Alice Crary is an American philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford and at the Graduate Faculty, The New School for Social Research in New York City, where she was the Philosophy Department Chair 2014-17 and founding Co-Chair of the Gender and Sexuality Studies program. For the academic year 2017-18, she was a Member of the School of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In the summer 2018 she was LFUI-Wittgenstein Guest Professor at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. Crary has influenced a generation of philosophy students at both graduate and undergraduate levels, was named one of the three "most inspirational" professors at The New School, above all for "path-breaking work...as Chair to bring about greater inclusiveness among populations traditionally under-represented in philosophy." Crary’s contributions to philosophy center on moral philosophy and Wittgenstein scholarship. However, she has written about such topics as cognitive disability, critical theory, nonhuman animal cognition, the philosophy of literature and narrative.
Her thought is influenced by Cora Diamond, John McDowell, Stanley Cavell, Hilary Putnam, bell hooks, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Charles Mills, Peter Winch. Crary’s most recent book, Inside Ethics, argues for an ethically non-neutral conception of reality that embraces the resources of literature and art to reorient our experiences of other human beings and animals. In her view, our ability to think through ethical problems in disability studies and animal studies in particular is stunted by a lack of moral imagination, caused by a narrow understanding of rationality and by the poverty of philosophy severed from the affective responses derived from other areas in the humanities, she offers a picture of objectivity, within rather than outside of ethical thought and a Wittgensteinian account of how seeing aspects of the world supplements our moral objectivism. Her first monograph, Beyond Moral Judgment, discusses why and lays out this program of how to broaden discussions of moral concepts and objectivity, illustrating in particular how literature and feminism help us to reframe our moral presuppositions.
Crary has with increasing frequency written about ethics in regard to cognitive disability and animal life. Crary’s work on feminism exemplifies her engagement with continental philosophy as a critique of standard views of objectivity in analytic philosophy that shy away from the radical, non-neutral methodology and political standpoint that distinguishes her objective moralism. In her view, language in all of its forms invites us to both cognitively and ethically appreciate the lives of women in new ways that count as objective knowledge; as is the case with her moral philosophy, her view of a feminist conception of objectivity is informed by her interpretation of Wittgenstein, who she understands as proposing a “wide” view of objectivity in which affective responses are not non-cognitive persuasive manipulations but reveal real forms of suffering that give us a more objective understanding of the world. Crary is a leading figure of what is called the “therapeutic” or “resolute” reading of Wittgenstein.
In her influential, co-edited collection of essays of such readings, The New Wittgenstein, her own contribution argues against the standard use-theory readings of Wittgenstein that render his thought as politically conservative and implausible. Since she has cultivated a distinctive reading of Wittgenstein and contributed to numerous collections of Wittgenstein scholarship, including Emotions and Understanding and interpretations of Wittgenstein’s On Certainty, she has argued that critical theory and Wittgensteinian ethical analysis can fruitfully work together toward the aim of liberating social thought. Crary participates in and organizes events for public discussion, she writes for and participates in discussions and debates for the public at large, such as a commemorative article about her former mentor Stanley Cavell in the New York Times, a BBC radio interview about the life and philosophy of Stanley Cavell, public debates on the treatment of animals and the cognitively disabled, an essay for The Stone in the New York Times on the “math wars” in American education.
Crary directs eleven PhD theses in the Department of Philosophy at The New School for Social Research, where she inaugurated and has led both the Wittgenstein Workshop and a graduate student-oriented Works in Progress series. She received The New School's University Distinguished Teaching Award in 2005. Crary's international educational activities have focused on the intersection of philosophy with critical theory and political philosophy. In the summer of 2014 she co-organized and taught the summer philosophy workshop at Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany. In July 2016, she served on the faculty of the Transregional Center for Democratic Studies at the 25th anniversary New School for Social Research Europe Democracy and Diversity Institute in Wroclaw, Poland. In 2017 and 2018 she co-organized the Kritische Theorie in Berlin Critical Theory Summer School in Berlin, Germany, she will be the Tutorial Fellow in Philosophy and Christian Ethics, Regent's Park College, University of Oxford as of Fall, 2018.
