Cape Horn is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, is located on the small Hornos Island. Although not the most southerly point of South America, Cape Horn marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage and marks where the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet. Cape Horn was discovered and first rounded in 1616 by the Dutchman Willem Schouten, who named it Kaap Hoorn after the city of Hoorn in the Netherlands. For decades, Cape Horn was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world; the waters around Cape Horn are hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs. The need for boats and ships to round Cape Horn was reduced by the opening of the Panama Canal in August 1914. However, sailing around the Cape Horn is still regarded as one of the major challenges in yachting, thus a few recreational sailors continue to sail this route, sometimes as part of a circumnavigation of the globe.
All of these choose routes through the channels to the north of the Cape. Several prominent ocean yacht races, notably the Volvo Ocean Race, the VELUX 5 Oceans, the Vendée Globe, sail around the world via the Horn. Speed records for round-the-world sailing are recognized for following this route. Cape Horn is located on Isla Hornos in the Hermite Islands group, at the southern end of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, it marks the north edge of the strait between South America and Antarctica. It is located in Cabo de Hornos National Park; the cape lies within Chilean territorial waters, the Chilean Navy maintains a station on Hoorn Island, consisting of a residence, utility building and lighthouse. A short distance from the main station is a memorial, including a large sculpture made by Chilean sculptor José Balcells featuring the silhouette of an albatross, in remembrance of the sailors who died while attempting to "round the Horn", it was erected in 1992 through the initiative of the Chilean Section of the Cape Horn Captains Brotherhood.
The terrain is treeless, although quite lush owing to frequent precipitation. Cape Horn is the southern limit of the range of the Magellanic penguin; the climate in the region is cool, owing to the southern latitude. There are no weather stations in the group of islands including Cape Horn. Winds were reported to average 30 kilometres per hour, with squalls of over 100 kilometres per hour, occurring in all seasons. There are 278 days of rainfall and 2,000 millimetres of annual rainfallCloud coverage is extensive, with averages from 5.2 eighths in May and July to 6.4 eighths in December and January. Precipitation is high throughout the year: the weather station on the nearby Diego Ramirez Islands, 109 kilometres south-west in the Drake Passage, shows the greatest rainfall in March, averaging 137.4 millimetres. Wind conditions are severe in winter. In summer, the wind at Cape Horn is gale force up to 5% of the time, with good visibility. Many stories are told of hazardous journeys "around the Horn," most describing fierce storms.
Charles Darwin wrote: "One sight of such a coast is enough to make a landsman dream for a week about shipwrecks and death."Being the most southernmost point of land outside of Antarctica, the region experiences 7 hours of daylight during the June solstice, with Cape Horn itself having 6 hours and 57 minutes. The region during the December solstice experiences around 17 and a half hours of daylight during the December solstice, experiences nautical twilight from civil dusk to civil dawn. White nights can be observed the week around the December solstice. Cape Horn is part of the Commune of Cabo de Hornos; the area is part of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region of Chile. Puerto Toro, a few miles south of Puerto Williams, is the closest town to the cape. Many modern tankers are too wide to fit through the Panama Canal, as are a few passenger ships and several aircraft carriers, but there are no regular commercial routes around the Horn, modern ships carrying cargo are seen. However, a number of cruise ships round the Horn when traveling from one ocean to the other.
These stop in Ushuaia or Punta Arenas as well as Port Stanley. Some of the small passenger vessels shuttling between Ushuaia and the Antarctic Peninsula will pass the Horn too and weather permitting. A number of potential sailing routes may be followed around the tip of South America; the Strait of Magellan, between the mainland and Tierra del Fuego, is a major—although narrow—passage, in use for trade well before the Horn was discovered. The Beagle Channel, between Tierra del Fuego and Isla Navarino, offers a potential, though difficult route. Other passages may be taken around the Hermite Islands to the north of Cape Horn. All of these, however, a
Stockton is the county seat of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California. Stockton was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Franceses; the city is named after Robert F. Stockton, it was the first community in California to have a name not of Spanish or Native American origin; the city is located on the San Joaquin River in the northern San Joaquin Valley and had an estimated population of 320,554 by the California Department of Finance for 2017. Stockton is the 63rd largest city in the United States, it was named an All-America City in 1999, 2004, 2015 and again in 2017. Built during the California Gold Rush, Stockton's seaport serves as a gateway to the Central Valley and beyond, it provided easy access for transportation to the southern gold mines. The University of the Pacific, chartered in 1851, is the oldest university in California, has been located in Stockton since 1923; as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, Stockton was the second largest city in the United States to file for bankruptcy protection.
