- Willey, Russ. Chambers London Gazetter, p 117-18.
|This London location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|Copse Hill shown within Greater London|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|This London location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Greater London – London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region. The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, statistics, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor, Slough and Eton in the authority. The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary. The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parksGreater London – London
2. Districts of England – The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the structure of government in England is not uniform. Some districts are styled as boroughs, cities, or royal boroughs, these are purely honorific titles, prior to the establishment of districts in the 1890s, the basic unit of local government in England was the parish overseen by the parish church vestry committee. Vestries dealt with the administraction of both parochial and secular governmental matters, parishes were the successors of the manorial system and historically had been grouped into hundreds. Hundreds once exercised some supervising administrative function, however, these powers ebbed away as more and more civic and judicial powers were centred on county towns. From 1834 these parishes were grouped into Poor Law Unions, creating areas for administration of the Poor Law and these areas were later used for census registration and as the basis for sanitary provision. In 1894, based on these earlier subdivisions, the Local Government Act 1894 created urban districts and rural districts as sub-divisions of administrative counties, another reform in 1900 created 28 metropolitan boroughs as sub-divisions of the County of London. Meanwhile, from this date parish-level local government administration was transferred to civil parishes, the setting-down of the current structure of districts in England began in 1965, when Greater London and its 32 London boroughs were created. They are the oldest type of still in use. In 1974, metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties were created across the rest of England and were split into metropolitan districts, in London power is now shared again, albeit on a different basis, with the Greater London Authority. During the 1990s a further kind of district was created, the unitary authority, metropolitan boroughs are a subdivision of a metropolitan county. These are similar to unitary authorities, as the county councils were abolished in 1986. Most of the powers of the county councils were devolved to the districts but some services are run by joint boards, the districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million. Non-metropolitan districts are second-tier authorities, which share power with county councils and they are subdivisions of shire counties and the most common type of district. These districts typically have populations of 25,000 to 200,000, the number of non-metropolitan districts has varied over time. Initially there were 296, after the creation of unitary authorities in the 1990s and late 2000s and these are single-tier districts which are responsible for running all local services in their areas, combining both county and district functions. They were created in the out of non-metropolitan districts, and often cover large towns. In addition, some of the smaller such as Rutland, HerefordshireDistricts of England – Districts (England)
3. London Borough of Merton – The London Borough of Merton /ˈmɜːrtən/ is a borough in south-west London, England. The main commercial centres in Merton are Mitcham, Morden and Wimbledon, other smaller centres include Raynes Park, Colliers Wood, South Wimbledon, Wimbledon Park and Pollards Hill. The borough is the host of the Wimbledon tournament, one of tenniss Grand Slam competitions, the borough derives its name from the historic parish of Merton which was centred on the area now known as South Wimbledon. Merton was chosen as a compromise, following a dispute between Wimbledon and Mitcham over the new boroughs name. The local authority is Merton London Borough Council, Colliers Wood Lower Morden Merton Park Mitcham Mitcham Common Morden Morden Park Motspur Park New Malden Norbury Pollards Hill Raynes Park St. This followed four years as a minority administration, at the same time, it elects a deputy mayor to serve alongside the mayor. Since 1978, each Mayor must also be an elected councillor, a lot of filming for former ITV police drama The Bill took place in Merton, particularly in the districts of Mitcham and Colliers Wood. The set of Sun Hill police station was located in the Borough. The main local newspaper in Merton is the Wimbledon Guardian with two editions, Wimbledon along with Mitcham and Morden, the main difference between the papers is the front page. The Wimbledon Post is another newspaper published weekly. Both newspapers are available free, though there is a charge if bought from a newsagent, Square Enix Europe has its head office in Wimbledon Bridge House in Wimbledon. Eidos Interactive, a subsidiary of Square Enix, also shares the same head office, Merton is served by a wide range of National Rail stations across the borough, as well as the southern tip of London Undergrounds Northern line and the District line on the Wimbledon branch. The borough is served by several London Tramlink stops from Wimbledon. In 2001, the census recorded that 25% of the population of the borough was from an ethnic minority, the highest ethnic populations were recorded in wards in the east of the borough. The percentage of population from ethnic minorities is predicted to rise across the borough within the next decade, the most affluent wards were in the north and west of the borough. Comparative crime rates appear to be unrelated to the ranking of wards. Merton currently operates a Police Cadet scheme under the Metropolitan Police Service, the borough gained a football team in 1889 when Wimbledon Old Centrals were founded, and were soon a member of the local football leagues. The club later adopted the title Wimbledon FC and moved into a new stadium at Plough Lane in 1912, as the 20th century wore on, the club enjoyed considerable success in non league footballLondon Borough of Merton – Coat of arms
4. Ceremonial counties of England – The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed. The Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties. It created new entities called administrative counties, the Act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, which was both an administrative county and a county, it included parts of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent. Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts were not permitted to straddle county boundaries, apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided nevertheless continued to exist as ceremonial counties. In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, at this time, Lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties directly. Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester, Cleveland was partitioned between North Yorkshire and Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Humberside was split between Lincolnshire and a new county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county, many county boroughs were re-established as unitary authorities, this involved establishing the area as an administrative county, but usually not as a ceremonial county. Most ceremonial counties are therefore entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974, the Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries, as nearly as practicable. In present-day England, the ceremonial counties correspond to the shrieval counties, the Lieutenancies Act 1997 defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties as well as Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. Although the term is not used in the Act, these counties are known as ceremonial counties. gov. ukCeremonial counties of England – Ceremonial counties (England)
5. Regions of England – The regions are the highest tier of sub-national division in England. Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within Government, while they no longer fulfil this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. They define areas for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament, Eurostat also uses them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions within the European Union. The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions, the London region has a directly elected Mayor and Assembly. Six regions have local authority leaders boards to assist with correlating the headline policies of local authorities, the remaining two regions no longer have any administrative functions, having abolished their regional local authority leaders boards. In 1998, regional chambers were established in the eight regions outside of London, the regions also had an associated Government Office with some responsibility for coordinating policy, and, from 2007, a part-time regional minister within the Government. House of Commons regional Select Committees were established in 2009, Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, and the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. Regional development agencies were public bodies established in all nine regions in 1998 to promote economic development and they had certain delegated functions, including administering European Union regional development funds, and received funding the central government as well. After about 500 AD, England comprised seven Anglo-Saxon territories – Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, the boundaries of some of these, which later unified as the Kingdom of England, roughly coincide with those of modern regions. During Oliver Cromwells Protectorate in the 1650s, the rule of the Major-Generals created 10 regions in England, proposals for administrative regions within England were mooted by the British government prior to the First World War. In 1912 the Third Home Rule Bill was passing through parliament, the Bill was expected to introduce a devolved parliament for Ireland, and as a consequence calls were made for similar structures to be introduced in Great Britain or Home Rule All Round. On 12 September the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, within England, he suggested that London, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and the Midlands would make natural regions. While the creation of regional parliaments never became official policy, it was for a widely anticipated. In 1946 nine standard regions were set up, in central government bodies, statutory undertakings. However, these had declined in importance by the late 1950s, creation of some form of provinces or regions for England was an intermittent theme of post-Second World War British governments. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed the creation of eight provinces in England, one-fifth of the advisory councils would be nominees from central government. The boundaries suggested were the eight now existing for economic planning purposes, a minority report by Lord Crowther-Hunt and Alan T. Peacock suggested instead seven regional assemblies and governments within Great Britain, some elements of regional development and economic planning began to be established in England from the mid-1960s onwardsRegions of England – Regions of England English regions
6. Countries of the United Kingdom – The United Kingdom comprises four countries, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Within the United Kingdom, a sovereign state, Northern Ireland, Scotland. England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization list of countries. However the ISO list of the subdivisions of the UK, compiled by British Standards, Northern Ireland, in contrast, is described as a province in the same lists. Each has separate governing bodies for sports and compete separately in many international sporting competitions. Northern Ireland also forms joint All-Island sporting bodies with the Republic of Ireland for most sports, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are dependencies of the Crown and are not part of the UK. Similarly, the British overseas territories, remnants of the British Empire, are not part of the UK, southern Ireland left the United Kingdom under the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922. * Figures for GVA do not include oil and gas revenues generated beyond the UKs territorial waters, various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Wales was described as the country, principality, and dominion of Wales, outside Wales, England was not given a specific name or term. The Laws in Wales Acts have subsequently been repealed, the Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a part of a united kingdom of Great Britain The Acts of Union 1800 use part in the same way to refer to England and Scotland. The Northern Ireland Act 1998, which repealed the Government of Ireland Act 1920, the Interpretation Act 1978 provides statutory definitions of the terms England, Wales and the United Kingdom, but neither that Act nor any other current statute defines Scotland or Northern Ireland. Use of the first three terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act and this definition applies from 1 April 1974. United Kingdom means Great Britain and Northern Ireland and this definition applies from 12 April 1927. In 1996 these 8 new counties were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are regions in their own right while England has been divided into nine regions. The official term rest of the UK is used in Scotland, for example in export statistics and this term is also used in the context of potential Scottish independence to mean the UK without Scotland. The alternative term Home Nations is sometimes used in sporting contexts, the second, or civic group, contained the items about feeling British, respecting laws and institutions, speaking English, and having British citizenship. Contrariwise, in Scotland and Wales there was a much stronger identification with each country than with Britain, studies and surveys have reported that the majority of the Scots and Welsh see themselves as both Scottish/Welsh and British though with some differences in emphasis. The propensity for nationalistic feeling varies greatly across the UK, and can rise and it reported that 37% of people identified as British, whilst 29% identified as Irish and 24% identified as Northern IrishCountries of the United Kingdom
7. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
8. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
9. LONDON – London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London areaLONDON – Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace and Central London skyline
10. Postcodes in the United Kingdom – Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were later abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities. Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern, Southern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – then still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district. Every post office in the district was also to display this informationPostcodes in the United Kingdom – Street name signs on Birdbrook Road, Great Barr, Birmingham, showing old "Birmingham 22" (top) and modern "B44" postcodes.
11. Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom – Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom are administered by the UK governments Office of Communications. For this purpose Ofcom established a telephone numbering plan, known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, since 28 April 2001, almost all geographic numbers and most non-geographic numbers have 9 or 10 national numbers after the 0 trunk code. All mobile telephone numbers have 10 national numbers after the 0 trunk code, regions with shorter area codes, typically large cities, permit the allocation of more telephone numbers as the local number portion has more digits. Local customer numbers are four to eight figures long, the total number of digits is ten, but in a very few areas the total may be nine digits. The area code is referred to as an STD or a dialling code in the UK. The code allocated to the largest population is for London, the code allocated to the largest area is for all of Northern Ireland. The UK Numbering Plan also applies to three British Crown dependencies—Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man—even though they are not part of the UK itself. Possible number formats for UK telephone numbers are as follows, Number ranges starting 01 can have NSN length as 10 or 9 digits, the 0800 range can have NSN length as 10,9 or 7 digits. The 0845 range can have NSN length as 10 or 7 digits, the 0500 range has NSN length as 9 digits only. There are no numbers in the UK with an NSN length of 8 digits. Geographic telephone numbers in the UK always have nine or ten digits, four-digit area codes have either six-digit subscriber numbers or a mix of five- and six-digit subscriber numbers. Xxxxxx This is the used by most areas. It has an area code and a six digit subscriber number. These area codes were changed by adding a 1 directly after the zero as a part of PhONEday in 1995. Just short of 581 areas use this format, and the area range from 01200 to 01998. A small number of areas also have a few subscriber numbers that have only five digits. That is, almost all area codes now have only six digit local numbers, six of the four-digit area codes are known as mixed areas as they share those four digits with the twelve five-digit area codes. The numbers therefore have only nine digits after the initial zero trunk code and these area codes were changed by adding a 1 directly after the initial zero as a part of PhONEday in 1995Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom – Location of the United Kingdom (dark green)
12. Metropolitan Police Service – As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is also referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829. In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it also incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, Tramlink, The Emirates Air Line. There is also a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers also have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriateMetropolitan Police Service – London
13. Fire services in the United Kingdom – The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative, public and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services, Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities. It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association. The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, also giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers AssociationFire services in the United Kingdom – A fire engine of the London Fire Brigade, the second-largest service in the country after the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service
14. London Fire Brigade – The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it also conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting. With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA also takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark. In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, Capt, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station OfficersLondon Fire Brigade – London Fire Brigade
15. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom – Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status. The NHS commissions most emergency services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other services, the public normally access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which gradually merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary contract for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England. The service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service was established in 1995 by parliamentary order, and serves the whole of Northern Ireland. The Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust was established on 1 April 1998, there is a large market for private and voluntary ambulance services, with the sector being worth £800m to the UK economy in 2012. This places the voluntary providers in direct competition with private services, expenditure on private ambulances in England increased from £37m in 2011−12 to £67. 5m in 2013/4, rising in London from £796,000 to more than £8. 8m. In 2014−15, these 10 ambulance services spent £57.6 million on 333,329 callouts of private or voluntary services - an increase of 156% since 2010−11, in 2013, the CQC found 97% of private ambulance services to be providing good care. These private, registered services are represented by the Independent Ambulance Association, there are also a number of unregistered services operating, who do not provide ambulance transport, but only provide response on an event site. These firms are not regulated, and are not subject to the checks as the registered providers, although they may operate similar vehicles. There are a number of ambulance providers, sometimes known as Voluntary Aid Services or Voluntary Aid Societies, with the main ones being the British Red Cross. The history of the ambulance services pre-dates any government organised service. As they are in competition for work with the private ambulance providers. Voluntary organisations have also provided cover for the public when unionised NHS ambulance trust staff have taken industrial action, there are a number of smaller voluntary ambulance organisations, fulfilling specific purposes, such as Hatzola who provide emergency medical services to the orthodox Jewish community in some cities. These have however run into difficulties due to use of vehicles not legally recognised as ambulances, all emergency medical services in the UK are subject to a range of legal and regulatory requirements, and in many cases are also monitored for performance. This framework is largely statutory in nature, being mandated by government through a range of primary and secondary legislation and this requires all providers to register, to meet certain standards of quality, and to submit to inspection of those standardsEmergency medical services in the United Kingdom – A Mercedes Sprinter ambulance of the South Western Ambulance Service responds to an emergency call
16. London Ambulance Service – It is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, and the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is currently under the leadership of chief executive Dr Fionna Moore MBE, the service employ around 4,500 staff. In exceptional cases, or where the service deems in necessary, specialist teams can be deployed from within the service, such as the Hazardous Area Response Team and these teams are specially trained and equipped to deal with incidents such as working at height or in confined spaces. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, there is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in England has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. The LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16, putting more pressure on the service. All 999 calls from the public are answered at the Emergency Operations Centre in Waterloo, to assist, the services command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for Londons Metropolitan Police. This means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn land ambulances, putting almost the whole of London within three miles of one of them, each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, nurses, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897, in 1902, the MAB introduced a steam driven ambulance and in 1904, their first motor ambulance. The last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912, although the MAB was legally supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it increasingly also carried accident victims and emergency medical cases. Also in 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to women drivers. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed entirely by women, the LCC also took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932. During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries, mainly women and they ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, in 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority, as an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes, a chairman, five of the Service’s executive directors. Special events in London are co-ordinated from the Services event control room, also located in east London, during mass casualty incidents, the command structure works on three levels, gold, silver and bronze. Silver control, tactical command, from a point in the vicinity of the incident, Bronze controlLondon Ambulance Service – Contents
17. London (European Parliament constituency) – London is a constituency of the European Parliament. It currently elects 8 MEPs using the method of party-list proportional representation. The constituency corresponds to the Greater London region of England, in the south east of the United Kingdom, prior to 1999, London was represented by a number of single-member constituencies. The European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999 reduced this to a constituency returning a number of MEPs. Below are all the members since the creation of the London constituency, the number of seats allocated to London has been reduced from 10 to 8 between 1999 and 2009 due to EU enlargement. Members elected in 1999 who previously represented a London constituency were Pauline Green, elected candidates are shown in bold. Brackets indicate the number of votes per seat won, the 2014 results were delayed by Tower Hamlets, where there were recounts needed for six local election wardsLondon (European Parliament constituency) – London
18. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.
19. Wimbledon Common – Wimbledon Common is a large open space in Wimbledon, south-west London, totalling 460 hectares. There are three named areas, Wimbledon Common, Putney Heath, and Putney Lower Common, which together are managed under the name Wimbledon, Putney Lower Common is separated from the rest of the Common by about 1.5 miles of built-up area of southwest Putney. Wimbledon Common, together with Putney Heath and Putney Lower Common, is protected by the Wimbledon, the common is for the benefit of the general public for informal recreation, and for the preservation of natural flora and fauna. It is the largest expanse of heathland in the London area, there is an area of bog with unique flora. The western slopes, which lie on London Clay, support mature mixed woodland, the Commons are also an important site for the stag beetle. Most of the Common is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, english Nature works with the Conservators on the management plan for the area. Wimbledon Common and Putney Heath are also a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, the Commons are administered by eight Conservators. Five of them are elected triennially and the three are appointed by three government departments, the Department of the Environment, Ministry of Defence and Home Office. The Commons are managed by the Clerk and Ranger, supported by a Deputy, a Wildlife & Conservation Officer, there are seven Mounted Keepers, two groundsmen, six maintenance workers and one property maintenance worker – some 23 employees in total. There are at least four horses which are used by the Keepers on mounted patrol, the Conservators are responsible for the annual budget of around £1m. Most of the revenue comes from a levy on houses within 3⁄4 mile of the Commons. The levy payers are entitled to vote for the five elected Conservators, the levy payers fall within three London boroughs, Merton, Wandsworth and Kingston. A windmill stands near the centre of Wimbledon Common as usually understood, here Robert Baden-Powell wrote parts of Scouting for Boys, which was published in 1908. In the 19th century the windmill was the headquarters of the National Rifle Association, eventually the headquarters were moved to ranges at Bisley. Two broad, shallow pools, Kingsmere and Rushmere, lie near roads on the parts of Wimbledon Common. The more remote Queensmere is somewhat deeper, being impounded in a small valley, Beverley Brook runs along the western edge of Wimbledon Common. The watercourse was the south west London boundary. Near Beverley Brook and Warren Farm are two Local Nature Reserves managed by the London Wildlife Trust, Farm Bog and Fishpond Wood and it may have been taken by the Legio II Augusta under Vespasian in their push westwards in AD44Wimbledon Common – Wimbledon Common
20. Colliers Wood – Colliers Wood is an area in south west London, England, in the London Borough of Merton. It is a residential area, but has a busy high street. There are two shopping areas, the Tandem Centre and the Priory Retail Park, as well as a large supermarket complex built in 1989 on the site of an old print works. The Colliers Wood ward had a population of 10,712 in 2011, Colliers Wood Station is served by the London Undergrounds Northern line. Colliers Wood has three parks, a ground, the National Trust-owned Wandle Park, which covers an area of approximately 11 acres. Colliers Wood United F. C. is a football club founded in Colliers Wood. Colliers Wood shares its postcode district with Wimbledon, in 2006, local resident and ex-resident of Slough Keith Spears, having seen the BBC TV series Making Slough Happy, started the Making Colliers Wood Happy. Initiative as a way of building community spirit to counteract the decline in neighbourliness in suburban areas, Colliers Wood takes its name from a wood that stood to the east of Colliers Wood High Street, approximately where Warren, Marlborough and Birdhurst Roads are now. Contemporary Ordnance Survey maps show that this wood remained at least until the 1870s but had been cleared for development by the mid-1890s, the twelfth-century ruins of Merton Priory were considered by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport as a possible British candidate for World Heritage status. Henry VI, the king of England to be crowned outside of Westminster Abbey in the last thousand years. Among those educated at the priory were Thomas Becket and Nicholas Breakspear, close to Merton Priory is the market and heritage centre at Merton Abbey Mills, which is on the bank of the River Wandle. The Wandle was reputed to have more mills per mile than any river in the world. William Morris, at the forefront of the Arts and Crafts Movement, relocated his dyeworks to Merton Abbey Mills, after determining that the water of the Wandle was suitable for dyeing. The complex, on 7 acres, included buildings and a dyeworks, and the various buildings were soon adapted for stained-glass production, textile printing. The site is now occupied by a large shared Sainsbury/M&S supermarket complex, the worlds first public railway, the Surrey Iron Railway, passed through Colliers Wood on its route from Croydon to Wandsworth, between 1803 and 1846. White British is the largest ethnic group as of the 2011 census at 38%, Colliers Wood is dominated by the Colliers Wood Tower. Originally named the Lyon Tower, it was occupied as the headquarters of property company Ronald Lyon Holdings but has also been known as The Vortex. When being built, the reached the third storey before an error in construction was discoveredColliers Wood – The Feeny Monument: memorial fountain inside Wandle Park
21. Lower Morden – Lower Morden is an area within the district of Morden in south west corner of the London Borough of Merton, to the west of Morden Park and south of Raynes Park. Lower Morden had grown up around the green and the Beverley. In the 1870s, the properties of Lower Morden were Morden Farm, Peacock Farm. Today nothing of the hamlet remains except perhaps a few ancient trees. The first major development was the establishment in 1891 of Battersea New Cemetery on land adjacent to Hobalds Farm to the north of Green Lane, the loss of Morden Common followed, its area now occupied by the Merton & Sutton Joint Cemetery and the Garth Road Industrial Estate. Garth Road is named after the Garth family, Lords of the Manor from the mid 16th century to the late 19th century, up to the Second World War the marshy land either side of the Pyl Brook now used as playing fields was cow pasture. Lower Morden has a King Georges Field in memorial to King George V. Hatfeild Primary School, ordnance Survey Map Lower Morden in 1871Lower Morden – A map of Lower Morden from 1944
22. Merton (parish) – The 1871 Ordnance Survey map records its area as 1,764.7 acres. The parish was and is centred on the 12th-century parish church, the parish as a result of the disestablishment of the vestries became of two legal types and areas, religious and civil. Merton Park is quite widely used as a neighbourhood and these are Raynes Park, Colliers Wood, part of Motspur Park and flowing from a tube station in the far north, the remainder is commonly known as South Wimbledon. The from its beginning, Merton Priory. It is among less prominent sources of the English surname Merton but is the origin of Merton College, Oxford who had its precursor site and their greatest endowment of landholdings here. The village of Merton had a focus, stretching westwards from the Roman road Stane Street which connected London to Chichester. Locally, the road ran in a line from the current Colliers Wood High Street to London Road, Morden, crossing the site of Sainsburys Savacentre. The name dates back at least to the 7th century when documents record its use, translations vary from Farmstead by the mere to Maeras homestead. Merton appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Meretone. It was revealed in the Doomsday Book as the largest community in the area. It was held by William the Conqueror as principal feudal overlords and its assets were,20 hides of land,1 church,2 mills worth £3 per annum,21 ploughs,12 acres of meadow, woodland worth 80 hogs. It rendered £43 added to just under an extra pound 18s 2d from 16 houses in Southwark, the priory or abbey, also known by a third name Priory of St Mary of Merton was founded by Gilbert Norman in 1114 on a site close to todays Sainsburys store. In 1117 it became an Augustinian establishment and developed a reputation for scholarship. It is believed to have been the birthplace of Walter de Merton, founder of Merton College, in 1235 Henry IIIs here held negotiations with his Barons for the Statute of Merton. The Abbey provided the education of St. Thomas Becket and Nicholas Breakspear and its buildings were dismantled and the materials removed for re-use elsewhere. It is believed that in 1496 a hospice for travellers was erected opposite the site of Sainsburys store, an inn was built there in 1594 and beer was sold there from that date until 2004, when Kings Head, closed. The existing building dates from 1931, but it has designated as a Local Listed Building. The River Wandle flowing north towards Wandsworth, had for centuries driven watermills, in the 1660s a silk mill was in operation at Merton Abbey and the Jacob family was operating a fabric bleaching ground close by - a process requiring large quantities of water. Textile production became the industry in the area in the 18th century with calico printing beginning in the 1720sMerton (parish) – Merton Place, copperplate, 18th century
23. Merton Park – Merton Park is a place in the London Borough of Merton. It is a suburb situated between Wimbledon, Morden, South Wimbledon and Wimbledon Chase and it is 7.3 miles south-west of Charing Cross. The area is part of the parish of Merton. For earlier history see Merton Until the last quarter of the 19th century, the area now known as Merton Park was farm land owned by City merchant John Innes who was the local lord of the manor. The rapid development of Wimbledon to the north encouraged Innes to develop his land for housing and he took as his model the garden suburbs and developed the tree-lined roads of detached and semi-detached houses for which the area is known. The northern section of Merton Park each side of Kingston Road is now a conservation area, the southern section, roughly from Circle Gardens southwards, was developed in the 1920s and 1930s, stimulated by the opening of the London Underground station at Morden. Housing here was developed on a scale and is not as distinguished. A notable feature of the Merton Park ward is that it regularly returns Merton Park Ward Independent Residents to Merton London Borough Council, three MPWRA have also been Deputy Mayor of Merton, Peter Southgate in 2005/06, Krysia Williams in 2008/09 and Karin Forbes in 2009/10. The John Innes Society is a charity that promotes good design, the approximate boundaries of the Merton Park area can be considered to be Kingston Road to the north, Dorset Road and Morden Road to the east, Martin Way to the south and Aylward Road to the west. Additionally, the north of Kingston Road between Merton Hall Road, Avebury Road and Kingswood Road is often included. The area is centred on the parish church, St. Marys. The church was founded in the 12th century by the Augustinian order of the nearby Merton Priory of which only the Western Gate remains, in the arts, folk singer Sandy Denny was born here. The Merton Parkas St. Mary the Virgin, Merton Park Merton Park Ward Residents Association Love Merton ParkMerton Park – Colleges and subdivisions