Crary was a 1983-4 exchange student with Youth for Understanding in the southern German town of Achern. She was a national champion rower at the Lakeside School in Seattle and placed 6th in the Junior Women's Eight at the 1985 World Rowing Junior Championships
Stanley Louis Cavell was an American philosopher. He was the Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value at Harvard University, he worked in the fields of ethics and ordinary language philosophy. As an interpreter, he produced influential works on Wittgenstein, Emerson and Heidegger, his work is characterized by frequent literary references. Cavell was born to a Jewish family in Georgia, his mother, a locally renowned pianist, trained him in music from his earliest days. During the Depression, Cavell’s parents moved several times between Atlanta and Sacramento, California; as an adolescent, Cavell played lead alto saxophone as the youngest member of a black jazz band in Sacramento. He entered the University of California, Berkeley where, along with his life-long friend Bob Thompson, he majored in music, studying with, among others, Roger Sessions and Ernest Bloch. After graduation, he studied composition at the Juilliard School of Music in New York City, only to discover that music was not his calling.
He entered graduate school at UCLA, studying philosophy, transferred to Harvard University. As a student there he came under the influence of J. L. Austin, whose teaching and methods "knocked him off... horse." In 1954 he was awarded a Junior Fellowship at the Harvard Society of Fellows. Before completing his Ph. D. he became an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1956. Cavell's daughter by his first wife, Rachel Lee Cavell, was born in 1957. From 1962–1963 Cavell was a Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he befriended the British philosopher Bernard Williams. Cavell’s marriage to Marcia ended in divorce in 1961. In 1963 he returned to the Harvard Philosophy Department, where he became the Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value. In the summer of 1964, Cavell joined a group of graduate students, who taught at Tougaloo College, a black college in Mississippi, as part of what became known as the Freedom Summer.
He and Cathleen Cavell were married in 1967. In April 1969, during the student protests, helped by his colleague John Rawls, worked with a group of African-American students to draft language for a vote by the faculty that established the Department of African and African-American Studies at Harvard. In 1976, Cavell's first son Benjamin was born. In 1979, along with the documentary filmmaker Robert Gardner, Cavell helped found the Harvard Film Archive, to preserve and present the history of film. Cavell received a MacArthur Fellowship in 1992. From 1996-1997 Cavell was President of the American Philosophical Association. In 1984, his second son David was born, he remained on the Harvard faculty until his retirement in 1997. After retiring, he taught courses at the University of Chicago, he held the Spinoza Chair of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam in 1998. Cavell died in Boston, Massachusetts of heart failure on June 19, 2018 at the age of 91, he was buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery. Although trained in the Anglo-American analytic tradition, Cavell interacted with the continental tradition.
He includes film and literary study in philosophical inquiry. Cavell writes extensively on Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, Martin Heidegger, as well as on the American transcendentalists Henry Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, he interprets Wittgenstein in a fashion known as the New Wittgenstein. Cavell's writing incorporates autobiographical elements concerning how his movement between and within the ideas of these thinkers influenced and influences his own thinking that impacted spheres in the arts and humanities beyond the technical study of philosophy. A scholarly journal, the Conversations: The Journal of Cavellian Studies, engages with his philosophical work, it is published by the University of Ottawa. Cavell established his distinct philosophical identity with Must We Mean What We Say?, which addresses topics such as language use, skepticism and literary interpretation, from the point of view of ordinary language philosophy, of which he is a practitioner and ardent defender. One of the essays discusses Søren Kierkegaard's work on revelation and authority, The Book on Adler, in an effort to help re-introduce the book to modern philosophical readers.
In The World Viewed Cavell looks at film. He covers modernism in art and the nature of media, where he mentions the influence of art critic Michael Fried's writing on his work. Cavell is best known for his book, The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism and Tragedy, which forms the centerpiece of his work, which has its origins in his doctoral dissertation. In Pursuits of Happiness, Cavell describes his experience of seven prominent Hollywood comedies: The Lady Eve, It Happened One Night, Bringing Up Baby, The Philadelphia Story, His Girl Friday, Adam’s Rib, The Awful Truth. Cavell argues that these films, from the years 1934–1949, form part of what he calls the genre of "The Comedy of Remarriage," and he finds in them great philosophical and indeed political significance. Cavell argues that these Hollywood comedies show that "the achievement of happiness requires not the satisfaction of our needs but the examination and transformation of those needs." According to Cavell, the emphasis that these movies place on "remarriage" draws attention to the fact that, within a relationship, happiness requires "growing up" together with one's partner.
Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational colleges in the United States, it was established to be a college "...under the care of Friends, at which an education may be obtained equal to that of the best institutions of learning in our country." By 1906, Swarthmore had dropped its religious affiliation and became non-sectarian. Swarthmore is a member of the Tri-College Consortium along with Bryn Mawr and Haverford College, a cooperative academic arrangement between the three schools. Swarthmore is affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania through the Quaker Consortium, which allows for students to cross-register for classes at all four institutions. Swarthmore offers over 600 courses a year in more than 40 areas of study, including an ABET accredited engineering program which culminates with a Bachelor of Science in engineering. Swarthmore has a variety of sporting teams with a total of 22 Division III Varsity Intercollegiate Sports Teams and competes in the Centennial Conference, a group of private colleges in Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Despite the school's small size, Swarthmore alumni have attained prominence in a broad range of fields. Graduates include five Nobel Prize winners, 11 MacArthur Foundation fellows, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 27 Truman Scholars, 10 Marshall Scholars, 201 Fulbright Grantees, many noteworthy figures in law, science, business and other fields. Swarthmore counts 49 alumni as members of the National Academies of Science and Medicine. Swarthmore is ranked 3rd best liberal arts college in the country by U. S. News and World Report; the name "Swarthmore" has its roots in early Quaker history. In England, Swarthmoor Hall near the town of Ulverston, was the home of Thomas and Margaret Fell in 1652 when George Fox, fresh from his epiphany atop Pendle Hill in 1651, came to visit; the visitation turned into a long association, as Fox persuaded Thomas and Margaret Fell of his views. Swarthmoor was used for the first meetings of; the College was founded in 1864 by a committee of Quakers who were members of the Philadelphia, New York and Baltimore Yearly Meetings of the Religious Society of Friends.
Edward Parrish was its first president. Lucretia Mott and Martha Ellicott Tyson were among those Friends, who insisted that the new college of Swarthmore be coeducational. Edward Hicks Magill, the second president, served for 17 years, his daughter, Helen Magill, was in the first class to graduate in 1873. In the early 1900s, the College had a major collegiate American football program during the formation period of the soon-to-be nationwide sport, an active fraternity and sorority life; the 1921 appointment of Frank Aydelotte as President began the development of the school's current academic focus with his vision for the Honors program based on his experience as a Rhodes Scholar. During World War II, Swarthmore was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a U. S. Navy commission. Wolfgang Köhler, Hans Wallach and Solomon Asch were noted psychologists who became professors at Swarthmore, a center for Gestalt psychology.
Both Wallach, Jewish, Köhler, not, had left Nazi Germany because of its discriminatory policies against Jews. Köhler came to Swarthmore in 1935 and served until his retirement in 1958. Wallach came in 1936, first as a researcher, teaching from 1942 until 1975. Asch, Polish-American and had immigrated as a child to the US in 1920, joined the faculty in 1947 and served until 1966, conducting his noted conformity experiments at Swarthmore; the 1960s and 1970s saw the construction of new buildings – the Sharples Dining Hall in 1964, the Worth Health Center in 1965, the Dana/Hallowell Residence Halls in 1967, the Lang Music Building in 1973. They saw a 1967 review of the college initiated by President Courtney Smith, a 1969 black protest movement, in which African-American students conducted an eight-day sit-in in the admissions office to demand increased black enrollment, the establishment of the Black Cultural Center and the Women's Resource Center; the Environmental Studies program and the Intercultural Center were established in 1992, in 1993 the Lang Performing Arts Center was opened.
