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Copyright status of works by the federal government of the United States

A work of the United States government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U. S. law and are therefore in the public domain. This act only applies to U. S. domestic copyright as, the extent of U. S. federal law. The U. S. government asserts. Publication of an otherwise protected work by the U. S. government does not put that work in the public domain. For example, government publications may include works copyrighted by a grantee. S. Government; the first Federal statute concerning copyright in government publications was the Printing Law enacted in 1895. Section 52 of that Act provided. Prior to 1895, no court decision had occasion to consider any claim of copyright on behalf of the Government itself. Courts had, considered whether copyright could be asserted as to the text of laws, court decisions, governmental rules, etc. and concluded that such material were not subject to copyright as a matter of public policy.

But other material prepared for State Governments by their employees, notably the headnotes, annotations, etc. prepared by court reporters, had been held copyrightable on behalf of the States. The Copyright Act of 1909 was the first copyright statute to address government publications. Section 7 of the Act provided that "No copyright shall subsist * * * in any publication of the United States Government, or any reprint, in whole or in part, thereof: * * *." Prior to the Printing Act of 1895, no statute governed copyright of U. S. government works. Court decisions had established that an employee of the Federal Government had no right to claim copyright in a work prepared by him for the Government. Other decisions had held that individuals could not have copyright in books consisting of the text of Federal or State court decisions, rules of judicial procedures, etc. i.e. governmental edicts and rulings. Copyright was denied on the grounds of public policy: such material as the laws and governmental rules and decisions must be available to the public and made known as as possible.

While Copyright was denied in the text of court decisions, material added by a court reporter on his own - such as leadnotes, annotations, etc.- was deemed copyrightable by him, although he was employed by the government to take down and compile the court decisions. These cases may be said to have established the principle that material prepared by a government employee outside of the scope of the public policy rule was copyrightable. There appears to be no court decision before 1895 dealing directly with the question of whether the United States Government might obtain or hold copyright in material not within the public policy rule, but the question did arise with respect to State Governments. In the nineteenth century much of the public printing for the States was done under contract by private publishers; the publisher would not bear the expense of printing and publishing, unless he could be given exclusive rights. To enable the State to give exclusive rights to a publisher, a number of States enacted statutes providing that court reporters or other State officials who prepared copyrightable material in their official capacity should secure copyright in trust for or on behalf of the State.

Such copyrights for the benefit of the State were sustained by the courts. Two cases before 1895 may be noted with regard to the question of the rights of individual authors in material prepared for, or acquired by, the United States Government. In Heine v. Appleton, an artist was held to have no right to secure copyright in drawings prepared by him as a member of Commodore Perry's expedition, since the drawings belonged to the Government.' In Folsom v. Marsh, where a collection of letters and other private writings of George Washington had been published and copyrighted by his successors, the purchase of the manuscripts by the United States Government was held not to affect the copyright; the contention of the defendant that the Government's ownership of the manuscripts made them available for publication by anyone was denied. The Printing Law of 1895, designed to centralize in the Government Printing Office the printing and distribution of Government documents, contained the first statutory prohibition of copyright in Government publications.

Section 52 of that Law provides for the sale by the Public Printer of "duplicate stereotype or electrotype plates from which any Government publication is printed," with the proviso "that no publication reprinted from such stereotype or electrotype plates and no other Government publication shall be copyrighted." The provision in the Printing Act concerning copyright of government works was the result of the "Richardson Affair," which involved an effort in the late 1890s by Representative James D. Richardson to copyright a government-published set of Presidential proclamations. Section 7 of the Copyright Act of 1909 provided that "No copyright shall subsist... in any publication of the United States Government, or any reprint, in whole

Clint Bartram

Clinton "Clint" Bartram is a former professional Australian rules footballer who played for the Melbourne Football Club in the Australian Football League. He was recruited after growing up in Leopold. Bartram was recruited by Melbourne at pick 60 in the 2005 AFL National Draft. Bartram is a small, running midfield/defender player, used as a tagger in the 2006 season, he made his debut in round one of the 2006 season against Carlton and kicked a goal in his first match. He went on to play all 22 home and away matches although did not play a part in the finals series due to an ankle injury suffered in the round 22 loss to Adelaide. Bartram received a NAB Rising Star nomination for his efforts in 2006 and finished 5th in voting for the award behind Port Adelaide's Danyle Pearce, Richmond's Andrew Raines, Collingwood's Heath Shaw and Carlton's Marc Murphy. In late 2012, Bartram retired due to a degenerative knee problem. Clint Bartram's profile on the official website of the Melbourne Football Club Clint Bartram's playing statistics from AFL Tables DemonWiki profile