24. Mitcham, London – Mitcham is a district in south west London, located within the London Borough of Merton. It is centred 7.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross, a suburban area, Mitcham is located on the border of Inner London and Outer London, and was historically in the county of Surrey. It is both residentially and financially developed and served by train, bus and tram routes, localities within Mitcham include Mitcham Town Centre and Mitcham Common. Amenities include Mitcham Library and Mitcham Cricket Green, nearby districts include Wimbledon, Streatham, Croydon, Tooting, Morden and Sutton. Mitcham is close to Wimbledon, Croydon, Streatham and Tooting, the River Wandle bounds the town to the southwest. The original village lies in the west, although expansion has pushed the boundary the furthest. Mitcham Common takes up the part of the boundary and area to the south. The toponym Mitcham is Old English in origin and means big settlement, before the Romans and Saxons were present, there was a Celtic settlement in the area, with evidence of a hill fort in the Pollards Hill area. The discovery of Roman-era graves and a well on the site of the Mitcham gas works evince Roman settlement. The Saxon graveyard, located on the North bank of the Wandle is the largest discovered to date, scholars such as Myres have suggested that Mitcham and other Thames Valley settlements were some of the first populated by the Anglo-Saxons. The area is a location for the Battle of Merton,871. The Church of England parish church of St Peter and St Paul dates from the Saxon era, although it was mostly rebuilt in 1819–21, the current building retains the original Saxon tower. The area lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred, the Domesday Book records Mitcham as Michelham. It was held partly by the Canons of Bayeux, partly by William, son of Ansculf and its domesday assets were,8 hides and 1 virgate. It had ½ mill worth £1, 3½ ploughs,56 acres of meadow, during her reign Queen Elizabeth I made at least five visits to the area. John Donne and Sir Walter Raleigh also had residences here in this era and it was at this time that Mitcham became gentrified, as due to the abundance of lavender fields Mitcham became renowned for its soothing air. The air also led people to settle in the area during times of plague, when industrialisation occurred, Mitcham quickly grew to become a town and most of the farms were swallowed up in the expansion. There were many fields in Mitcham, and peppermint and lavender oils were also distilledMitcham, London – Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham, built in 1705
25. Morden – Morden is a district in the London Borough of Merton. It is located approximately 8 miles South-southwest of central London between Merton Park and Wimbledon, Mitcham, Sutton and Worcester Park, Morden had a population of 48,233 in 2011. Morden might get its name either from the British language words Mawr and Dun, small Roman artifacts, mainly coins and pottery, have been found at various locations within the area although there is no evidence of any settlement. In 1086, the Domesday Book recorded the manor as Mordone and it was held by Westminster Abbey and its assets were,3 hides,1 mill worth £2 and 7 ploughs. Fourteen people were recorded as living in the area, the manor and village remained abbey property until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in Henry VIIIs reign when the manor was sold to Lionel Ducket and Edward Whitchurch. Together, they sold it on the year to Sir Richard Garth who became Lord of the Manor. The Garth family owned the land and maintained their connection with the parish for the four centuries. The prominence of the Garth family is recorded locally in the name of Garth Road, Lower Morden, the two lions included in the present civic arms of the London Borough of Merton are adopted from the arms of Sir Richard. While the population of Wimbledon grew hugely from 1,591 in 1801 to 41,652 in 1901, the population of Morden was 512 in 1801 and, one hundred years later, had grown to just 960. In 1871, the area of the parish of Morden was 1,474.926 acres with the village clustered around St Lawrence’s church at the top of the hill on the road from London to Epsom. Approximately half a mile to the west of the main village, close to the church were the George Inn, a 17th-century coaching inn, the estate of Morden Park and a school. The other main public house in the village was the Crown Inn, the rest of what is now the commercial centre of Morden was fields. By 1898, the works had gone and there was a brickworks on the site of Mostyn Gardens in Martin Way. Under the Local Government Act,1894, the parish of Morden formed part of the Croydon Rural District of Surrey, Morden was merged with the Merton Urban District, in 1913, to form the Merton and Morden Urban District. Away from the new centre of Morden, the existing rural roads were widened and rebuilt. Further transport improvements came with the construction of a new Southern Railway branch line from Wimbledon to Sutton via stations at South Merton, the new line opened in January 1930. As a result of the new links, the population of Morden increased rapidly from 1,355 in 1921 to 12,618 in 1931. In the next fifteen years, the continued to growMorden – Morden Hall Park House
26. Morden Park – Morden Park is an area within the district of Morden in the London Borough of Merton, and includes the Park itself, an area of green space in an otherwise dense cluster of 1930s suburban housing. By the mid-1780s the estate was in the possession of the Polhill family, one member of the family, Edward Polhill, bequeathed £1,000 in 1826 to the parish church for the benefit of the Sunday school. Between the 1880s and the 1910s the estate was occupied by banker John Wormald, at the bottom of the hill in the direction of Lower Morden runs a small brook. In the park, surrounded by trees, is a circular mound. This has been identified as a burial mound from the Iron Age. Between 1960 and the mid-1990s a cycle speedway track sat alongside the mound, the track has since been demolished but its still possible to find signs of the tracks existence. A local Aero Modelling Club used the area South of the Mound on Sunday Mornings for flying practice, Morden Park House remains and, after many years of neglect and semi-dereliction, has recently been restored and is now the local register office and a venue for wedding ceremonies. The entrance to the Park, from London Road is now dominated by South Thames College and this was built on the site of a Pig Farm which was destroyed by fire at some point in the late 40s or early 50s. The derelict sties remained in place for years until the early 60s when clearing began for the College. During this period many bones could be found amongst the rubble, children from the Council Estate opposite the entrance at Hatfield Mead used this area as an adventure playground for many years. At this period a Gatehouse was prominent at the entry, facilities in Morden Park include a pitch and putt golf course and Morden Park Swimming Pool which was opened in the late 1967 on the site of the old houses gardens. South Thames College is adjacent to the park and occupies the site of the farm. Morden Park also hosts the annual Morden Park Holiday Club event for children to attend for a week during their holidays from school. This event is organised by the churches in the surrounding area, when full there would be more than 300 people playing at any one time and at hand-over times between games there may be as many as 600 people on the playing fields, and more in the licensed bar. Local residents joined with members of Morden parish churches and Baitul Futuh mosque to discuss how they could work together to save the field, there were large football and cricket games organised and some colourful arts and crafts activities. This Campaign has been running since May 2008 and has a wide support, including many local CouncillorsMorden Park – Morden Park House
27. Motspur Park – Motspur Park, also known locally as West Barnes, is a suburb in south-west London. It is located just south-east of New Malden, between the boroughs of Kingston upon Thames and Merton, Motspur Park owes its identity to the railway station of the same name, which has six trains an hour to London Waterloo, and to the adjacent parade of small shops. Two prominent gas holders, which are used to store the consumer gas supply for south-west London, stand just south of the shopping parade, Two of London’s minor natural water courses run through the area. The Beverley Brook runs south to north through its centre and its tributary the Pyl Brook runs parallel further to the east. These have in the past given rise to local flooding. The Motspur Park athletics stadium was built by the University of London in 1928 and it was sold to Fulham Football Club as their training ground in 1999. The name comes from Motspur Farm which was located in the area between the road called Motspur Park and Chilmark Gardens. The 1865 OS map shows the name as Mospur. The district was known as West Barnes and formed part of the traditional county of Surrey. It was rural right up to the end of the century when the railway station was built. Two local lanes, West Barnes Lane and Blakes Lane, represent remnants from this rural era, the barns referred to were those at the western end of Merton Abbeys estates and were just north of West Barnes Lanes junction with the modern Crossway. After the dissolution of the monasteries the land was granted to the Gresham family. They retained the estate for two generations, finally selling it to John Carpenter, a local farmer, the area, remained agricultural and was farmed by a number of families, probably the most well known being the Raynes who gave their name to Raynes Park. In the nineteenth century two local landowners were Charles Blake, the owner of Blue House Farm and Richard Garth Lord of the Manor of Morden, both were lawyers and Garth eventually became a judge. They joined forces to seek to procure a Parliamentary bill for a line to run across their properties. The railway itself was constructed through the locality in 1859 by the London and South Western Railway, large mansions and farms are the only habitation shown on the 1871 map of the district with no station or residential districts. The area east of the railway was part of Hobbalds Farm which was owned by Garth, the oakwood alongside the railway was planted around this time to screen it and remains today. The land was sold and then leased to J. J, bishop the founder of the Bishops Move removal company around 1873Motspur Park – The suburban shopping parade at Motspur Park dates from the 1930s
28. New Malden – New Malden is a suburb in south-west London, in the boroughs of Kingston and Merton, and is 9.4 miles from Charing Cross. Neighbouring localities are Kingston upon Thames, Raynes Park, Surbiton, Tolworth, Wimbledon, New Malden was established entirely as a result of the arrival of the railway when what is now called New Malden railway station was opened on 1 December 1846 on the main line from Waterloo. However, when Queen Victoria visited distinguished residents in the Coombe Hill area, building started slowly in the area just to the north of the station, gathering pace in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with two- and three-bedroom terraced houses. Further out are larger detached and semi-detached houses from the 1930s, the name of the road up the hill to Coombe, Traps Lane, is thought to derive from a farm owned by a Mrs Trap. Following the opening of the Kingston bypass in 1927, the farms to its south progressively gave way to suburban development. Two miles to the south is the village of Old Malden whose origins go back to Anglo-Saxon times. Under the District Councils Act 1895, The Maldens & Coombe Urban District Council was created, in 1936 Malden and Coombe was granted full Borough status, with its own Mayor, and had the rare distinction of a civic mace bearing the royal insignia of King Edward VIII. In 1965, the London Government Act 1963 came into force merging the boroughs of Malden & Coombe, New Malden is home to the offices of many large organisations, including Nestle Purina and Northrop Grumman. New Malden is bounded to the north by the affluent Coombe Hill and to the south and east by Raynes Park, Worcester Park and Tolworth. New Malden includes Motspur Park, home to the ground of Fulham Football Club and also the Kings College London sports ground. A minor tributary of the River Thames, Beverley Brook, flows through the east of the town, while its boundary is along the Hogsmill. The first parking meters were made in New Malden at Venners Ltd, in the 2001 census, some small areas of New Malden had Other Asian populations of over 25%, though no whole ward reached over 20%. Many of the Koreans living in New Malden work for Korean companies, in 2015 Paul Fischer of The Independent wrote that the North Koreans were insular, and that there were tensions between the South Korean majority and the North Koreans in New Malden. The New Malden area has Korean-language churches and nursery schools as well as restaurants, New Malden functions as the shopping and cultural centre for a Korean population spread more widely across South-West London and the neighbouring counties. The area has Korean supermarkets, about 20 Korean restaurants and cafes and it also has a noraebang, and many other shops. The Korean language is visible on several shop signs, the original Embassy of South Korea to the United Kingdom was in New Malden, before moving to 60 Buckingham Gate in Westminster. Many Koreans settled the New Malden in the 1970s due to the ambassadors location, a high proportion of the community are expatriate workers for Korean companies, who remain in the UK for a number of years before returning to Korea. Many work in finance and banking in the City of London, there is a newspaper published in New Malden, Free NK, which is opposed to the government of North KoreaNew Malden – New Malden High Street