In 1999 the college began purchasing renewable energy credits in the form of wind power, in the 2002–2003 academic year it constructed its first green roof. In 2008, Swarthmore's first mascot, Phineas the Phoenix, made its debut. Swarthmore's Oxbridge tutorial-inspired Honors Program allows students to take double-credit seminars from their third year and write honors theses. Seminars are composed of four to eight students. Students in seminars will write at least three ten-page papers per seminar, one of these papers is expanded into a 20–30 page paper by the end of the seminar. At the end of their final year, Honors students take oral and written examinations conducted by outside experts in their field. One student in each discipline is awarded
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian philosopher who worked in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language. From 1929 to 1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one article, one book review and a children's dictionary, his voluminous manuscripts were published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953, has since come to be recognised as one of the most important works of philosophy in the 20th century, his teacher, Bertrand Russell, described Wittgenstein as "the most perfect example I have known of genius as traditionally conceived. Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a fortune from his father in 1913, he made some donations to artists and writers, in a period of severe personal depression after the First World War, he gave away his entire fortune to his brothers and sisters.
Three of his brothers committed suicide, which Wittgenstein had contemplated. He left academia several times—serving as an officer on the front line during World War I, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage, he described philosophy as "the only work that gives me real satisfaction". His philosophy is divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus, a period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations; the early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world and believed that by providing an account of the logic underlying this relationship, he had solved all philosophical problems. The Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game. A survey among American university and college teachers ranked the Investigations as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy, standing out as "the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations."
The Investigations ranked 54th on a list of most influential twentieth-century works in cognitive science prepared by the University of Minnesota's Center for Cognitive Sciences. However, in the words of his friend Georg Henrik von Wright, he believed "his ideas were misunderstood and distorted by those who professed to be his disciples, he doubted. He once said he felt as though he was writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day men." According to a family tree prepared in Jerusalem after World War II, Wittgenstein's paternal great-great-grandfather was Moses Meier, a Jewish land agent who lived with his wife, Brendel Simon, in Bad Laasphe in the Principality of Wittgenstein, Westphalia. In July 1808, Napoleon issued a decree that everyone, including Jews, must adopt an inheritable family surname, so Meier's son Moses, took the name of his employers, the Sayn-Wittgensteins, became Moses Meier Wittgenstein, his son, Hermann Christian Wittgenstein—who took the middle name "Christian" to distance himself from his Jewish background—married Fanny Figdor Jewish, who converted to Protestantism just before they married, the couple founded a successful business trading in wool in Leipzig.
Ludwig's grandmother Fanny was a first cousin of the famous violinist Joseph Joachim. They had 11 children—among them Wittgenstein's father. Karl Otto Clemens Wittgenstein became an industrial tycoon, by the late 1880s was one of the richest men in Europe, with an effective monopoly on Austria's steel cartel. Thanks to Karl, the Wittgensteins became the second wealthiest family in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, only behind the Rothschilds. Karl Wittgenstein was viewed as the Austrian equivalent of Andrew Carnegie, with whom he was friends, was one of the wealthiest men in the world by the 1890s; as a result of his decision in 1898 to invest in the Netherlands and in Switzerland as well as overseas in the US, the family was to an extent shielded from the hyperinflation that hit Austria in 1922. However, their wealth diminished due to post-1918 hyperinflation and subsequently during the Great Depression, although as late as 1938 they owned 13 mansions in Vienna alone. Wittgenstein's mother was Leopoldine Maria Josefa Kalmus, known among friends as Poldi.
Her father was a Bohemian Jew and her mother was Austrian-Slovene Catholic—she was Wittgenstein's only non-Jewish grandparent. She was an aunt of the Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich Hayek on her maternal side. Wittgenstein was born at 8:30 pm on 26 April 1889 in the so-called "Wittgenstein Palace" at Alleegasse 16, now the Argentinierstrasse, near the Karlskirche. Karl and Poldi had nine children in all—four girls: Hermine, Helene, a fourth daughter Dora who died as a baby; the children were baptized as Catholics, received formal Catholic instruction, were raised in an exceptionally intense environmen
Rush Rhees was an American philosopher. He is principally known as a student and literary executor of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. With G. E. M. Anscombe, he edited Wittgenstein's posthumous Philosophical Investigations, a influential work, he was responsible for publishing other works by Wittgenstein, including Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, Philosophische Bemerkungen, Philosophical Remarks, Philosophical Grammar. Rhees taught at Swansea University from 1940 to 1966. Rush Rhees was born in the United States of America on 19 March 1905, at New York, he was the son of Benjamin Rush Rhees, a Baptist minister and president of the University of Rochester. He studied philosophy at the University of Rochester, but was expelled in 1922 for insolent questions. In 1924 he moved to Britain, where he graduated from the University of Edinburgh in 1928. In 1932 he became a research fellow at the University of Cambridge. There he impressed G. E. Moore who described him as his ablest student, met Wittgenstein, who became a close friend, continued to visit him after his move to Swansea in Wales.