Stockton exited bankruptcy in February 2015. Stockton is situated amidst the farmland of California's San Joaquin Valley, a subregion of the Central Valley. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways. Interstate 5 and State Route 99, inland California's major north-south highways, pass through the city. State Route 4 and the dredged San Joaquin River connect the city with the San Francisco Bay Area to its west. Stockton and Sacramento are California's only inland sea ports. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city occupies a total area of 64.8 square miles, of which 61.7 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. When Europeans first visited the Stockton area, it was occupied by the Yatchicumne, a branch of the Northern Valley Yokuts Indians, they built their villages on low mounds to keep their homes above regular floods. A Yokuts village named Pasasimas was located on a mound between Edison and Harrison Streets on what is now the Stockton Channel in downtown Stockton.
The Siskiyou Trail began in the northern San Joaquin Valley. It was a centuries-old Native American footpath that led through the Sacramento Valley over the Cascades and into present-day Oregon; the extensive network of waterways in and around Stockton was fished and navigated by Miwok Indians for centuries. During the California Gold Rush, the San Joaquin River was navigable by ocean-going vessels, making Stockton a natural inland seaport and point of supply and departure for prospective gold-miners. From the mid-19th century onward, Stockton became the region's transportation hub, dealing with agricultural products. Mexican eraCapt. Charles Maria Weber, a German, emigrated to America in 1836. After spending time in Texas, he came overland from Missouri to California with the Bartleson-Bidwell Party in 1841. Weber went to work for John Sutter. In 1842 Weber settled in the Pueblo of San José; as an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, so he formed a partnership with Guillermo Gulnac.
Born in New York, Gulnac had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, which ruled California. He applied in Weber's place for Rancho Campo de los Franceses, a land grant of 11 square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River. Gulnac and Weber dissolved their partnership in 1843. Gulnac's attempts to settle the Rancho Campo de los Franceses failed, Weber acquired it in 1845. In 1846 Weber had induced a number of settlers to locate on the rancho, when the Mexican–American War broke out. Considered a Californio, Weber was offered the position of captain by Mexican Gen. José Castro, which he declined. Capt. Weber's decision to change sides lost him a great deal of the trust he had built up among his Mexican business partners; as a result, he moved to the grant in 1847 and sold his business in San Jose in 1849. Gold rush eraAt the start of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Europeans and Americans started to arrive in the area of Weber's rancho on their way to the goldfields; when Weber decided to try his hand at gold mining in late 1848, he soon found selling supplies to gold-seekers was more profitable.
As the head of navigation on the San Joaquin River, the city grew as a miners' supply point during the Gold Rush. Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the Gold Rush, the location of what is now Stockton developed as a river port, the hub of roads to the gold settlements in the San Joaquin Valley and northern terminus of the Stockton - Los Angeles Road. During its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including "Weberville," "Fat City," "Mudville" and "California's Sunrise Seaport." In 1849 Weber laid out a town, which he named "Tuleburg," but he soon decided on "Stockton" in honor of Commodore Robert F. Stockton. Stockton was the first community in California to have a name, neither Spanish nor Native American in origin. Chinese immigrationThousands of Chinese came to Stockton from the Kwangtung province of China during the 1850s due to a combination of political and economic unrest in China and the discovery of gold in California.
After the gold rush, many worked for the railroads and land reclamation projects in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and remained in Stockton. By 1880 Stockton was home to the third-largest Chinese community in California. Discriminatory laws
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric
Reed's Store is a historic building located at 679 Main St. in Copperopolis, California. William K. Reed, a miner and one of the first discoverers of copper in Copperopolis, built the store in 1861 to serve the growing mining town; the two-story brick store was designed in the Neoclassical style, a common design for commercial establishments at the time. Reed's Store was the most successful store in Copperopolis until 1867, when a fire and the declining copper industry diminished the town's population. Various lessees rented the store until mine owner Charles Ames bought it in 1890. In 1906, the store became the property of the Union Copper Mining Company, which made the building its headquarters; the company renamed the Calaveras Copper Mining Company, occupied the building throughout the town's 1909–1929 copper boom. The store is now one of four buildings remaining from the 1860s in Calaveras. Reed's Store was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 2, 1992. Photos from the NRHP nomination
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal
United States Bureau of Mines
For most of the 20th century, the United States Bureau of Mines was the primary United States government agency conducting scientific research and disseminating information on the extraction, processing and conservation of mineral resources. The Bureau was abolished in 1996. USBM was established in the Department of the Interior on May 16, 1910, pursuant to the Organic Act, to deal with a wave of catastrophic mine disasters; the Bureau's mission was expanded to include: The conduct of research to enhance the safety and environmental impact of mining and processing of minerals and materials. The collection and dissemination of information about mining and processing of more than 100 mineral commodities across the Nation and in more than 185 countries around the world. Analysis of the impact of proposed mineral-related laws and regulations upon the national interest. Production, conservation and distribution of helium for essential government activitiesThe first director of the USBM was Joseph Austin Holmes, a pioneer in occupational safety and health.
He served from 1910 until his death in 1915. From its creation, the USBM was viewed, both nationally and internationally, as the focal point for new and emerging science and technology in the minerals field. Since entering competition in 1978, the Bureau of Mines won 35 R&D 100 Awards, given annually by R&D Magazine for the 100 most important research innovations of the year; this achievement is impressive considering the small size of the Bureau's research budget, compared to those of competing organizations, such as E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, General Electric Company, Ltd. the Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. USBM provided safety and health inspection for mines on a nationwide basis, replacing some, but not all state inspection operations; this division comprised the majority of personnel in USBM. In 1973 the Secretary of the Interior created a separate agency within the department, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, the safety and health enforcement responsibilities were transferred to the new agency.
In 1977 Congress passed the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, which expanded the federal authority for health and safety regulation, created a new agency, the Mine Safety and Health Administration. MSHA is located in the Department of Labor, replaced MESA. Congress created the Office of Surface Mining with the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, this agency inherited USBM's surface mining activities; the Department of Energy established in 1977, took over the USBM Coal Productivity Research division. However, the work was left unfunded by the newly created DOE as other priorities too the budget; these reorganizations led to a reduction in USBM staff, from 6,000 in 1968 to 2,600 in the late 1970s. At its peak, USBM had 14 centers throughout the nation, but, reduced to four "mining research centers" in Denver, Pittsburgh and Spokane. "We leave knowing that the proud accomplishments of this agency did make a difference in the quality of life we now enjoy, they will continue to do so well into the 21st century."
— USBM Director Rhea GrahamIn September 1995, Congress voted to close the Bureau of Mines and to transfer certain functions to other federal agencies. With USBM's closure $100 million, or 66%, of its 1995 programs ceased, 1,000 of its employees were dismissed. Certain specific health and materials programs were transferred to the Department of Energy, certain minerals information activities moved to the U. S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management; the Bureau's archive of mining maps was transferred to the National Mine Map Repository, a part of the Office of Surface Mining. Closure of the Bureau of Mines, the accompanying transfers of functions and employee layoffs were complete in March 1996; the Bureau's Minerals Information functions were transferred to the U. S. Geological Survey in early 1996; the "Mineral Industry Surveys," "Mineral Commodity Summaries," and the "Minerals Yearbook" continued to be published. The Bureau's technical reports are archived by Technical Report Archive & Image Library The Health and Safety Research Program at the Pittsburgh and Spokane Research Centers was assigned on an interim basis to DOE.
In fiscal year 1997, it was permanently transferred to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention within the Department of Health and Human Services. A total of 413 full-time equivalent employees were transferred to NIOSH on October 11, 1996—336 in Pittsburgh and 77 in Spokane. A position of Associate Director for Mining in the NIOSH headquarters office was created. Under NIOSH, the Pittsburgh and Spokane Research "Centers" were renamed the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory and Spokane Research Laboratory. Both labs reside under NIOSH's Office of Mine Safety and Health Research. On May 28, 2010, Senator Jay Rockefeller released a list of proposed changes to mine safety laws including re-establishing the Bureau of Mines. Since its founding, the numerous accomplishments of the Bureau of Mines have included the identification and development of many new processes, including: Technologies that contributed to reduction of fatalities in mine disasters by 97 percent, from 3,000 in 1907 to 98 in 1993.
