National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
The Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of California. The separate Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests were administratively combined in 2004. Now, the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest ranges from the crest of the Cascade Range west into the Siskiyou Mountains, covering 1.8 million acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon; the former Rogue River portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of five counties in southern Oregon and northern California. In descending order of land area they are Jackson, Douglas and Josephine counties, with Siskiyou County being the only one in California, it has a land area of 628,443 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashland, Butte Falls, Grants Pass and Prospect; the former Siskiyou portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of four counties in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. In descending order of land area they are Curry and Coos counties in Oregon and Del Norte County in California.
It has a land area of 1,094,726 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Cave Junction, Gold Beach, Powers. Nearly all of the national forest is mountainous and includes parts of the Southern Oregon Coast Range, the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range; the largest river in the national forest is the Rogue River, which originates in the Cascade Range and flows through the Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. The Illinois River is a major tributary of the Rogue in the Klamath Mountains, while the Sixes, Pistol and Winchuck rivers drain the Coast Range directly to the Pacific Ocean; the Siskiyou National Forest was established on October 5, 1906. On July 1, 1908, it absorbed other lands. Rogue River National Forest traces its establishment back to the creation of the Ashland Forest Reserve on September 28, 1893, by the General Land Office; the lands were transferred to the Forest Service in 1906, it became a National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1908, Ashland was combined with other lands from Cascade and Siskiyou National Forests to establish Crater National Forest.
On July 18, 1915, part of Paulina National Forest was added, on July 9, 1932, the name was changed to Rogue River. On September 9, 1942, an airplane dropped bombs on Mount Emily in the Siskiyou National Forest, turned around, flew back over the Pacific Ocean; the bombs exploded and started a fire, put out by several forest service employees. Bomb fragments were said to have Japanese markings. Stewart Holbrook vividly described this event in his essay "First Bomb", it was confirmed that the plane was indeed Japanese, the incident became known as the Lookout Air Raid. It was the first bombing of the continental United States by an enemy aircraft; the national forest is home to some stands of old growth, including Port Orford cedar and Douglas fir in the Copper Salmon area. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 345,300 acres some of which occurs in the Red Buttes Wilderness. Blue oak, Quercus douglasii, Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis occur in the Siskiyou National Forest.
For the California endemic Blue Oak, the disjunctive stands are occurring near the northern limit of its range, which occur no farther north than Del Norte County. The world's tallest pine tree is located in the national forest. In 2002, the massive Biscuit Fire burned nearly 500,000 acres, including much of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness; the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest contains all or part of eight separate wilderness areas, which together add up to 565,900 acres: High Cascades Complex Fires List of U. S. National Forests List of old growth forests Media related to Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
Wallowa–Whitman National Forest
The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of Idaho. Formed upon the merger of the Wallowa and Whitman national forests in 1954, it is located in the northeastern corner of the state, in Wallowa, Union and Umatilla counties in Oregon, includes small areas in Nez Perce and Idaho counties in Idaho; the forest is named for the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce people, who lived in the area, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, Presbyterian missionaries who settled just to the north in 1836. Forest headquarters are located in Baker City, Oregon with ranger districts in La Grande and Baker City; the national forest may be divided into several distinct sections, which together cover 2,300,000 acres of land, including 600,000 acres of designated wilderness. A large section of the forest is located in the rugged Wallowa Mountains, south of Joseph, Oregon, in the upper reaches of the Wallowa and Imnaha drainage basins; the alpine area in the heart of the mountain range is designated as the Eagle Cap Wilderness.
Bordering the national forest on the north, Wallowa Lake State Park is located on the shore of Wallowa Lake. A smaller section of the forest is located north of Enterprise, along Joseph Canyon; this section is joined to the first by the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, which protects the stretch of the Snake River known as Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in North America. The recreation area includes portions of the Nez Perce and Wallowa–Whitman national forests, but is managed by the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, it contains the Hells Canyon Wilderness, jointly managed by the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. The Hells Canyon Scenic Byway passes through the national forest on Forest Service Road 39. Another large section of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is located west of La Grande and Baker City, Oregon, in the Elkhorn Mountains, a sub-range of the Blue Mountains, it borders the Malheur National Forest on the southwest and the Umatilla National Forest on the northwest.
