New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Fight Club is a 1999 film based on the 1996 novel by Chuck Palahniuk. It was directed by David Fincher and stars Brad Pitt, Edward Norton, Helena Bonham Carter. Norton plays the unnamed narrator, discontent with his white-collar job, he forms a "fight club" with soap salesman Tyler Durden, becomes embroiled in a relationship with him and a destitute woman, Marla Singer. Palahniuk's novel was optioned by 20th Century Fox producer Laura Ziskin, who hired Jim Uhls to write the film adaptation. Fincher was selected because of his enthusiasm for the story, he developed the script with Uhls and sought screenwriting advice from the cast and others in the film industry. He and the cast compared the film to Rebel Without a Cause and The Graduate, with a theme of conflict between Generation X and the value system of advertising. Fincher used the homoerotic overtones of Palahniuk's novel to make audiences uncomfortable and keep them from anticipating the twist ending. Studio executives did not like the film and restructured Fincher's marketing campaign to try to reduce anticipated losses.
Fight Club failed to meet the studio's expectations at the box office and received polarized reviews, becoming one of the most controversial and talked-about films of the year. Critics praised the acting and themes, but debated the violence and moral ambiguity. Over time, however and public reception towards the film has become positive, the film found success with its DVD release, which established Fight Club as a cult film; the unnamed Narrator is an automobile recall specialist, unfulfilled by his job and possessions, has developed severe insomnia. He finds catharsis by posing as a sufferer of testicular cancer and other afflictions in support groups, remedying his insomnia, his bliss is disturbed by another impostor, Marla Singer, whose presence reminds him he is attending these groups dishonestly. The two agree to split which groups they attend, but not before they exchange contact details on the premise of switching groups at short notice. On a flight home from a business trip, the Narrator meets and interacts with soap salesman Tyler Durden.
The Narrator returns home to find. Deciding against asking Marla for help, he calls Tyler, they meet at a bar. Tyler says. In the parking lot, he asks the Narrator to hit him, they begin a fistfight; the Narrator is invited to move into Tyler's home: a dilapidated house in an industrial area. They have further fights outside the bar; the fights move to the bar's basement where the men form Fight Club, which meets for the men to fight recreationally. Marla overdoses on telephones the Narrator for help. Tyler and Marla get sexually involved, Tyler warns the Narrator never to talk to Marla about him; the Narrator quits his job. Fight clubs form across the country. Tyler recruits their members to a new anti-materialist and anti-corporate organization, Project Mayhem, without the Narrator's involvement; the group engages in subversive acts of vandalism and domestic terrorism troubling the Narrator. After the Narrator complains that Tyler has excluded him, Tyler leaves the house; the Narrator realizes. When a member of Project Mayhem is killed by the police during a botched sabotage operation, the Narrator tries to halt the project.
He follows a paper trail to cities. In one city, a Project Mayhem member greets the Narrator as Tyler Durden; the Narrator returns to his hotel room and calls Marla and discovers that she believes he is Tyler. Tyler appears and reveals that they are dissociated personalities in the same body; the Narrator blacks out. When he returns home, he uncovers Tyler's plans to erase debt by destroying buildings that contain credit card records, he apologizes to Marla and warns her that she is in danger, but she is tired of his contradictory behavior and rebuffs him. He attempts to turn himself into police, but the officers are members of the Project, he attempts to disarm the explosives in one building, but Tyler subdues him and holds him at gunpoint on the top floor. The Narrator realizes, he fires it into his own mouth, shooting through his cheek, Tyler collapses with an exit wound on his head and disappears. Project Mayhem members bring a kidnapped Marla to the building. Holding hands, the Narrator and Marla watch as the explosives detonate, collapsing buildings around them.
Brad Pitt as Tyler Durden, a soap salesman that the Narrator meets on one of his business trips. Edward Norton as the Narrator, an unnamed traveling automobile recall specialist who suffers from insomnia, he adopts a number of nicknames, including "Jack", "Cornelius", "Rupert" and "Travis". Helena Bonham Carter as Marla Singer, a woman whom the Narrator meets who goes to support groups for catharsis. Meat Loaf as Robert Paulson, a man whom the Narrator meets at the testicular cancer support group. Jared Leto as Angel Face, a fight club recruit included in missions for Project Mayhem. Zach Grenier as Richard Chesler, The Narrator's boss. Holt McCallany as The Mechanic, a high-ranking and loyal member of Project Mayhem. Additional roles include: Thom Gossom Jr. as Detective Stern, a police investigator who looks into the Narrator's apartment explosion.
Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper was an unidentified serial killer believed to have been active in the impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. In both the criminal case files and contemporary journalistic accounts, the killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer and Leather Apron. Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations; the removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer; the name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by someone claiming to be the murderer, disseminated in the media. The letter is believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story and increase their newspapers' circulation.
The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. The public came to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper" because of the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, because of media treatment of the events. Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper, the legend solidified. A police investigation into a series of eleven brutal killings in Whitechapel up to 1891 was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of 1888. Five victims—Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly—are known as the "canonical five" and their murders between 31 August and 9 November 1888 are considered the most to be linked; the murders were never solved, the legends surrounding them became a combination of genuine historical research and pseudohistory. The term "ripperology" was coined to describe the analysis of the Ripper cases.
There are now over one hundred hypotheses about the Ripper's identity, the murders have inspired many works of fiction. In the mid-19th century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants who swelled the populations of the major cities, including the East End of London. From 1882, Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area; the parish of Whitechapel in London's East End became overcrowded. Work and housing conditions worsened, a significant economic underclass developed. Robbery and alcohol dependency were commonplace, the endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution. In October 1888, London's Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1,200 women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel; the economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889, frequent demonstrations led to police intervention and public unrest, such as that of 13 November 1887. Anti-semitism, nativism, social disturbance, severe deprivation influenced public perceptions that Whitechapel was a notorious den of immorality.
In 1888, such perceptions were strengthened when the series of vicious and grotesque murders attributed to "Jack the Ripper" received unprecedented coverage in the media. The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were killed by the same person. Eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, were included in a London Metropolitan Police Service investigation and were known collectively in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". Opinions vary as to whether these murders should be linked to the same culprit, but five of the eleven Whitechapel murders, known as the "canonical five", are believed to be the work of Jack the Ripper. Most experts point to deep throat slashes and genital-area mutilation, removal of internal organs, progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of the Ripper's modus operandi; the first two cases in the Whitechapel murders file, those of Emma Elizabeth Smith and Martha Tabram, are not included in the canonical five.
Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April 1888. A blunt object was inserted into her vagina, she died the following day at London Hospital. She said that she had been attacked by three men, one of whom was a teenager; the attack was linked to the murders by the press, but most authors attribute it to gang violence unrelated to the Ripper case. Tabram was killed on 7 August 1888; the savagery of the murder, the lack of obvious motive, the closeness of the location and date to those of the Ripper murders led police to link them. The attack differs from the canonical murders in that Tabram was stabbed rather than slashed at the throat and abdomen, many experts do not connect it with the murders because of the difference in the wound pattern; the canonical five Ripper victims are Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly. Nichols' body was discovered at about 3:40 a.m. on Friday 31 August 1888 in Buck's Row, Whitechapel.
The throat was severed by two cuts, the lower part of the abdomen was ripped open by a deep, jagged wound. Several other incisions on the abdomen were caused by the same knife. Chapman's
A copycat suicide is defined as an emulation of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts or depictions of the original suicide on television and in other media. A spike of emulation suicides after a publicized suicide is known as the Werther effect, following Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther; the publicized suicide serves as a trigger, in the absence of protective factors, for the next suicide by a susceptible or suggestible person. This is referred to as suicide contagion, they spread through a school system, through a community, or in terms of a celebrity suicide wave, nationally. This is called a suicide cluster. Suicide clusters are caused by the social learning of suicide-related behaviors, or "copycat suicides". Point clusters are clusters of suicides in both time and space, have been linked to direct social learning from nearby individuals. Mass clusters are clusters of suicides in time but not space, have been linked to the broadcasting of information concerning celebrity suicides via the mass media.
One of the earliest known associations between the media and suicide arose from Goethe's novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. Soon after its publication in 1774, young men began to mimic the main character by dressing in yellow pants and blue jackets. In the novel, Werther shoots himself with a pistol after he is rejected by the woman he loves, shortly after its publication there were reports of young men using the same method to kill themselves in acts of hopelessness; this resulted in the book being banned in several places. Hence the term "Werther effect", used in the technical literature to designate copycat suicides; the term was coined by researcher David Phillips in 1974. Reports in 1985 and 1989 by Phillips and his colleagues found that suicides and other accidents seem to rise after a well-publicized suicide. People who are young or old – but not middle-aged – seem to be most susceptible to this effect. At least five percent of youth suicides may be influenced by contagion. Due to the effects of differential identification, the people who attempt to copy a suicidal act tend to have the same age and gender as the triggering suicide.
These suicidal actions tend to happen in the days and sometimes weeks. In exceptional cases, such as a discussed suicide by a celebrity, an increased level of thinking about suicide may persist for up to one year. Copycat suicide is blamed on the media. A study conducted in 2002 found evidence for "the influence of media on suicidal behaviour has been shown for newspaper and television reports of actual suicides and television portrayals of suicides, suicide in literature suicide." "Hearing about a suicide seems to make those who are vulnerable feel they have permission to do it," Phillips said. He cited studies that showed that people were more to engage in dangerous deviant behavior, such as drug taking, if someone else had set the example first; the Werther effect not only predicts an increase in suicide, but the majority of the suicides will take place in the same or a similar way as the one publicized. The more similar the person in the publicized suicide is to the people exposed to the information about it, the more the age group or demographic is to die by suicide.