29. Norbury – Norbury is a town in South West London. It shares the postcode London SW16 with neighbouring district Streatham, Norbury is 6.7 miles south of Charing Cross. The name Norbury derives from North Burh, some local histories note that this was due to Norburys position on the northern boundary of the former Manor of Croydon. In fact, it takes its name from a split in the borough of Bensham, northbenchesham became the Northborough, then Norbury. Norbury, like Streatham and Croydon, lies on the London to Brighton Way Roman road, at Hepworth Road, the intact road,32 feet wide, was excavated in 1961. Norbury was a sub-manor of Croydon Manor and was held by the Carew family between 1385 and 1859, Norbury Farm was the manor house - it was demolished in 1914. Norbury Hall, Craignish Avenue, does remain - now as a retirement home and it was built for William Coles in 1802. In the late 19th century, its owner was James Hobbs, local businessman, a few years later, he was implicated in the Liberator Building Society scandal with Jabez Balfour, convicted and imprisoned. The Hobbs family owned the Hall until 1958 when it was sold to the County Borough of Croydon, by then most of the farms and open land belonging to Norbury Manor and Hall had been built upon. The London County Council built an estate of almost 500 homes in Norbury, Norbury railway station opened in 1878, although the railway line had opened in 1862. It was rebuilt in 1902 and connects Norbury with Croydon, London Bridge, although Croydons horse-tram network never reached Norbury, electric trams were introduced in 1901, connecting the town all the way through to Purley. However, Croydon trams and London trams used different systems and could not use the same tracks and this was finally rectified in 1925. The trams were removed after World War II but there are plans to extend Tramlink from Croydon to Streatham via Norbury, though considered to belong to the London Borough of Croydon about one third of the district crosses over to the London Borough of Merton. Moreover, another third of the district from Streatham High Road, like other districts of northern Croydon, Norbury has significant foreign communities. The 2011 census showed that White British was the largest ethnic group at 24% of the population, followed by 13% Black Caribbean, 12% Indian and 12% Other White. Brixton Streatham Streatham Common Crystal Palace / Upper Norwood Mitcham Pollards Hill Thornton Heath Croydon Musician Rox This singer studied in the school named Norbury ManorNorbury – St Oswald's Parish Church
30. Pollards Hill – Pollards Hill is a residential district crossing the border of the south London boroughs of Croydon and Merton between Mitcham and Norbury. It is the name of a ward in Merton. The district is bisected by the Croydon/Merton boundary along Recreation Way, with no road connections between the Croydon and Merton portions of the district, they retain very different characteristics. Mitcham Borough Councils solution to the housing shortage was to build prefabricated ‘Arcon’ bungalows at Pollards Hill. The first bungalows were ready as early as January 1946, and were meant to last about 10 years, in fact, many were still in use in the mid-1960s. The pre-fabs were mostly demolished in the 1960s, to make way for a new, high density, low-rise scheme that was constructed by the Merton London Borough Council and Wimpey between 1967 and 1971. A new branch library and community centre was included in the estate, the area is represented at Westminster by Siobhain McDonagh on the Merton side and Steve Reed on the Croydon side, both are Labour Party. Both sides of Pollards Hill also elected Labour Party councillors at the last Council elections in May 2014, to the east, covering the sides of the hill, are larger houses, stretching towards central Norbury. The roads are lined with pollarded lime trees, to the west, at the foot of the hill, is the Pollards Hill estate stretching to Mitcham Common. A section of the estate was put under the authority of MOAT housing association in 1998, covering the crown of the hill is Pollards Hill Park, an open area of 7.75 acres, managed by Croydon Council. Pollards Hill on the Merton side also contains a range of community facilities including a library, community centre, youth centre and a neighbourhood police station. In September 2006, Harris Academy Merton opened on the site of Tamworth Manor High School. The academy is on the Merton side but right on the Croydon border, Tamworth Manor High School was originally Pollards Hill Secondary Modern School built in the 1950s, which became a comprehensive school, Pollards Hill High School, in 1968. The nearest railway stations are Mitcham Eastfields, Norbury railway station, bus routes 60,152,255 and 463 serve the western area. Pollards Hill is home to one of the largest Ghanaian British community in the UK on the Merton side according to the 2011 census, with 6% of the population and over 600 people born in Ghana. It also has a large Asian British population on the Croydon side, the non-white British population of both parts has grown considerably in recent years, yet with very little inter-community tension. In 2005, a community cycling club was set up with help from the Commonside Trust and it now has over 550 members from all over South London, and had won the London Cycling Campaigns award for Best Community Cycling Initiative in 2006. In 2007 the Pollards Hill Poker Club was founded on Wide Way and it began life as a group of poker players who met weekly but soon expanded to include other games and also began fundraising for childrens charity The Evelina Family TrustPollards Hill – Typical residences in Pollards Hill, Merton
31. Raynes Park – Raynes Park is a residential suburb and local centre within the London Borough of Merton, situated between Wimbledon, to the east, and New Malden, to the west, in South West London. It is 8.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross, Raynes Park had a population of 19,619 in 2011, which refers to the populations of the wards of Raynes Park and West Barnes. Raynes Park is 8.2 miles from Central London and has one of the largest proportions of green space in South West London. The area has a number of parks including Cottenham Park Recreation Ground, named after Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham, Cannon Hill Common covers 21 hectares of open space, and is a site of borough importance – Grade 1 for Nature Conservation. It contains mature woodland that is over 140 years old and provides a habitat for a variety of fauna, for earlier history see Merton and Wimbledon. Historically, the area of Raynes Park south of Coombe Lane and Kingston Road was part of the parish of Merton, the area remained rural until late into the 19th century. The first development in the area was the opening of the London & South Western Railway in May 1838 which crossed the area on a high embankment, although the station did not open until later. Cottenham Park to the north of the station was the first part of the area to be out for development in the 1870s. It takes its named from Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham who lived in Wimbledon until his death in 1851, the name refers to the Rayne family, the previous landowners of the farmland on which Garth intended to build. Garth laid out the section of Grand Drive, about as far south as Heath Drive. A number of detached houses were constructed, but Garths absence as Chief Justice of Bengal slowed the development and much of the rest of the area became a golf course and cricket grounds. South of the railway, the twelve terraced roads known locally as the Apostles were laid out over a former cricket ground starting during the Victorian period, in the 1920s, the Kingston Bypass and its spur, Bushey Road, were built as dual carriageways. South of the railway, the majority of development occurred in the 1930s with Grand Drive being extended south into Lower Morden. Much of the area remains open space, during World War II the area suffered considerable bombing, especially in 1944 from the V-1 flying bomb. Raynes Park station is on the National Rail network, the station is at the junction of the branch line heading towards Epsom and Dorking and has four platforms. A distinctive local landmark is the footbridge which spans all four main running lines at an angle of about 45 degrees. Another distinctive feature of the station is that the platforms are not opposite each other, the station benefits from frequent train services to central London, with approximately 210 trains to Waterloo each day, averaging about 12 per hour during service hours. Raynes Park is effectively divided into two by the Waterloo - Southampton mainline railway, Bushey Road connects the Kingston Bypass to Wimbledon Chase and Merton ParkRaynes Park – Looking down Grand Drive from the Station
32. St Helier, London – St. Helier is a residential cottage estate in the London boroughs of Merton and Sutton. The portion of the north of Green Lane and Bishopsford Road is in Merton. The site of the St. Helier estate has been connected to long-term charity since the early 17th century, Henry Smith was a wealthy citizen and salter of London who gave much money to parishes in London and Surrey during his lifetime and in his will. He is buried in Wandsworth parish church and is supposed to have born in Wandsworth. In 1617 he gave £500 towards the purchase of land in Carshalton, another £100 bequest came from Mrs. Elizabeth Blackwell. In 1814 the lands were described as being just over 116 acres and having a building, barn, the Wandsworth Poor Lands lay on either side of Wrythe Lane at the southernmost part of the St. Helier estate footprint. Another local benefactor was Christopher Muschamp, who died in 1660 and is buried at All Saints and he bequeathed £200 to buy land, the yearly rental of which was to purchase apprenticeships for two poor children who had been born in the parish. Pasture land was bought from Henry Byne in Cannon Sheephouse Lane, like the adjoining Sutton Common, most of the area remained semi-rural until the early 20th century. The estate was built between 1928 and 1936 by the London County Council for the re-housing of people from decaying inner London areas, landscaping on the large-scale town planning scheme was by landscape architect Edward Prentice Mawson. Its development was spurred by the opening of Morden Underground station in 1926, and these services provided rapid links into central London for the residents. The estate was named in honour of Lady St. Helier and it was the second largest of a series of out-county cottage estates and was based on the Garden City ideas of Ebenezer Howard. The area had previously consisted largely of lavender fields, the last remnants of the famous Mitcham lavender industry, the imposing St. Helier Hospital was opened in 1938. John Major, UK Prime Minister from 1990 to 1997, was born there, the estates Bishop Andrewes Church, in Wigmore Road, was designed by the architect Geddes Hyslop in 1933. Today ownership of housing on the estate is split between private and local authority, with people taking advantage of the right to buy scheme since the 1970s. The hospital still exerts an imposing presence on the estate, both economically and physically, most of the buildings are original and many are still being used for their original purposes. There has been an amount of infilling around the outskirts. The area is served by London Bus routes 80,151,154,157,164,280, S1, S4, N44 and St Helier railway stationSt Helier, London – Shops at Green Lane, St Helier
33. Streatham Vale – Streatham is a district in south London, England, mostly in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is centred 5 miles south of Charing Cross, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Streatham means the hamlet on the street, the street in question, the London to Brighton Way, was the Roman road from the capital Londinium to the south coast near Portslade, today within Brighton and Hove. It is likely that the destination was a Roman port now lost to coastal erosion, the road is confusingly referred to as Stane Street in some sources and diverges from the main London-Chichester road at Kennington. After the departure of the Romans, the road through Streatham remained an important trackway. From the 17th century it was adopted as the coach road to Croydon and East Grinstead. In 1780 it then became the route of the road from London to Brighton. This road have shaped Streathams development, Streathams first parish church, St Leonards, was founded in Saxon times but an early Tudor tower remains is the only structure pre-1831 which the church has as it was rebuilt. The mediaeval parish covered an area by including Balham and Tooting Bec. Streatham Cemetery on Garratt Lane on the borders of Wimbledon is one of the few remaining indications of how far west Streatham once extended, Streatham appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Estreham. It was held by Bec-Hellouin Abbey from Richard de Tonbrige and its domesday assets were,2 hides,1 virgate and 6½ ploughlands of cultivated land and 4 acres of meadow and herbage. Annually it was assessed to render £4 5s 0d to its overlords, the village remained largely unchanged until the 18th century, when the villages natural springs, known as Streatham Wells, were first celebrated for their health-giving properties. The reputation of the spa, and improved roads, attracted wealthy City of London merchants. These roads are considered an important part of what remains of the historic Streatham Village as they found little or no influence from the growth of metropolitan London. Wellfield Road, which had previously known as Leigham Lane, was renamed to reflect its role as the main route from the village centre to one of the well locations. Another mineral well was located on the side of Streatham Common. In the 1730s, Streatham Park, a Georgian country mansion, was built by the brewer Ralph Thrale on land he bought from the Lord of the Manor - the fourth Duke of Bedford, the dining room contained 12 portraits of Henrys guests painted by his friend Joshua Reynolds. These pictures were wittily labelled by Fanny Burney as the Streatham Worthies, Streatham Park was later leased to Prime Minister Lord Shelburne, and was the venue for early negotiations with France that lead to the Peace Treaty of 1783Streatham Vale – Streatham High Road, looking north from the junction of Streatham High Road and Mitcham Lane
34. Wimbledon, London – Wimbledon had a population of 68,187 in 2011 which includes the electoral wards of Abbey, Dundonald, Hillside, Trinity, Village, Raynes Park and Wimbledon Park. It is home to the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and New Wimbledon Theatre, Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common is thought to have been constructed. In 1087 when the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, the village developed with a stable rural population coexisting alongside nobility and wealthy merchants from the city. The location of the station shifted the focus of the subsequent growth away from the original village centre. Since 2005, the north and west of the Borough has been represented in Westminster by Stephen Hammond, the eastern and southern of the Borough are represented by Siobhain McDonagh, a Labour MP. It has established minority groups, among the most prominent are British Asians, British Ghanaians, Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common, the second-largest in London, is thought to have been constructed. The original nucleus of Wimbledon was at the top of the close to the common – the area now known locally as the village. The village is referred to as Wimbedounyng in a signed by King Edgar the Peaceful in 967. The name Wimbledon means Wynnmans hill, with the element of the name being the Old English dun. At the time the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, the ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed hands many times during its history. The manor was held by the church until 1398 when Thomas Arundel, the manor was confiscated and became crown property. The manor remained crown property until the reign of Henry VIII when it was granted briefly to Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, until Cromwell was executed in 1540 and the land was again confiscated. The manor was held by Henry VIIIs last wife and widow Catherine Parr until her death in 1548 when it again reverted to the monarch. In the 1550s, Henrys daughter, Mary I, granted the manor to Cardinal Reginald Pole who held it until his death in 1558 when it again become royal property. Marys sister, Elizabeth I held the property until 1574 when she gave the house to Christopher Hatton who sold it in the same year to Sir Thomas Cecil. The lands of the manor were given to the Cecil family in 1588, the Cecil family retained the manor for fifty years before it was bought by Charles I in 1638 for his Queen, Henrietta Maria. On his death in 1677 the manor was sold on again to the Lord High Treasurer, Thomas Osborne, the Osborne family sold the manor to Sir Theodore Janssen in 1712. Janssen, a director of the South Sea Company, began a new house to replace the Cecil-built manor house but, due to the collapse of the companyWimbledon, London – Wimbledon town centre
35. Wimbledon Park – Wimbledon Park is the name of an urban park in Wimbledon and also of the suburb south and east of the park and the Wimbledon Park tube station. The park itself is 27 hectares in area, the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is immediately to the west of the park. Wimbledon Park should not be confused with the larger and better known Wimbledon Common. A series of owners enlarged the park northwards and eastwards, by the 19th century it was at its largest extent, and one of the homes of the Earls Spencer, lords of the manor. In 1846, the 4th Earl Spencer sold the estate and house to John Augustus Beaumont a property developer who laid out new roads, two roads still bear his name today – Augustus Road and Beaumont Road. Development of the area was slow at first, but continued throughout the half of the 19th century. Late in the 20th century the London Borough of Merton sold on the Golf Course to the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, leaving just the public park and the lake in its ownership. Along the parks northern edge lies Horse Close wood, a patch of old planted woodland, largely consisting of Ash. The London Underground District line runs to the east of the Park between Southfields tube station and Wimbledon Park station, the park also contains an athletics stadium with 400m track. Every November a large fireworks display takes place in Wimbledon Park, organised by Merton Council it is one of the largest and most popular shows in LondonWimbledon Park
36. All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club – The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, also known as the All-England Club, based at Church Road, Wimbledon, London, England, is a private members club. It is best known as the venue for the Wimbledon Championships, initially an amateur event that occupied club members and their friends for a few days each summer, the championships have become far more prominent than the club itself. However, it operates as a members tennis club, with many courts in use all year round. To become a full or temporary member, an applicant must obtain letters of support from four existing full members, the name is then added to the Candidates List. Honorary Members are elected from time to time by the clubs Committee, membership carries with it the right to purchase two tickets for each day of the Wimbledon Championships. The patron of the club is Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and the President is The Duke of Kent. The Club was founded by six gentlemen at the offices of The Field on 23 July 1868 at the height of a croquet craze as the All England Croquet Club and its original ground was situated off Worple Road, Wimbledon. Croquet was very popular there until the then-infant sport of lawn tennis was introduced in 1875, the first tennis Gentlemens Championship in Singles was held in July 1877, when the Club changed its name to The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club. That year at Wimbledon service was underarm, the champion, Spencer Gore, opined that Lawn tennis will never rank among our great games. In 1878 the height of the net was altered to 4 feet 9 inches at the posts and 3 feet at the centre, in 1882, croquet was dropped from the name, as tennis had become the main activity of the Club. But in 1899 it was restored to the Clubs name for reasons. In 1884, the Club added Ladies Singles and Gentlemens Doubles, for the 1908 Summer Olympics, the venue hosted the Grass Courts tennis events. The early Club colours were found to be almost identical to those of the Royal Marines, so they were changed in 1909 to the present Club colours of dark green, the current Centre Court dates from that year. It has been improved and extended on several occasions, most recently a sliding roof was added in time for the 2009 Championships. In 1924 the old No.1 Court opened on the west side of Centre Court, at 5,20 p. m. on October 11,1940, five 500 pound German bombs struck the grounds, demolishing 1,200 seats in Centre Court. The old No.1 Court was replaced with the current No.1 Court in 1997, shortly afterwards, the Millennium Building, which houses facilities for players, press, officials and members, was built on the site of the old No.1 Court. The Church Road site initially extended only as far north as Centre Court, in 1967 the All England Club purchased 11 acres to the north. This was leased to the New Zealand Sports and Social Club and it is most commonly known as Henman Hill because of the popularity of former British tennis player, Tim HenmanAll England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club – Aerial view of the All-England Club, with the circular No. 1 Court, enclosed Centre Court, and the teal No. 2 Court behind and No. 3 Court to the right
37. Merton Abbey Mills – Merton Abbey Mills is a former textile factory in the parish of Merton in London, England near the site of the medieval Merton Priory, now the home of a variety of businesses, mostly retailers. The River Wandle flowing north towards Wandsworth drove watermills and provided water for a number of processes in Merton. Merton Abbey Mills were established by Huguenot silk throwers in the eighteenth century. The complex, on 7 acres, included buildings and a dyeworks, and the various buildings were soon adapted for stained glass making, textile printing, and fabric, tapestry. Morris refused to destroy existing buildings, and adapted them or built new ones, in 1904 Liberty & Co took over the Littler site, and then in 1940 the Morris facilities as well. They continued to operate the Merton Abbey Mills until 1972, during World War II part of the site was used to construct gun-turrets for the Bristol Blenheim fighter-bomber. Today Merton Abbey Mills is a market and the site of a summer theatre. A number of buildings from the Morris period, and even earlier, survive, a water-mill still turns in the summer, and the colourhouse, a mid-18th century industrial building, is now a childrens theatre. The water-mill and colour house are both Grade II listed buildings, history of silk Fairclough, Oliver and Emmeline Leary, Textiles by William Morris and Morris & CoMerton Abbey Mills – The Pond at Merton Abbey by Lexden Lewis Pocock is an idyllic representation of the works in the time of William Morris.
38. Merton Priory – Merton Priory was an English Augustinian priory founded in 1114 by Gilbert Norman, Sheriff of Surrey under King Henry I. It was situated within the manor of Merton in the county of Surrey, the priory buildings were situated within the Diocese of Southwark and at the point where the River Wandle was crossed by Stane Street, a Roman road, about 10 kilometres outside the City of London. It held cultivated land and pastures there and at places in Surrey and held manors. By 1117 the foundation had been colonised by Canons Regular from the Augustinian priory at Huntingdon and re-sited in Merton, the priory became an important centre of learning and was entered by Nicholas Breakspeare in 1125, and Thomas Becket in 1130. Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor, Bishop of Rochester, and founder of Merton College, Oxford, took his name from the Priory and this was the first recorded statute of the first recorded English parliament. Much of the masonry was reused at the kings Nonsuch Palace, the site of the Priory is now occupied by Sainsburys supermarket. Remains of the Chapter House are now covered by a road but are accessible from the foot tunnel under Merantun Way. The Heritage Trail Merton Priory Trust Engraving of Merton Priory Excavation of Ruins BBC video of the siteMerton Priory – A ceiling boss from the Priory, discovered in excavations of Nonsuch Palace, on display in the Museum of London.