This area includes the upper reaches of the John Grande Ronde rivers. The North Fork John Day and Monument Rock wildernesses are jointly managed by the adjacent national forests; the historic gold mining city of Sumpter is surrounded by the Wallowa–Whitman on all sides. The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is home to 36 fish species, 236 bird species, over 90 mammal species, 26 reptile-amphibian species, 1,500 plant species. Wildlife habitat is affected by logging and grazing, but significant stands of old-growth forest have survived. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Large mammal species include Shiras moose, Rocky Mountain elk, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, mountain goat, white-tailed deer, mule deer, black bear, timber wolf and bobcat. Several sightings of wolverines, rare within the United States, have been recorded since the 1990s. Smaller mammals include the pika, badger, beaver, river otter, marmot. Bird species include the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, gray-crowned rosy finch, chukar partridge, pileated woodpecker, American dipper, great gray owl.
Rivers and creeks support steelhead and trout. Plant communities range from ponderosa pine forest to alpine meadows. Engelmann spruce, mountain hemlock, subalpine fir and whitebark pine can be found in the higher elevations, with Douglas-fir, white fir, western larch, lodgepole pine elsewhere. Wildflowers include clarkia, Indian paintbrush, sego lily, larkspur, shooting star, bluebell. Rocky bluffs in the Hells Canyon area support prickly pear poison ivy; the Forest Service uses controlled burns before the wildfire season to reduce the natural fuel on the forest floor as part of its management of the forest. The land, now the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest was first occupied by the Nez Perce people around 1400 CE; the area was the summer home of the Joseph Band of the Nez Perce tribe. The Cayuse and Bannock tribes arrived in the area some time later; the native people hunted deer and bighorn sheep in the Wallowa Valley and surrounding mountains. The first European settlers arrived in the Wallowa Valley in 1860.
In 1887, a gang of horse thieves murdered 34 Chinese miners in Chinese Massacre Cove along the Snake River. In 1905, the Wallowa Forest Reserve and Chesnimnus Reserve were established by President Theodore Roosevelt; the two reserves were merged to create the Imnaha National Forest on March 1, 1907. On July 1, 1908, the name was changed to Wallowa National Forest, in 1954 the Wallowa was administratively combined with the Whitman National Forest to create the Wallowa–Whitman; the Whitman had been established on July 1908, from part of the Blue Mountains National Forest. On June 20, 1920, part of Minam National Forest was added; the Eagle Cap primitive area was established in 1930. The area was designated as a wilderness in 1940; the Wilderness Act in 1964 placed the Eagle Cap Wilderness in the National Wilderness Preservation System. The Eagle Cap was enlarged by 73,410 acres in 1972 and by an additional 67,711 acres in 1984, its area now totals 350,461 acres. The Wallowa Mountains Visitor Center and district office for the national forest, a 20,500-square-foot log building in Enterprise, burned to the ground on July 11, 2010.
The forest works with the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation on cultural and natural resources issues. The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is used for hiking, fishing and other recreational
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Newberry National Volcanic Monument was designated on November 5, 1990, to protect the area around the Newberry Volcano in the U. S. state of Oregon. It was created within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service, it includes 50,000 acres of lakes, lava flows, spectacular geologic features in central Oregon. Newberry National Volcanic Monument consists of four primary visitor destinations: Lava Butte, Lava River Cave, Lava Cast Forest, Newberry Caldera; the highest point within the monument is the summit of Paulina Peak at 7,985 ft, with views of the Oregon Cascades and the high desert. Paulina Peak may be accessed by road during the summer months, as the road is both steep and rough, with hairpin turns towards the summit, trailers or long vehicles are discouraged; the summit area of Newberry Volcano holds two alpine lakes full of trout, East Lake and Paulina Lake. The Big Obsidian Flow, created 1,300 years ago, covers 700 acres; the black, shiny obsidian field is accessible from good roads within the caldera, or a trail that traverses the flow.
Lava Cast Forest is 25 miles south of Bend, accessible via a 9-mile gravel road from U. S. Highway 97. Lava Cast Forest contains a 6,000-year-old lava flow. Lava Butte is 11 miles south of Bend, Oregon. Lava Butte is a cinder cone volcano, it can hiking up a paved road. Interpretive signs, views of the surrounding lava flow and mountains, an active fire lookout are found on top. Lava River Cave is 13 miles south of Bend. Lava River Cave is open to visitors from May through September. Lava River Cave is the largest uncollapsed lava tube in Oregon, may be explored by lantern. Temperatures in the cave average 42 °F. White-nose syndrome has not yet affected resident bats in the cave. Newberry Caldera is 37 miles from Bend and 19 miles from La Pine. Newberry Caldera is the largest developed area within the national monument; the caldera was formed. Over time the caldera filled up with water that created Paulina Lake and East Lake. Newberry Caldera has many natural tourism opportunities. Visitors have access to campgrounds, water recreation, lodging and interpretive guides with Forest Service staff.
Newberry Caldera has medium use most of the year with some high usage during peak times of the year.'There are twelve trails within Newberry Caldera ranging from 0.25 miles to 21 miles. These trails offer a variety of uses from hiking only to multiuse with hiking and horse allowed. Along the trails you can find access to fishing, interpretive signs, picnic areas, hot springs. There are seven boat launches for water recreationists; the Caldera offers nine camp sites accommodating both tent and RV camper. Newberry Caldera offers a variety of winter activates such as snowmobiling, cross country skiing, rooms for rent at the resorts.' List of National Monuments of the United States Official Website Volcanic Vistas: Guide to Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge
Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge is a U. S. National Wildlife Refuge on Oregon's coast, it is one of six National Wildlife Refuges comprising the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex and is renowned among bird watchers for being able to view rare shorebirds including ruff, Hudsonian godwit, Mongolian plover. The refuge was last expanded in 1999, it now has 889 acres in two units: Bandon Marsh and Ni-les'tun. Bandon Marsh is popular for hunting, clamming and photography; the wildlife refuge protects the largest tidal salt marsh in the Coquille River estuary. The mudflats are rich in clam, crab and shrimp and attracts migrating shorebirds, coho salmon, as well as the California brown pelican. More common shorebird species include western and least sandpiper, semipalmated plover, black-bellied plover, Pacific golden plover, red phalarope, dunlin; the Ni-les'tun unit is a habitat restoration project which will benefit fish and wildlife. In consists of intertidal and freshwater marsh, riparian land.
It protects a 4,500 year-old Native American archaeological site of the Coquille Indian Tribe. The Refuge is planning a marsh restoration for this unit where an influx of saltwater and freshwater will allow a revival of mudflats and marsh plants, interconnecting tidal channels will bisect the wildlife habitat south of the overlook deck; as the land returns to a functioning intertidal marsh, flocks of seasonally driven migratory birds and young fish will use the restored habitat. There are several overlooks, as well as access for hunters, birders and clammers. State and federal regulations are in effect; the Marsh is located just north of Bandon, on the east side of the Coquille river across from Bullards Beach State Park. List of National Wildlife Refuges Natural environment Nature "Bandon Marsh Land Status map". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Coos Bay, Oregon
Coos Bay is a city located in Coos County, United States, where the Coos River enters Coos Bay on the Pacific Ocean. The city borders the city of North Bend, together they are referred to as one entity called either Coos Bay-North Bend or Oregon's Bay Area. Coos Bay's population as of the 2010 census was 15,967 residents, making it the most populous city on the Oregon Coast. Prior to Europeans first visiting the Oregon coast, Native American tribes claimed the Coos Bay region as their homeland for thousands of years. Members of the Coos, Lower Umpqua and Coquille tribes lived, fished and gathered along Coos Bay and its estuaries, along rivers, in meadows and forests. 400 years ago and Spanish explorers first approached the South Coast. In 1579 Sir Francis Drake was purported to have sought shelter for his ship, the Golden Hinde, around Cape Arago. Trader and explorer Jedediah Smith was in the region seeking furs, the Hudson's Bay Company sent Alexander Roderick McLeod to search for an inland passage.
The earliest settlement of European Americans in the area was in January 1852 when survivors of the Captain Lincoln shipwreck established Camp Castaway until they and their cargo could be rescued. There has been a permanent settlement on Coos Bay since 1853, when the town of Marshfield was founded there and named after the Massachusetts hometown of its founder, J. C. Tolman; the first Methodist church in the area was established in 1857. By 1866 the inhabitants, who were reliant on the sea for their income, had built the Cape Arago Light; the setting up of a post office in 1871 and the arrival of the Coos Bay Wagon Road in the town a year connected Coos County with the Umpqua River valley in neighbouring Douglas County, on the other side of the Coast Range of mountains. This wagon road, although long gone in its original form, is still in existence since the route of Oregon Route 42 follows the original right of way. 1869 saw Coos Bay set up its first, the state's 48th, chartered Masonic Lodge.
Named Blanco Lodge, this brotherhood was set up by several of the town's founding fathers. With this development, the incorporation of Marshfield came in 1874. One of the nation's oldest still-operating machine shops, the Nelson Machine Works-Coos Bay Iron Works, was founded in 1888. In 1902 the only lynching to be documented in Oregon occurred in Coos Bay, of Alonzo Tucker, an African American man, he was accused of escaping from jail. However, there is no record of his escape from jail; the only account is that he was caught by a mob of 200 to 300 people, shot twice and hung from the 7th Street bridge, which spanned present-day Golden Field, where high school soccer games are now held. No charges were brought against the mob; the newspaper at that time reported the mob was "quiet and orderly." Alonzo Tucker's cause of death was asphyxiation. Prior to around 1915, the Coos region was isolated from the rest of Oregon due to difficulties in crossing the Coast Range and fording rivers, the Pacific Ocean was used to link people to other areas, including San Francisco, an easier two-day trip compared to traveling inland over rugged terrain.
In 1916 a rail line was completed that linked the region to other interior settlements and towns, which increased commercial trade and tourism Significant urban growth occurred in the 1920s, during the 1930s to 1950s large-scale growth occurred. Per the Oregon Bay Area Chamber of Commerce, during the 1930s to 1950s: Shipyards contracted with the U. S. Government to build minesweepers and rescue tugs for World War II defense purposes. Large national lumber companies set up operations and expanded for the next two decades. Jetty improvements, commercial fishing, crabbing shaped the development of Charleston; the completion of the North Bend Bridge in 1936 and the Roosevelt Highway improved modern transportation connections and provided the final link in opening the Coos region to the outside world. The remote district known as the Coos Bay country had come of age. What now makes up the central district of Coos Bay was called Marshfield until November 10, 1944; the name change, long advocated by residents, had been voted for and became effective on November 11, thus matching the name of the Bay itself.
The City of Marshfield was named after the Massachusetts hometown of the Cityʼs founder, J. C. Tolman, incorporated in 1874. On February 4, 1999, a Japanese ship named the New Carissa ran aground on a beach 2.7 miles north of the entrance to Coos Bay, drawing international attention to the area. The New Carissa was empty of cargo at the time, heading for the Port of Coos Bay to pick up wood chips; when the captain was told that the weather was too severe for the ship to enter port, he anchored his ship close by. The crew put out only one anchor, it appears that this was on too short a chain to be effective; the subsequent US Coast Guard investigation found several other aspects of the ship's company's handling of the situation to have been poor, leading to the conclusion that human error caused the grounding. 70,000 US gallons of fuel oil were spilled by the vessel, with a further 165,000 to 255,000 gallons being deliberately set alight and burnt off later. The stern of the ship remained on the beach.
In 2008, the stern of the New Carissa was removed from the beach. The worst loss of life for a fire department in modern Oregon history occurred in Coos Bay on November 25, 2002, when three firefighters were killed by a structural failure of the roo