Joan, Countess of Toulouse
Joan, was Countess of Toulouse from 1249 until her death. She was the only child of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse by his first wife Sancha of Aragon, Countess of Toulouse. In 1225, aged five, Joan was betrothed to Hugh, eldest son and heir of Hugh X of Lusignan and Isabella, Countess of Angoulême and Dowager Queen of England. However, the engagement was soon broken. One of the conditions of the Treaty of Paris, signed on 12 April 1229, stipulated that Joan was to be married to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers and brother of King Louis IX of France, a Papal dispensation for their 4th degree of consanguinity is dated on 26 June of that year. After the confirmation of his betrothal, Joan was thereafter brought up at the French royal court, she was thereby not a part of the Occitanian culture, felt no sympathy for the Albigensians and did nothing to prevent the hunt of them issued by the Inquisition. The date of the formal marriage is not confirmed: both 1234 and 1241 have been suggested, but the former are considered more likely.
The couple had no issue. Joan accompanied her spouse on both the Seventh Crusade in 1249 and the Eighth Crusade in 1270. In 1249, her father died, she succeeded him as ruler of Toulouse with her spouse as co-ruler, her mother-in-law installed a governor for them until their return to France. The couple took control over their lands in October 1250, made their official entrance as Countess and Count of Toulouse in May 1251. After this, they left again, they visited their lands. Joan had attempted to dispose of some of her inherited lands in her will. Joan was the only surviving child and heiress of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, Marquis of Provence, so under Provençal and French law, the lands should have gone to her nearest male relative. In her will dated 23 June 1270, Joan declared Philippa as her universal heiress. However, her will was invalidated by the Parlement in 1274. One specific bequest in Alphonse's will, giving his wife's lands in the Comtat Venaissin to the Holy See, was allowed, it became a Papal territory, a status that it retained until 1791
Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse
Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence from 1222 until his death. Raymond was born at the son of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Joan of England. Through his mother, he was a grandson of Henry II of England and a nephew of kings Richard I and John of England. Raymond VII married firstly, in Sancha of Aragon, Countess of Toulouse, they had one daughter and were divorced in 1241. He was engaged to Sanchia of Provence. In 1243 Raymond married Margaret of Lusignan, the daughter of Hugh X of Lusignan and Isabella of Angoulême, they had the Council of Lyons in 1245 granted Raymond a divorce. He tried to get support of Blanche, Queen mother of France to marry Beatrice of Provence, who had just become Countess of Provence, but Beatrice married Blanche's son Charles instead. During the Albigensian Crusade in May 1216, he set out from Marseille and besieged Beaucaire, which he captured on 24 August, he fought to reconquer the county of Toulouse from Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and Simon's son Amaury VI of Montfort.
He succeeded his father in 1222. At the moment of his accession, he and the new count of Foix, Roger Bernard II the Great, besieged Carcassonne. On 14 September 1224, the Albigensian Crusaders surrendered and the war came to an end, each southern lord making peace with the church. However, in 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated him and launched a crusade against him, the king of France, Louis VIII, called the Lion, wanting to renew the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights in Languedoc. Roger-Bernard tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms again; the war was a discontinuous series of skirmishes and, in January 1229, defeated, was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris. By this treaty he ceded the former viscounty of Trencavel to Louis IX and his daughter Joan was forced to marry Alphonse, brother of the king; when Raymond died, Alphonse became count of Toulouse, after Alphonse's death the county was annexed by France.