Self-rescue equipment to allow miners to continue to breathe when caught in underground disasters. Low-cost methods to extract radium for cancer treatment. Production proce
Calaveras County, California
Calaveras County the County of Calaveras, is a county in the northern portion of the U. S. state, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,171; the county seat is San Andreas. Angels Camp is the only incorporated city in the county. Calaveras is the Spanish word for skulls. Calaveras County is in both the Gold High Sierra regions of California. Calaveras Big Trees State Park, a preserve of Giant Sequoia trees, is in the county several miles east of the town of Arnold on State Highway 4. Credit for the discovery of giant sequoias here is given to Augustus T. Dowd, a trapper who made the discovery in 1852 while tracking a bear; when the bark from the "Discovery Tree" was removed and taken on a tour around the world, the trees became a worldwide sensation and one of the county's first tourist attractions. The uncommon gold telluride mineral calaverite was discovered in the county in 1861 and is named for it. Mark Twain set "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", in the county.
The county hosts an annual fair and Jumping Frog Jubilee, featuring a frog-jumping contest, to celebrate the association with Twain's story. Each year's winner is commemorated with a brass plaque mounted in the sidewalk of downtown Historic Angels Camp and this feature is known as the Frog Hop of Fame. In 2015, Calaveras County had the highest rate of suicide deaths in the United States, with 49.1 suicides per 100,000 people. The Spanish word calaveras means "skulls." The county takes its name from the Calaveras River. He believed they had either died of famine or been killed in tribal conflicts over hunting and fishing grounds. A more cause was a European epidemic disease, acquired from interacting with other tribes near the Missions on the coast; the Stanislaus River, which forms the southern boundary, is named for Estanislao, a Lakisamni Yokut who escaped from Mission San Jose in the late 1830s. He is reported to have raised a small group of men with crude weapons, hiding in the foothills when the Mexicans attacked.
The natives were decimated by Mexican gunfire. In 1836, John Marsh, Jose Noriega, a party of men, went exploring in Northern California, they made camp along a river bed in the evening, when they woke up the next morning, discovered that they had camped in the midst of a great quantity of skulls and bones. They gave the river the appropriate name: Calaveras; the writer Mark Twain spent 88 seminal days in the county, during which time he heard the story that became The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County in the Angel Hotel in 1865. This short story put Calaveras County on the map. Calaveras County was one of the original counties of the state of California, created in 1850 at the time of admission to the Union. Parts of the county's territory were reassigned to Amador County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864; the county's geography includes beautiful landmarks, rolling hills, giant valleys. It is known for its friendly communities, businesses such as agriculture management and construction engineering.
It has numerous caverns, such as Mercer Caverns, California Cavern and Moaning Cavern that are national destinations for tourists from across the country. Other attractions include a thriving wine making industry, including the largest of the Calaveras wineries: Ironstone Vineyards, mountain sports recreation and the performing arts. Gold prospecting in Calaveras County began in late 1848 with a camp founded by Henry and George Angel; the brothers first arrived in California as soldiers, serving under Colonel Frémont during the Mexican War. After the war's end, the brothers found themselves in Monterey where they heard of the fabulous finds in the gold fields, they set out for the mines. The company parted ways upon reaching what became known as Angels Creek; the brothers soon opened a trading post. By the end of the year, over one hundred tents were scattered about the creek and the settlement was referred to as Angels Trading Post shortened to Angels Camp. Placer mining soon gave out around the camp, but an extensive gold-bearing quartz vein of the area's Mother Lode was located by the Winter brothers during the mid-1850s, this brought in the foundations of a permanent town.
This vein followed Main Street from Angels Creek up to the southern edge of Altaville. Five major mines worked the rich vein: the Stickle, the Utica, the Lightner, the Angels, the Sultana; these mines reached their peaks during the 1880s and 1890s, when over 200 stamp mills crushed quartz ore brought in by hand cars on track from the mines. By the time hard rock mining was done, the five mines had producing a total of over $20 million in gold; the telluride mineral calaverite was first recognized and obtained in 1861 from the Stanislaus Mine, Carson Hill, Angels Camp, in Calaveras Co. California, it was named for the County of origin by chemist and mineralogist Frederick Augustus Genth who differentiated it from the known gold telluride mineral sylvanite, formally reported it as a new gold mineral in 1868. George J. Clarke Alexander Hunter According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,037 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry report lists the county's area in acres as 663,000, although the exact figure would