The increase happens only in areas where the suicide story was publicized. Upon learning of someone else's suicide, some people decide that action may be appropriate for them as well if the publicized suicide was of someone in a situation similar to their own. Publishing the means of suicides and sensationalized reporting—particularly about celebrities, suggestions that there is an epidemic, glorifying the deceased and simplifying the reasons all lead to increases in the suicide rate. People may see suicide as a glamorous ending, with the victim getting attention and concern that they never got in life. A second possible factor is that vulnerable youth may feel, "If they couldn't cut it, neither can I". Increased rate of suicides has been shown to occur up to ten days after a television report. Studies in Japan and Germany have replicated findings of an imitative effect. Etzersdorfer et al. in an Austrian study showed a strong correlation between the number of papers distributed in various areas and the number of subsequent firearm suicides in each area after a related media report.
Higher rates of copycat suicides have been found in those with similarities in race and gender to the victim in the original report. Stack analyzed the results from 42 studies and found that those measuring the effect of a celebrity suicide story were 14.3 times more to find a copycat effect than studies that did not. Studies based on a real as opposed to a fictional story were 4.03 times more to uncover a copycat effect and research based on televised stories was 82% less to report a copycat effect than research based on newspapers. Other scholars have been less certain about whether copycat suicides happen or are selectively hyped. For instance, fears of a suicide wave following the suicide of Kurt Cobain never materialized in an actual increase in suicides. Coverage of Cobain's suicide in the local Seattle area focused on treatment for mental health issues, suicide prevention and the suffering Cobain's death caused to his family; as a result, the local suicide rate declined in the following months.
Furthermore, there is evidence for an indirect Werther effect, i.e. the perception that suicidal media content influences others which, in turn, can concurrently or additionally influence one person's own future thoughts and behaviors. The researcher Gerard Sullivan has
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun. Gun-related violence may not be considered criminal. Criminal violence includes homicide, assault with a deadly weapon, suicide, or attempted suicide, depending on jurisdiction. Non-criminal violence includes accidental or unintentional death. Included in gun violence statistics are military or para-military activities. According to GunPolicy.org, 75 percent of the world's 875 million guns are civilian. Half of these guns are in the United States, which has the highest rate of gun ownership in the world. Globally, millions are killed by the use of guns. Assault by firearm resulted in 180,000 deaths in 2013 up from 128,000 deaths in 1990. There were additionally 47,000 unintentional firearm-related deaths in 2013. Levels of gun-related violence vary among geographical regions and subnationally. Rates of violent deaths by firearm range from as low as 0.03 and 0.04 per 100,000 population in Singapore and Japan, to 59 and 67 per 100,000 in Honduras and Venezuela.
The highest rates of violent deaths by firearm in the world occur in low-income South and Central American countries such as Honduras, Colombia, El Salvador and Jamaica. The United States has the 11th highest rate of gun violence in the world, by far the largest of any large or developed nation, having a gun homicide rate, 25 times higher, an unintentional gun death rate, 6 times higher, a firearm suicide rate, 8 times higher, an overall firearm death rate, 10 times higher than the average respective rates of other high income nations. Compared to wealthy nations with strict gun control laws, such as Japan, the United Kingdom, or South Korea, the United States has an overall rate of firearms death per capita, 50–100 times greater than many of its peers; the high rates of gun violence in the United States, which has the highest rate of gun-related deaths per capita among developed countries, despite having the highest number of police officers, is sometimes thought to be attributable to its extreme rate of gun ownership, as it is the only nation in which guns exceed people.
Nearly all studies have found a positive association between gun ownership and gun-related homicide and suicide rates. According to the United Nations, deaths from small firearms exceed that of all other weapons combined, more die each year from gun-related violence than did in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined; the global death toll from use of guns may number as high as 1,000 dead each day. A number of ideas have been proposed on; some propose keeping a gun at home to keep one safer. Studies show that guns in the home is associated with an increased risk of violent death in the home. According to the FBI, gun-related violence is linked to gun ownership and is not a function or byproduct of crime, their study indicates that more than 90% of gun-related deaths were not part of a commission of a crime, rather they were directly related to gun ownership. Mother Jones reports that " Philadelphia study found that the odds of an assault victim being shot were 4.5 times greater if he carried a gun" and that "is odds of being killed were 4.2 times greater" when armed.