Rhees taught philosophy at Swansea University from 1940 to 1966. He has been known as a Wittgenstein exegete and for his influence on his friends, colleague Peter Winch and former student and his literary executor D. Z. Phillips, he was responsible for editing but developing the legacy left by Wittgenstein, at times emphasising religious and ethical understandings of Wittgenstein's work, reflecting how Wittgenstein himself sometimes said he wanted to be understood. Together with G. H. von Wright and G. E. M. Anscombe he was appointed by Wittgenstein as his literary executor, he was Wittgenstein's personal executor. Rhees was influential in bringing the work of other philosophers to greater attention, notably for example the French philosopher, Simone Weil. For a time, he was visiting Professor at King's College London, with Winch and Norman Malcolm formed a'formidable triumvirate' of Wittgensteinans. Rhees returned to Swansea in 1982 after the death of his wife Jean Henderson, where he continued to teach, leading weekly post-graduate seminars from 1983 and, in the Cambridge tradition, welcoming a few students in'at home' sessions for more detailed discussions of their research work.
He attended weekly meetings of the University's Philosophical Society he founded and which counted Wittgenstein as chief amongst those eminent philosophers who addressed it in the years when Rhees was a lecturer at Swansea. It was a forum in which students were expected to test and sharpen their philosophical wits, it was clear in these seminars that Rhees was not only devoted to exegesis of one of the finest thinkers of the twentieth century, but was, in fact absorbed in developing his own profound insights in Philosophy in repeated tours de force. He was self-effacing of his capacities and had to be persuaded to accept an honorary professorship at Swansea where he had turned down promotion during his teaching career, he died on 22 May 1989, is buried at Oystermouth Cemetery in Mumbles near Swansea. Edited Studies in Logic and Probability, a selection of works by George Boole Edited Philosophical Investigations, by Wittgenstein Without Answers Wittgenstein and the Possibility of Discourse On Religion and Philosophy Moral Questions
Political philosophy known as political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, justice, rights and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, if they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect, what form it should take, what the law is, what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology". Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy. Within political science, a strong focus has been placed on the role of political philosophy, moral philosophy and the humanities, although in recent years there has been increased focus to political theory based on quantitative methodological approaches as well as economic theory, the natural sciences and behaviouralism. Indian political philosophy in ancient times demarcated a clear distinction between nation and state religion and state.
The constitutions of Hindu states evolved over time and were based on political and legal treatises and prevalent social institutions. The institutions of state were broadly divided into governance, defense and order. Mantranga, the principal governing body of these states, consisted of the King, Prime Minister, Commander in chief of army, Chief Priest of the King; the Prime Minister headed the committee of ministers along with head of executive. Chanakya was a 4th-century BC Indian political philosopher; the Arthashastra provides an account of the science of politics for a wise ruler, policies for foreign affairs and wars, the system of a spy state and surveillance and economic stability of the state. Chanakya quotes several authorities including Bruhaspati, Prachetasa Manu and Ambi, described himself as a descendant of a lineage of political philosophers, with his father Chanaka being his immediate predecessor. Another influential extant Indian treatise on political philosophy is the Sukra Neeti.
An example of a code of law in ancient India is the Laws of Manu. Chinese political philosophy dates back to the Spring and Autumn period with Confucius in the 6th century BC. Chinese political philosophy was developed as a response to the social and political breakdown of the country characteristic of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period; the major philosophies during the period, Legalism, Mohism and Taoism, each had a political aspect to their philosophical schools. Philosophers such as Confucius and Mozi, focused on political unity and political stability as the basis of their political philosophies. Confucianism advocated a hierarchical, meritocratic government based on empathy and interpersonal relationships. Legalism advocated a authoritarian government based on draconian punishments and laws. Mohism advocated a decentralized government centered on frugality and ascetism; the Agrarians advocated egalitarianism. Taoism advocated a proto-anarchism. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty, but was replaced by State Confucianism in the Han Dynasty.
