Coptic alphabet

The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. There are several Coptic alphabets, as the Coptic writing system may vary among the various dialects and subdialects of the Coptic language; the Coptic alphabet has a long history, going back to the Hellenistic period, when the Greek alphabet was used to transcribe Demotic texts, with the aim of recording the correct pronunciation of Demotic. During the first two centuries of the Common Era, an entire series of magical texts were written in what scholars term Old Coptic, Egyptian language texts written in the Greek alphabet. A number of letters, were derived from Demotic, many of these are used in "true" Coptic writing. With the spread of Christianity in Egypt, by the late 3rd century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost, as well as Demotic later, making way for a writing system more associated with the Christian church.

By the 4th century, the Coptic alphabet was "standardised" for the Sahidic dialect. Coptic is not used today except by the members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria to write their religious texts. All the Gnostic codices found in Nag Hammadi used the Coptic alphabet; the Old Nubian alphabet—used to write Old Nubian, a Nilo-Saharan language —is written in an uncial Greek alphabet, which borrows Coptic and Meroitic letters of Demotic origin into its inventory. The Coptic alphabet was the first Egyptian writing system to indicate vowels, making Coptic documents invaluable for the interpretation of earlier Egyptian texts; some Egyptian syllables had sonorants but no vowels. Various scribal schools made limited use of diacritics: some used an apostrophe as a word divider and to mark clitics, a function of determinatives in logographic Egyptian; the Coptic alphabet's glyphs are based on the Greek alphabet, another help in interpreting older Egyptian texts, with 24 letters of Greek origin.

In addition to the alphabetic letters, the letter ϯ stood for the syllable /te/ or /de/. As the Coptic alphabet is a typeface of the Greek alphabet, with a few added letters, it can be used to write Greek without any transliteration schemes. Latin equivalents would include the Fraktur alphabet. While unified with the Greek alphabet by Unicode, a proposal was accepted to separate it, with the proposal noting that Coptic is never written using modern Greek letter-forms, that the Coptic letter-forms have closer mutual legibility with the Greek-based letters incorporated into the separately encoded Cyrillic alphabet than with the forms used in modern Greek. In Old Coptic, there were a large number including some logograms, they were soon reduced to half a dozen. The following letters remained: In Unicode, most Coptic letters shared codepoints with similar Greek letters, but a disunification was accepted for version 4.1, which appeared in 2005. The new Coptic block is U+2C80 to U+2CFF. Most fonts contained in mainstream operating systems use a distinctive Byzantine style for this block.

The Greek block includes seven Coptic letters derived from Demotic, these need to be included in any complete implementation of Coptic. These are included in the Unicode specification. Normal English punctuation uses the regular Unicode codepoints for punctuation Dicolon: standard colon U+003A Middle dot: U+00B7 En dash: U+2013 Em dash: U+2014 Slanted double hyphen: U+2E17 These are codepoints applied after that of the character they modify. Combining overstroke: U+0305 Combining character-joining overstroke: U+035E Combining dot under a letter: U+0323 Combining dot over a letter: U+0307 Combining overstroke and dot below: U+0305,U+0323 Combining acute accent: U+0301 Combining grave accent: U+0300 Combining circumflex accent: U+0302 Combining circumflex or inverted breve above: U+0311 Combining circumflex as wide inverted breve above joining two letters: U+0361 Combining diaeresis: U+0308 Coptic uses U+0304 ◌̄ COMBINING MACRON to indicate syllabic consonants, for example ⲛ̄. Coptic abbreviations use U+0305 ◌̅ COMBINING OVERLINE to draw a continuous line across the remaining letters of an abbreviated word.

It extends from the left edge of the first letter to the right edge of the last letter. For example, ⲡ̅ⲛ̅ⲁ̅. A different kind of overline uses U+FE24 ◌︤ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF, U+FE26 ◌︦ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON, U+FE25 ◌︥ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF to distinguish the spelling of certain common words or to highlight proper names of divinities and heroes. For this the line begins in the middle of the first letter and continues to the middle of the last letter. A few examples: ⲣ︤ⲙ︥, ϥ︤ⲛ︦ⲧ︥, ⲡ︤ϩ︦ⲣ︦ⲃ︥. Coptic numerals are indicated with letters of the alphabet such as ⲁ for 1. Sometimes numerical use is indicated with a continuous line abo

Sapper Hill

Sapper Hill is on East Falkland, Falkland Islands. It is just to the south of Stanley, is mined from the Falklands War, it is named after a troop of sappers. Mount Tumbledown, Mount William and Sapper Hill lie west of Stanley; because of its proximity to Stanley, Sapper Hill was of strategic importance. They were held by BIM-5, a reinforced, cold weather trained and equipped, marine Argentine battalion; the BIM 5 positions were bombarded, both from the sea by naval gunfire and from the air by the Royal Air Force Harriers. At 4.30 p.m. on 7 June, a British Harrier bombing positions held by the 5th Marine Battalion was hit by concentrated fire from M Company on Sapper Hill. As part of the British plan in the Battle of Mount Tumbledown, the 1st Battalion the 7th Gurkha Rifles was given the task of capturing the sub-hill of Mount William held by O Company, the 5th Marine Battalion's reserve, allow the Royal Marines under the command of the Welsh Guards through to seize Sapper Hill, the final obstacle before Stanley.

The attacks were supported by naval gunfire from HMS Active's 4.5 inch gun. During the initial assault, Royal Marines from C company 9 troop 40 commando were dropped on top of the Argentine position by helicopter, resulting in a brief firefight. Three Argentine marines from 5 BIM were killed and 4 members of 9 troop were wounded - the last casualties suffered in the war; the 5th Marines worked their way back into Stanley. At the foot of the hill there was an enormous minefield. A group of Sappers went ahead to clear a path across the mines, but when the Welsh Guardsmen advanced they found Sapper Hill abandoned; the delay caused by the mines in fact may have saved lives. The Marine companies had been entrenched and well equipped with heavy automatic weapons.'We were led to an area that the company would rest at for the night, I still took in the fact the Argies had prepared Sapper Hill well, they had depth positions that would have made the task of taking it hard


Carpolestes is a genus of extinct primate-like mammals from the late Paleocene of North America. It first existed around 58 million years ago; the three species of Carpolestes appear to form a lineage, with the earliest occurring species, C. dubius, ancestral to the type species, C. nigridens, which, in turn, was ancestral to the most occurring species, C. simpsoni. Carpolestes had flattened fingernails with claws on its fingers. Morphologically it supports Robert Sussman´s theory of the co-evolution of tropical fruiting Angiosperms and early primates where Angiosperms provide nectar and fruits in return for dispersing the seed for tropical rainforest plans, it appears to have been a distant relative of the Plesiadapiforms such as Plesiadapis