Mission San Antonio de Padua

Mission San Antonio de Padua is a Spanish mission established by the Franciscan order in present-day Monterey County, near the present-day town of Jolon. It was founded on July 14, 1771, was the third mission founded in Alta California by Father Presidente Junípero Serra; the mission was the first use of fired tile roofing in Upper California. Today the mission is a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey. Mission San Antonio de Padua was the third Mission to be founded. Father Junipero Serra claimed the site on July 14, 1771, dedicated the Mission to Saint Anthony of Padua. Saint Anthony is the patron saint of the poor. Father Serra left Fathers Miguel Pieras and Buenaventura Sitjar behind to continue the building efforts, though the construction of the church proper did not begin until 1810. By that time, there were 178 Native Americans living at the Mission Northern Salinan but some Yokuts and Esselen. By 1805, the number had increased to 1,300, but in 1834, after the secularization laws went into effect, the total number of Mission Indians at the Mission San Antonio was only 150.

No town grew up around the Mission. In 1845, Mexican Governor Pío Pico declared all mission buildings in Alta California for sale, but no one bid for Mission San Antonio. In 1863, after nearly 30 years, the Mission was returned to the Catholic Church. In 1894, roof tiles were salvaged from the property and installed on the Southern Pacific Railroad depot located in Burlingame, one of the first permanent structures constructed in the Mission Revival Style; the first attempt at rebuilding the Mission came in 1903 when the California Historical Landmarks League began holding outings at San Antonio. "Preservation and restoration of Mission San Antonio began. The Native Sons of the Golden West supplied $1,400. Tons of debris were removed from the interior of the chapel. Breaches in the side wall were filled in." The earthquake of 1906 damaged the building. In 1928, Franciscan Friars held services at San Antonio de Padua, it took nearly 50 years to restore the Mission. The State of California is requiring a $12–15 million earthquake retrofit that must be completed by 2015, or the mission will be closed.

There are 35 private families keeping the mission open, as of 2011. There is an active campaign to raise funds for the retrofit. Today, the nearest city is King City, nearly 29 miles away. Historians consider the Mission's pastoral location in the valley of the San Antonio River along the Santa Lucia Mountains as an outstanding example of early mission life.. The mission is surrounded by the Fort Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, acquired by the U. S. Army from the Hearst family during World War II to train troops. Additional land was acquired from the Army in 1950 to increase the mission area to over 85 acres; this fort is still training troops today.. Mission San Antonio de Padua is one of the designated tour sights of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail; as of 2013, Franciscan Friar Jeff Burns OFM, is in charge of the Mission. The 1965 horror film Incubus was filmed at the Mission; the writer and director, Leslie Stevens, concerned that the Mission authorities would not allow the film to be shot there because of the subject matter, concocted a cover story that film was called Religious Leaders of Old Monterey, presented a script, about monks and farmers.

He was helped in this deception by the fact that the film was shot in Esperanto. Spanish missions in California USNS Mission San Antonio, a Buenaventura-Class fleet oiler built in 1944 The Hacienda – the nearby Mission Revival Style guest-ranch house built in 1930 by W. R. Hearst. Mission San Miguel Arcángel – next south Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad – next north Sitjar, Bonaventura. Vocabulary of the language of San Antonio mission, California. Trübner. Retrieved 25 August 2012. Forbes, Alexander. California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co. Cornhill, London. Krell, Dorothy; the California Missions: A Pictorial History. Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-376-05172-8. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar. California Prehistory: Colonization and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Leffingwell, Randy. California Missions and Presidios: The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions.

Voyageur Press, Inc. Stillwater, MN. ISBN 0-89658-492-5. Paddison, Joshua. A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Ruscin, Terry. Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8. Yenne, Bill; the Missions of California. Advantage Publishers Group, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8. Mission San Antonio de Padua official website Fort Hunter Liggett official website Monterey County Historical Society Early photographs, sketches of Mission San Antonio de Padua, via Calisphere, California Digital Library Early History of the California Coast, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Indigenous educators fight for an accurate history of California Official U. S. National Park Service Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail website Howser, Huell. "California Missions". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive