopala', invoking the vernacular-like term of the mineral copper, mined in the province. As per the 2010 Zambian census, Copperbelt Province had a population of 1,972,317 accounting to 15.21% of the total Zambian population of 1,3,092,666. There were 981,887 males and 990,430 females, making the sex ratio to 1,009 for every 1,000 males, compared to the national average of 1,028.
The literacy rate stood at 83.10% against a national average of 70.2%. The rural population constituted 19.11%, while the urban population was 80.89%. The total area of the province was 31,328 km2 and the population density was 63.00 per km2. The population density during 2000 Zambian census stood at 63.00. The decadal population growth of the province was 2.20%. The median age in the province at the time of marriage was 21.7. The average household size was 5.3, with the families headed by females being 4.8 and 5.5 for families headed by men. The total eligible voters in the province was 66.10%. The unemployment rate of the province was 22.10%. The total fertility rate was 5.0, complete birth rate was 5.8, crude birth rate was 29.0, child women population at birth was 587, general fertility rate was 112, gross reproduction rate was 1.8 and net reproduction rate was 1.7. The total labour force constituted 50.40% of the total population. Out of the labour force,63.2 % were 37.7 % women. The annual growth rate of labour force was 2.7%.
Bemba was the most spoken language with 83.90% speaking it. Albinism is a condition where the victims do not have any pigment in hair or eyes; the total population in the province with the condition stood at 2,912. The life expectancy at birth stood at 54 compared to the national average of 51. Provincial administration is set up purely for administrative purposes; the province is headed by a minister appointed by the President and there are ministries of central government for each province. The administrative head of the province is the Permanent Secretary, appointed by the President. There is a Deputy Permanent Secretary, heads of government departments and civil servants at the provincial level. Copperbelt Province is divided into ten districts, Chililabombwe District, Chingola District, Kalulushi District, Kitwe District, Luanshya District, Lufwanyama District, Masaiti District, Mpongwe District, Mufulira District and Ndola District. All the district headquarters are the same as the district names.
There are eleven councils in the province, each of, headed by an elected representative, called councilor. Each councilor holds office for three years; the administrative staff of the council is selected based on Local Government Service Commission from within or outside the district. The office of the provincial government is located in each of the district headquarters and has provincial local government officers and auditors; each council is responsible for raising and collecting local taxes and the budgets of the council are audited and submitted every year after the annual budget. The elected members of the council are paid allowances from the council. Copper belt has three city councils; the government stipulates 63 different functions for the councils with the majority of them being infrastructure management and local administration. Councils are mandated to maintain each of their community centres, local parks, drainage system, cemeteries, caravan sites, libraries and art galleries, they work along with specific government departments for helping in agriculture, conservation of natural resources, postal service and maintaining hospitals and colleges.
The councils prepare schemes. There are no national parks in this most industrial of Zambia's provinces. Other parks with wildlife aspects: Chembe Bird Sanctuary west of Kitwe includes crocodiles and Sitatunga as well as plentiful bird life. Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage; the Copperbelt region of Zambia and Congo D. R. is a 500 million year old mountain chain, the Lufilian Arc, which formed when two large pieces of continental crust, the Kalahari craton and the Congo craton, collided. This collision was one of the many that happened between 700 and 500 million years ago to form the Gondwana supercontinent; this collision is thought to have remobilised base metals already present in the sediments that had accumulated in the basin between the two cratons. These brines concentrated the base metals either along stratigraphic boundaries, or along fractures, faults or within structurally controlled'traps'; the collision produced crustal shortening, during which the stratigraphic sequence was tectonically pushed northwards on top of the Congo Craton.
The Lufilian Arc contains megaconglomerates of glacial origin. One of those is correlated with the Sturtian glaciation, while another correlates with the Marinoan
Bornite known as peacock ore, is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places, its striking iridescence gives it peacock ore. Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both replaced by chalcocite and covellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Bornite is found as disseminations in mafic igneous rocks, in contact metamorphic skarn deposits, in pegmatites and in sedimentary cupriferous shales, it is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by mass. At temperatures above 228 °C, the structure is isometric with a unit cell, about 5.50 Å on an edge. This structure is based on cubic close-packed sulfur atoms, with copper and iron atoms randomly distributed into six of the eight tetrahedral sites located in the octants of the cube.
With cooling, the Fe and Cu become ordered, so that 5.5 Å subcells in which all eight tetrahedral sites are filled alternate with subcells in which only four of the tetrahedral sites are filled. Substantial variation in the relative amounts of copper and iron is possible and solid solution extends towards chalcopyrite and digenite. Exsolution of blebs and lamellae of chalcopyrite and chalcocite is common. Rare crystals are cubic, dodecahedral, or octahedral. Massive. Penetration twinning on the crystallographic direction, it occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte, Montana and at Bristol, Connecticut in the U. S, it is collected from the Carn Brea mine and elsewhere in Cornwall, England. Large crystals are found from Austria. There are traces of it found amongst the hematite in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, it was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Horny Mountains, Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogist Ignaz von Born.
Cuprite Tennantite Tetrahedrite List of minerals named after people Notes BibliographyPalache, C. H. Berman, C. Frondel Dana’s system of mineralogy, v. I, 195–197. Manning, P. G. A study of the bonding Properties of Sulphur in Bornite, The Canadian Mineralogist, 9, 85-94
Mufulira is a town with a population of 125,336 in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. It was established in the 1930s around the site of the Mufulira Copper Mine on its north-western edge; the town is 16 km from the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is the start of the Congo Pedicle road connecting the Copperbelt to the Luapula Province, making that province Mufulira's commercial hinterland. A tarred highway to the south-west connects Mufulira to Kitwe and Chingola, another to the south-east connects to Ndola, the commercial and transport hub of the Copperbelt. A branch of Zambia Railways, carrying freight only, serves the mine; the Mufulira Mine is now owned and operated by Mopani Copper Mines which employs 10,000 permanent workers and produced about 300,000 tonnes of copper bars in 2007 after the rehabilitation of the Mufulira copper smelter by SMEC South Africa. Production and employment levels are down from the 1969 peak when the Copperbelt made Zambia the world's 4th largest copper producer.
In Zambia, Mufulira is well known for being the home of the successful Mufulira Wanderers football team. Zambia's third President, Levy Mwanawasa, was born in Mufulira, as well as top African footballer, Kalusha Bwalya. Notable are Welsh international sportsmen Robert Earnshaw, Dafydd James and Sunday Musonda- Special Assistant to H. E Dr, Kenneth D, Kaunda, Dr. Bornwell Chilale, Prof. S Tembo Abe Bekker Kalusha Bwalya Samuel "Zoom" Ndhlovu Levy Mwanawasa late Robert Earnshaw Christopher Katongo Felix Katongo Dafydd James Robert John "Mutt" Lange Kenneth Kaunda. Frederick Chiluba Simon Kapwepwe Mufulira'Reggae Boys' Rugby Club'Mighty' Mufulira Wanderers F. C. Mopani Copper Mines Copperbelt Province including the history of copper mining in Zambia Mbendi Profile: Zambia Copper Mines. Accessed 15 March 2007. Malachite Plant Extension in Mufulira
Lubumbashi in the southeastern part of Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second-largest city in the country, the largest being the capital, Kinshasa. Lubumbashi is the mining capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, acting as a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies; the copper-mining city serves as the capital of the prosperous Haut-Katanga Province and is near the border with Zambia. Population estimates vary but average around 1.5 million. The Belgian government established the modern-day government in the city of Élisabethville in 1910, named in honour of their queen Elisabeth, wife to king Albert I. By that time, the government had taken over the colony from King Leopold II, renamed it as the Belgian Congo; this site was chosen by Vice-Governor-General Emile Wangermée because of its proximity to the copper mine of Etoile du Congo and the copper ore smelting oven installed by Union Minière du Haut Katanga on the nearby Lubumbashi river. The Comité Spécial du Katanga, a semi-private concessionary company set up in 1906, had its headquarters in Elisabethville throughout the colonial era.
It enjoyed major privileges in terms of land and mining concessions, in the Katanga province. The city prospered with the development of a regional copper mining industry. Huge investments in the 1920s, both in the mining industry and in transport infrastructure, developed the Katanga province into one of the world's major copper ore producers; the population of the city grew apace from approx. 30,000 in 1930, to 50,000 in 1943 and 180,000 in 1957. It was the second city of the Belgian Congo, after Léopoldville; as was customary in sub-Saharan colonies, the city centre of Elisabethville was reserved for the white population. This consisted of Belgian nationals, but the city attracted important British and Italian communities, as well as Jewish Greeks. Congolese were allowed in the white city only during the day, except for the house servants who lived in shanty dwellings located in the backyards of the European city houses. Many men in the black population were labour immigrants from neighbouring regions in the Belgian Congo, from Belgian Rwanda and Burundi, from British Northern Rhodesia.
The black population lived in a so-called cité indigène called quartier Albert, south of the city centre and separated from the white city by a 700-metres-wide neutral zone. With population growth, new indigenous quarters were created; these still form the main suburbs of present-day Lubumbashi: Kenia, Ruashi. The work and businesses related to the mines made Elisabethville the most prosperous region of the Congo during the final decade of Belgian rule. In 1954 there were 8,000 black home owners in the city, it was estimated that black Africans living in Elisabethville had a higher standard of living than anywhere else on the continent at that time. Miners in Élisabethville conducted a strike in December 1941 to protest the severe forced-labor regime that the Belgians imposed on the population because of the "war efforts". A rally in the Union Minière football stadium got out of hand. Police opened numerous protesters were killed. In early 1944, the city was again in the grip of severe tensions and fear of violent protests, following a mutiny of the Force Publique in Luluabourg.
Starting in 1933, the Belgian colonial authorities experimented with a limited form of self-governance by establishing the cité indigène of Elisabethville as a so-called "centre extra-coutumier". It presided over by an indigenous chief. But, due to constant interference from the Belgian authorities, the experiment soon proved a failure; the first indigenous chief – Albert Kabongo – appointed in 1937, was dismissed in 1943 and not replaced. In 1957 Elisabethville was established as a autonomous city; the people of Élisabethville gave a vast majority to the nationalist Alliance des Bakongo, which demanded immediate independence from Belgium. Elisabethville functioned as the administrative capital of the Katanga province, it was an important commercial and industrial centre, a centre of education and health services. The Benedictine Order and missionary Order of Salesians offered a wide range of educational facilities to Europeans and Congolese alike, including vocational training; the Belgians established the University of Élisabethville in 1954–1955.
Élisabethville served as the capital and centre of the secessionist independent state of Katanga during the 1960–1963 Congolese civil war. Moise Tshombe proclaimed Katangan independence in July 1960. Congolese leaders arrested him and charged him with treason in April 1961. Tshombe repudiated these assurances and began to fight anew. United Nations troops opposed Katangan forces and took control of the city in December 1961 under a strong mandate. Roger Trinquier, well known for his published works on counter-insurgency warfare, served as a French military advisor to President Tshombe until international pressure, led by Belgium, caused his recall to France. Mobutu Sese Seko assumed power of the Congo, which he renamed Zaïre, he renamed Élisabethville as "Lubumbashi" in 19