39. New Wimbledon Theatre – The New Wimbledon Theatre is situated on the Broadway, Wimbledon, London, in the London Borough of Merton. It is a Grade II listed Edwardian theatre built by the lover and entrepreneur. Built on the site of a house with spacious grounds. It seems to have been the only British theatre to have included a Victorian-style Turkish bath in the basement, the theatre opened on 26 December 1910 with the pantomime Jack and Jill. The theatre was popular between the wars, with Gracie Fields, Sybil Thorndike, Ivor Novello, Markova and Noël Coward all performing there. Received its world premiere at the theatre in 1960 before transferring to the West Ends New Theatre, the theatre also hosted the world premiere of Half A Sixpence starring Tommy Steele in 1963 prior to the West End. With several refurbishments, most notably in 1991 and 1998, the theatre retains its baroque and Adamesque internal features, the golden statue atop the dome is Laetitia, the Roman Goddess of Gaiety and was an original fixture back in 1910. Laetitia is holding a crown as a symbol of celebration. The statue was removed in World War II as it was thought to be a direction finding device for German bombers, the theatre is close to Wimbledon rail, tube and tramlink station, and a short walk from South Wimbledon tube station. The main auditorium is adjoined by the black box space of the New Wimbledon Studio. It is often home to drama and comedy productions, often prior to West End or Edinburgh Festival runs each summer. Up From Paradise, the only written by Arthur Miller. Until 2001, the theatre was owned and operated by the Wimbledon Civic Theatre Trust, on behalf of the London Borough of Merton, during this period, the theatre was closed for an entire year. The venue fell into financial difficulties in 2003 and was forced to close. Following lengthy talks between leading producers, local councillors and companies, in autumn 2003 a deal was agreed for the theatre to be managed by the Ambassador Theatre Group, in 2006, the theatre welcomed its first Hollywood star in the shape of Happy Days Henry Winkler. In 2010 the national tour of Spamalot, the based on the film Monty Python. Wimbledon Civic Theatre Trust Website New Wimbledon TheatreNew Wimbledon Theatre – New Wimbledon Theatre
40. Wandle Trail – The Wandle Trail Map and Guide was put together in 1996 by the Wandle Industrial Museum with the support and help of London Borough of Merton, and sponsorship from Brown and Root. The original map was heritage and walk based, but then a map was produced by Groundwork Merton to facilitate bicycle access. The Wandle Trail Group is now responsible for the promotion of the trail, the group consist of an association of the London Boroughs of Wandsworth, Merton and Sutton, together with Groundwork Merton, and Sustrans. The trail follows the river as far as possible by its banks, in some areas unsuitable for cycling, it divides into two trails, one for walkers, and the other which uses nearby roads for both cycle and walking. The Wandle runs through areas that are largely built-up, as public transport is available in the areas close by, access to the trail can be easily made at many points. Sections of the trail can be walked with stops for food. Much of the trail uses existing Green Spaces, each of which has its own attractions, there are some sections where the trail has to leave the river and use local roads. Schemes have been presented for future development that may overcome the obstacles by the river, the trail has been designated National Cycle Network Route 20, and also will be part of route 22. The trail starts at East Croydon Station and runs for about 12.5 miles to the Thames near Wandsworth Town Station, the route passes near Earlsfield and Haydons Road railway stations, Colliers Wood and Morden underground stations and Phipps Bridge Tramlink stop. Many sections of the trail are suitable for users and improvements have been proposed to extend these. In addition to the parks, the trail is adjacent to both Morden Hall and Merton Abbey Mills, which has a working waterwheel, there are several parts of the trail that are suitable for nature and ecological study, and some places where fishing is allowed. A description and map of the trail are in a pamphlet published by the group and it shows the location of bus stops, phones, seats, and toilets. It also shows places on the route where refreshments can be obtainedWandle Trail – Wandle Trail as it approaches a turning leading to Weir Road, Wimbledon Park
41. Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum – Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum is the largest tennis museum in the world. The museum was inaugurated at The Championships centenary event in 1977, on the 12 April 2006, HRH The Duke of Kent declared the brand new Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum open to the public inside the grounds of the All England Lawn Tennis Club. This museum has exhibits and artefacts dating back to 1555 as well as touch screen computer consoles for visitors to interact with, memorabilia from many famous players from Victorian times up to present day are included in several different exhibits, which change seasonally. The Museum also has a platform called CentreCourt360 allowing guests to sample the atmosphere of Centre Court. Guided tours are available which take visitors behind the scenes of the All England Lawn Tennis Club. Audio guides are available in 8 languages, English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Mandarin, WLTM is opened year round to the public except during The Championships week where entry is possible for tournament ticket holders only. Cinema, The Museum’s cinema features a 200 degree screen which is showing a film about the science of tennis. Filming took place during the 2005 Championships on Centre Court of Russias Maria Sharapova against Spains Nuria Llagostera Vives, everything from outfits worn in the 1880s to Rafael Nadals dri-fit pirate trousers are on display. There are touch screen computers inside the platform that offer information in 8 different languages, English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Mandarin, led by London’s Blue Badge Guides, Guided Tours take visitors around the Grounds of The All England Lawn Tennis Club. Tours include access to Court No.1, the Press Interview Room, the players’ restaurant & terrace, Tours last about 90 minutes and include the price of museum admissions. Available to visitors by appointment, the Kenneth Ritchie Wimbledon Library is home to a collection of books, periodicals, videos, the library is the largest tennis library in the world. The Wimbledon Shop is at the entrance of the Museum and is entry free, items for sale include tennis and casual clothing, towelling goods, sport bags, DVD’s, books, jewellery, rackets, souvenirs, and tennis accessories. There is an online Wimbledon shop that has also has a range of merchandise. The Wimbledon Museum is inside the grounds of the All England Lawn Tennis Club, to access The Museum, guests must enter through Gate 4 of the club. Warren, Valerie The Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum, Wimbledon, The Museum ISBN 0-906741-09-2 Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum Fernedge Printers, printed by, Briggs, Susan Wandering Around WimbledonWimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum – Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum
42. Wimbledon Stadium – Wimbledon Stadium, also known as Wimbledon Greyhound Stadium was a greyhound racing track located in Wimbledon in southwest London, England. It also hosted car and other small circuit motor racing events. The stadium hosted the English Greyhound Derby every year from 1985 to 2016, the stadium closed in March 2017 and Galliard Homes are to build more than 600 flats on the site. There will also be an 11,000 seater football stadium built on the site to be the new home of AFC Wimbledon with capacity to increase it to a 20,000 seater stadium at a later date. The club hope to be playing at the stadium from the summer of 2019. The facilities include a brick fronted grandstand seating 8,000, executive suites, several bars and catering facilities, the stadium is surrounded by a large open-air car park. The greyhound stadium was constructed east of the River Wandle on a section of land that was difficult to build on due to the fact that it was land and was prone to flooding. The only buildings near this plot of land were a chamois leather mills, a sewage works. Slightly to the east was Summerstown Road which held the only housing in the immediate area, the difficult plot did not deter South London Greyhound Racecourses Ltd who went ahead with plans to build a large stadium ready for 1928. The opening night was on 19 May 1928 with the first race being won by a greyhound called Ballindura trained by Harry Leader. The Burhill kennels in Walton-on-Thames would become renowned within the housing the hounds for Wimbledon and were initially used by trainers Stanley Biss, Harry Leader. Paddy McEllistrim a Norfolk farmer and breeder of greyhounds and Sidney Orton would soon join the training kennels soon after, Wimbledon was the first track to introduce weighing scales in 1929 at their kennels so that the racing public could be issued with the greyhounds weights before racing. The same year Harry Leader returned to Ireland and was replaced by Sidney Orton, New events called the Puppy Derby, International, Wimbledon Gold Cup and Wimbledon Spring Stakes were all inaugurated. In December 1929 Arundel Kempton purchased Mick the Miller for £2,000 as a present for his wife placing him with Sidney Orton. The track had already associated with Mick the Miller because the champion took up residence at the kennels of Paddy McEllistrim during the duration of the 1929 English Greyhound Derby. Con Stevens was the first Racing Manager and was instrumental in bringing the first classic race to Wimbledon in the form of the Laurels in 1930, Mick the Miller claimed his second Derby crown in 1930 propelling himself, the sport and Wimbledon into national fame. The Two Year Old Produce Stakes was introduced in 1935 and another event called The Key started in 1936, during World War II the stadium suffered bomb damage but continued to race. The well known Irish dog Tanist was put with Paddy McEllistrim but found it hard to cope with the turns at WimbledonWimbledon Stadium – Wimbledon Stadium