Prior to China's adoption of communism, State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century. Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece, where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato. Ancient Greece was dominated by city-states, which experimented with various forms of political organization, grouped by Plato into five categories of descending stability and morality: monarchy, oligarchy and tyranny. One of the first important classical works of political philosophy is Plato's Republic, followed by Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Politics. Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Roman statesman Cicero; the early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was influenced by Plato. A key change brought about by Christian thought was the moderation of the Stoicism and theory of justice of the Roman world, as well emphasis on the role of the state in applying mercy as a moral example. Augustine preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God or the City of Man.
Augustine's City of God is an influential work of this period that attacked the thesis, held by many Christian Romans, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth. Thomas Aquinas meticulously dealt with the varieties of philosophy of law. According to Aquinas, there are four kinds of law: Eternal law Divine positive law Natural law Human law Aquinas never discusses the nature or categorization of canon law. There is scholarly debate surrounding the place of canon law within the Thomistic jurisprudential framework. Aquinas was an influential thinker in the Natural Law tradition; the rise of Islam, based on both the Qur'an and Muhammad altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region. Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance. T
The New Wittgenstein
The New Wittgenstein is a book containing a family of interpretations of the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. In particular, those associated with this interpretation, such as Cora Diamond, Alice Crary, James F. Conant, understand Wittgenstein to have avoided putting forth a "positive" metaphysical program, understand him to be advocating philosophy as a form of "therapy." Under this interpretation, Wittgenstein's program is dominated by the idea that philosophical problems are symptoms of illusions or "bewitchments by language," and that attempts at a "narrow" solution to philosophical problems, that do not take into account larger questions of how the questioner conducts his life, interacts with other people, uses language are doomed to failure. According to the introduction to the anthology The New Wittgenstein: Wittgenstein's primary aim in philosophy is – to use a word he himself employs in characterizing his philosophical procedures – a therapeutic one; these papers have in common an understanding of Wittgenstein as aspiring, not to advance metaphysical theories, but rather to help us work ourselves out of confusions we become entangled in when philosophizing.
— Alice Crary, "Introduction", The New Wittgenstein, Routledge, 2000, p. 1While many philosophers have suggested variants of such ideas in readings of the work of late Wittgenstein, namely the author of Philosophical Investigations, a notable aspect of the New Wittgenstein interpretation is a view that the work of early Wittgenstein, exemplified by the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, the Investigations, are more connected, in less opposition, to each other than understood. This view is in direct conflict with the long-standing, if somewhat old-fashioned, interpretation of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus advocated by the logical positivists associated with the Vienna Circle; the therapeutic approach of the New Wittgenstein scholars is not without critics: Hans-Johann Glock argues that the "plain nonsense" reading of the Tractatus "is at odds with the external evidence and conversations in which Wittgenstein states that the Tractatus is committed to the idea of ineffable insight". There is no unitary "New Wittgenstein" interpretation, proponents differ amongst themselves.
Philosophers associated with the interpretation include a number of influential philosophers associated with the traditions of analytic philosophy, including Stanley Cavell, James F. Conant, John McDowell, Matthew B. Ostrow, Thomas Ricketts, Warren Goldfarb, Hilary Putnam, Stephen Mulhall, Alice Crary, Cora Diamond. Explicit critics of the "New Wittgenstein" interpretation include P. M. S. Hacker, Ian Proops and Genia Schönbaumsfeld; the New Wittgenstein, eds. Alice Crary and Rupert Read. Routledge, 2000. P. M. S. Hacker, Wittgenstein and the New American Wittgensteinians, Philosophical Quarterly 53, pp. 1 –23. Ian Proops, The New Wittgenstein: A Critique, European Journal of Philosophy 9:3, 375–404. A Confusion of the Spheres: Kierkegaard and Wittgenstein on Philosophy and Religion, Genia Schönbaumsfeld. Oxford University Press, 2007. Post-Analytic Tractatus, ed. Barry Stocker. Ashgate Press, 2004