Others propose arming civilians to counter mass shootings. FBI research shows that between 2000 and 2013, "In 5 incidents, the shooting ended after armed individuals who were not law enforcement personnel exchanged gunfire with the shooters." Another proposal is to expand self defense laws for cases where a person is being aggressed upon, although "those policies have been linked to a 7 to 10% increase in homicides". There is a strong relationship between guns in the home, as well as access to guns more and suicide risk, the evidence for, strongest in the United States. A 1992 case-control study conducted in Tennessee and Washington found that individuals in a firearm owning home are close to five times more to commit suicide than those individuals who do not own firearms. A 2002 study found that access to guns in the home was associated with an increased risk of suicide among middle-aged and older adults after controlling for psychiatric illness; as of 2008, there were 12 case-control studies, conducted in the U.
S. all of which had found that guns in the home were associated with an increased risk of suicide. However, a 1996 New Zealand study found no significant relationship between household guns and suicide. Assessing data from 14 developed countries where gun ownership levels were known, the Harvard Injury Control Research Center found statistically significant correlations between those levels and suicide rates. However, the parallels were lost. A 2006 study found a significant effect of changes in gun ownership rates on gun suicide rates in multiple Western countries. During the 1980s and 1990s, the rate of adolescent suicides with guns caught up with adult rates, the 75-and-older rate rose above all others; the use of firearms in suicides ranges from less than 10 percent in Australia to 50 percent in the United States, where it is the most common method and where suicides outnumber homicides 2-to-1. Those who purchased a firearm where found to be high risk for suicide within a week of the purchase The United States has both the highest number of Suicides and Gun ownerships for a developed country and firearms are the most popular method to commit suicide.
In the United States when Gun ownersh
A hate crime is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain social group or race. Examples of such groups can include, are exclusively limited to: sex, disability, nationality, physical appearance, gender identity or sexual orientation. Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are called "bias incidents". "Hate crime" refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the social groups listed above, or by bias against their derivatives. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, mate crime or offensive graffiti or letters. A hate crime law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence. Hate crime laws are distinct from laws against hate speech: hate crime laws enhance the penalties associated with conduct, criminal under other laws, while hate speech laws criminalize a category of speech. Hate speech laws exist in many countries.
In the United States, hate crime laws have been upheld by both the Supreme Court and lower courts in the case of'fighting' words and other violent speech, but they are thought by some people to be in conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech, but hate crimes are only regulated through threats of injury or death. The term "hate crime" came into common usage in the United States during the 1980s, but it is used retrospectively in order to describe events which occurred prior to that era. From the Roman persecution of Christians to the Nazi slaughter of Jews, hate crimes were committed by both individuals and governments long before the term was used. A major part of defining a crime as a hate crime is that it is directed toward a oppressed group; as Europeans began to colonize the world from the 16th century onwards, indigenous peoples in the colonized areas, such as Native Americans became the targets of bias-motivated intimidation and violence. During the past two centuries, typical examples of hate crimes in the U.
S. include lynchings of African Americans in the South, lynchings of Mexicans and Chinese in the West. The verb "to lynch" is attributed to the actions of an 18th-century Virginia Quaker. Lynch, other militia officers, justices of the peace rounded up Tory sympathizers who were given a summary trial at an informal court; the term referred to extrajudicial organized but unauthorized punishment of criminals. It evolved to describe execution outside "ordinary justice." It is associated with white suppression of African Americans in the South, periods of weak or nonexistent police authority, as in certain frontier areas of the Old West. Hate crimes can have significant and wide-ranging psychological consequences, not only for their direct victims but for others as well. A 1999 U. S. study of lesbian and gay victims of violent hate crimes documented that they experienced higher levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, than lesbian and gay victims of comparable crimes which were not motivated by antigay bias.
A manual issued by the Attorney-General of the Province of Ontario in Canada lists the following consequences: Impact on the individual victim psychological and affective disturbances. Effect on the targeted group generalized terror in the group to which the victim belongs, inspiring feelings of vulnerability among its other members, who could be the next hate crime victims. Effect on other vulnerable groups ominous effects on minority groups or on groups that identify themselves with the targeted group when the referred hate is based on an ideology or a doctrine that preaches against several groups. Effect on the community as a whole divisions and factionalism arising in response to hate crimes are damaging to multicultural societies. Hate crime victims can develop depression and psychological trauma. A review of European and American research indicates that terrorist bombings cause Islamophobia and hate crimes to flare up but, in calmer times, they subside again, although to a high level.
Terrorist's most persuasive message is that of fear and fear, a primary and strong emotion, increases risk estimates and has distortive effects on the perception of ordinary Muslims. Widespread Islamophobic prejudice seems to contribute to anti-Muslim hate crimes, but indirectly: terrorist attacks and intensified Islamophobic prejudice serve as a window of opportunity for extremist groups and networks; the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted a study into the motives for hate crimes and found four motives: Thrill-seeking - perpetrators engage in hate crimes for excitement and drama. There is no greater purpose behind the crimes, with victims being vulnerable because they have an ethnic, sexual or gender background that differs from their attackers. While the actual