43. Wimbledon Theatre – The New Wimbledon Theatre is situated on the Broadway, Wimbledon, London, in the London Borough of Merton. It is a Grade II listed Edwardian theatre built by the lover and entrepreneur. Built on the site of a house with spacious grounds. It seems to have been the only British theatre to have included a Victorian-style Turkish bath in the basement, the theatre opened on 26 December 1910 with the pantomime Jack and Jill. The theatre was popular between the wars, with Gracie Fields, Sybil Thorndike, Ivor Novello, Markova and Noël Coward all performing there. Received its world premiere at the theatre in 1960 before transferring to the West Ends New Theatre, the theatre also hosted the world premiere of Half A Sixpence starring Tommy Steele in 1963 prior to the West End. With several refurbishments, most notably in 1991 and 1998, the theatre retains its baroque and Adamesque internal features, the golden statue atop the dome is Laetitia, the Roman Goddess of Gaiety and was an original fixture back in 1910. Laetitia is holding a crown as a symbol of celebration. The statue was removed in World War II as it was thought to be a direction finding device for German bombers, the theatre is close to Wimbledon rail, tube and tramlink station, and a short walk from South Wimbledon tube station. The main auditorium is adjoined by the black box space of the New Wimbledon Studio. It is often home to drama and comedy productions, often prior to West End or Edinburgh Festival runs each summer. Up From Paradise, the only written by Arthur Miller. Until 2001, the theatre was owned and operated by the Wimbledon Civic Theatre Trust, on behalf of the London Borough of Merton, during this period, the theatre was closed for an entire year. The venue fell into financial difficulties in 2003 and was forced to close. Following lengthy talks between leading producers, local councillors and companies, in autumn 2003 a deal was agreed for the theatre to be managed by the Ambassador Theatre Group, in 2006, the theatre welcomed its first Hollywood star in the shape of Happy Days Henry Winkler. In 2010 the national tour of Spamalot, the based on the film Monty Python. Wimbledon Civic Theatre Trust Website New Wimbledon TheatreWimbledon Theatre – New Wimbledon Theatre
44. Wimbledon Windmill – Wimbledon Windmill is a Grade II* listed windmill situated on Wimbledon Common in the London Borough of Merton, in the west of South London, and is preserved as a museum. An application to build a windmill on the Common was denied in 1799 when the applicant, one John Watney, in 1816, Charles March, a carpenter of Roehampton applied for permission to build a windmill. The request was granted the year and the mill was built. The mill stopped working in 1864, when the miller was evicted by the Lord of the Manor, Earl Spencer, the miller insisted on removing most of the machinery so that the mill could not be operated in competition with his other mills at Kingston. The main mill building was rebuilt with brickwork to provide living accommodation, in 1892, tenders for the repair of the mill were sought by the Commons Conservators, and Messrs. Sanderson & Sons tender of £240 was accepted. Royal Wimbledon Golf Club contributed £50 towards the cost of the repairs, during repairs, it was discovered that the main Post and Crosstrees were rotten and Sandersons proposed converting the mill to a smock mill, at a total cost of £350. The work was reported as being complete in November 1893, the original Patent sails were replaced by a shorter set of sails with fixed shutters. After the loss of a sail in the 1920s another set of sails with fewer shutters was placed on the mill. During World War II, the mill was camouflaged with a green scheme to reduce its visibility. The mill was repainted after the war ended, but the sails were stopped in 1946 due to wear in the gearing. In 1952, the mill was inspected and a list of repairs drawn up, after a public appeal in 1954 to raise funds, the mill was restored and the sails turned again on 25 May 1957. The mill was restored again in 1975 and turned into a museum, in 1999 a grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund enabled the Patent sails to be restored to working order. A room from one of the apartments is preserved to illustrate how the building was used as accommodation. It is no longer a mill, but a finely detailed model shows the machinery as it was in its working days. On 2 August 2015, a sail fell from the mill, Wimbledon Windmill was built as a hollow post mill, with the drive to the stones passing through the centre of the main post. It was a hollow post mill for its working life. The mill has double Patent sails and is winded by a fantail, the windmill has an octagonal brick base of two stories, above which is a conical tower formerly housing the main post. A Spur Wheel at the end of the upright shaft would have driven the millstones on the upper floor of the millWimbledon Windmill – Wimbledon Windmill, February 2005.
45. Cannizaro Park – Cannizaro Park is a public park in Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton. It is located to the south of Wimbledon Common and is known for its landscaped gardens with ponds. The park is the remnant of the gardens of the country house at its centre. The house, originally known as Warren House, was built in the 18th century and was owned by the Grosvenor and Drax families who, for most of its history, let it to a series of wealthy tenants. The adjacent Royal Wimbledon golf course and the parts of Wimbledon village were also once parts of the estate. Between 1785 and 1806, Home Secretary and Secretary of State for War, Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, at this time it was a major social centre for royalty and senior politicians. Dundas organised the landscaping of the gardens, the structure of which remains today. Lady Jane Wood in the gardens is a memorial to his wife, in 1817, Sicilian Francis Platamone, Count St. The Count left his wife and returned to Italy in 1832 when he inherited the title Duke of Cannizzaro, the Duchess remained at Warren House until she died in 1841. After her death the house came to be known by her husbands title, a major fire at the beginning of the 20th century destroyed much of the house but it was rebuilt and extended to its current arrangement. In the 1920s Cannizaro House was owned by Admiral Plunkett-Ernle-Erle-Drax and he sold it to the Wilson family, its last private owners. During his exile from Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie stayed in Wimbledon, the Wilsons owned the house until the late 1940s and made a series of improvements in the gardens with the planting of new trees, Rhododendrons, Azaleas and Camellias. In 1947, the house and gardens were sold to Wimbledon Borough Council, the gardens were opened to the public shortly afterwards and the house was for a time used as a nursing home. The London Borough of Merton sold the house in the 1980s, the surrounding gardens remain in council ownership and are open to the public. Most parts are maintained, keeping the character of a large private garden, with many distinct areas and small garden rooms. For a number of years the Italian Gardens saw opera performances in the summer as part of the Cannizaro Festival, Cannizzaro is a touristy locality on the Ionian shelvy coast of Eastern Sicily between Aci Castello and Catania. One of the main Etnean medical centres bears the name of Ospedale Cannizzaro since it has been built within its territorial bounds, in both cases the primeval scenery that inspired the local naming has been ravaged over the centuries by many changes due to frequent lava streams and blasting eruptionsCannizaro Park – The House across the park lawn
46. Cannon Hill Common – Cannon Hill Common is a public park in the London Borough of Merton. It is situated near Raynes Park and Morden and it is also the location of a Local Nature Reserve and the Paddock Allotments. Cannon Hill Common is not common land and it was but part of the former extensive holdings of Merton Priory, founded in the 12th century and later part of Cannon Hill Estate. The land was farmed for centuries until Cannon Hill House was built. The ornamental lake was created in the 18th century and is a remnant of the landscaped grounds of Cannon Hill House. By 1880 the house was empty and the land farmed. The house was sited at the top of the common at the edge of the pond and woodland that was first designated a sanctuary in 1927. During its heyday in the century a steeple chase of local gentry used to take place from Raynes farm at West Barnes to Cannon Hill lake. The Cannon Hill estate was well stocked with pheasants, partridges, hares and rabbits, Local house builder Mr Blay offered 60 acres of land to Merton and Morden Urban District Council for the creation of Cannon Hill Common. The Council agreed to purchase 53½ acres at a cost of £17,610, the Park officially opened on the 9 April 1927. The pavilion that once stood on the common housed a holiday play scheme in the early seventies, in 2008 the pavilion was destroyed in a fire started by arsonists. The remains were demolished and plans to rebuild it by Merton Council have come to nothing, Raynes Park & West Barnes Residents Association - Friends of Cannon Hill Common History Of Cannon Hill Common London Borough of MertonCannon Hill Common – Majestic Oak
47. Mitcham Common – Mitcham Common is 182 hectares of common land situated in south London. It is predominantly in the London borough of Merton, with parts straddling the borders of Croydon and Sutton and it is designated a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation. In feudal times, the poorest, least productive soil in a parish was designated as common land available for parishioners to graze animals and cut turf, members of this community with these rights were known as commoners. However, in the 19th century when material for road building became a valuable resource, Mitcham, now part of the London Borough of Merton bears the majority of the costs, with the remainder going to the London Boroughs of Croydon and Sutton. These funds support a warden and three assistants, each council is represented by four nominated members of The Board, elected every two years. The course of the Thames has gradually altered, exposing gravels that were colonised by grasses. Over time, woody species slowly overwhelmed these early colonisers, developing a loose scrubby vegetation that became denser until woodland had developed, early humans were responsible for clearing trees and suppressing their regeneration by grazing cattle and cutting turf and timber for fuel. In the late 19th Century these practices ceased and woodland was allowed to regenerate and this process allowed a succession from grassland, through a series of intermediate stages, to woodland. The river gravels are well drained and strongly acidic, leading to an environment in which plants have to withstand occasional drought. The result is a patchwork of soil types, each providing different plant, as the grassland reverts to woodland, the various stages in this process create further habitats. The Seven Islands pond is the largest of the ponds on the common, the most recent pond to be created, Bidders pond, was created in 1990 and named for George Parker Bidder. There are a few buildings on the common, the buildings comprising the Windmill Trading Estate have existed in one form or another since 1782, when the estate was established as workhouses for the poor. Companies to have utilised the buildings include Hoopers Telegraph Works, recently the Estate has been replaced by a mixed-tenure of housing apartments. The Mill House Ecology Centre and the Harvester are located near the site of an old windmill, there also exists upon the common a carved granite stone in commemoration of George Parker Bidder. List of Parks and Open Spaces in Croydon Mitcham Common Conservators homepage Friends of Mitcham Common homepageMitcham Common – Map of Mitcham Common