Raymond VII was buried beside his mother Joan in Fontevrault Abbey. Barber, Malcolm; the Cathars: Dualist Heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle Ages. Routledge. Macé, Laurent. "Raymond VII of Toulouse: The Son of Queen Joanne,'Young Count' and Light of the World." The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, edd. Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005. ISBN 1-84383-114-7. Smith, Damian J.. Crusade and Inquisition in the Lands of the Crown of Aragon:. Brill. Weiler, Björn K. U.. England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III. Ashgate. Wolff, Robert Lee. A History of the Crusades. Vol. II; the University of Wisconsin Press
Catharism was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe what is now northern Italy and southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries. The followers were known as Cathars and are now remembered for a prolonged period of persecution by the Catholic Church, which did not recognise their belief as being Christian. Catharism appeared in Europe in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and this is when the name first appears; the adherents were sometimes known as Albigensians, after the city Albi in southern France where the movement first took hold. The belief system may have originated in the Byzantine Empire. Catharism was taught by ascetic leaders who set few guidelines, thus, some Catharist practices and beliefs varied by region and over time; the Catholic Church denounced its practices including the Consolamentum ritual, by which Cathar individuals were baptized and raised to the status of "perfect". Catharism may have had its roots in the Paulician movement in Armenia and eastern Byzantine Anatolia and in the Bogomils of the First Bulgarian Empire, who were influenced by the Paulicians resettled in Thrace by the Byzantines.
Though the term Cathar has been used for centuries to identify the movement, whether the movement identified itself with this name is debated. In Cathar texts, the terms Good Men, Good Women, or Good Christians are the common terms of self-identification; the idea of two gods or principles, one good and the other evil, was central to Cathar beliefs. This was antithetical to the monotheistic Catholic Church, whose fundamental principle was that there was only one God, who created all things visible and invisible. Cathars believed that the good God was the God of the New Testament and the creator of the spiritual realm, they believed the evil God was the God of the Old Testament, creator of the physical world whom many Cathars, their persecutors, identified as Satan. Cathars thought human spirits were the genderless spirits of angels trapped in the material realm of the evil god, destined to be reincarnated until they achieved salvation through the consolamentum, when they could return to the benign God.
From the beginning of his reign, Pope Innocent III attempted to end Catharism by sending missionaries and by persuading the local authorities to act against them. In 1208, Innocent's papal legate Pierre de Castelnau was murdered while returning to Rome after excommunicating Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, who, in his view, was too lenient with the Cathars. Pope Innocent III abandoned the option of sending Catholic missionaries and jurists, declared Pierre de Castelnau a martyr and launched the Albigensian Crusade which all but ended Catharism; the origins of the Cathars' beliefs are unclear, but most theories agree they came from the Byzantine Empire by the trade routes and spread from the First Bulgarian Empire to the Netherlands. The name of Bulgarians was applied to the Albigensians, they maintained an association with the similar Christian movement of the Bogomils of Thrace. "That there was a substantial transmission of ritual and ideas from Bogomilism to Catharism is beyond reasonable doubt."
Their doctrines have numerous resemblances to those of the Bogomils and the Paulicians, who influenced them, as well as the earlier Marcionites, who were found in the same areas as the Paulicians, the Manicheans and the Christian Gnostics of the first few centuries AD, although, as many scholars, most notably Mark Pegg, have pointed out, it would be erroneous to extrapolate direct, historical connections based on theoretical similarities perceived by modern scholars. John Damascene, writing in the 8th century AD notes of an earlier sect called the "Cathari", in his book On Heresies, taken from the epitome provided by Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion, he says of them: "They reject those who marry a second time, reject the possibility of penance ". These are the same Cathari who are mentioned in Canon 8 of the First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in the year 325, which states "... F those called Cathari come over, let them first make profession that they are willing to communicate with the twice-married, grant pardon to those who have lapsed..."It is that we have only a partial view of their beliefs, because the writings of the Cathars were destroyed because of the doctrinal threat perceived by the Papacy.
Conclusions about Cathar ideology continue to be debated with commentators accusing their opponents of speculation and bias. There are a few texts from the Cathars themselves which were preserved by their opponents which give a glimpse of the inner workings of their faith, but these still leave many questions unanswered. One large text which has survived, The Book of Two Principles, elaborates the principles of dualistic theology from the point of view of some of the Albanenses Cathars, it is now agreed by most scholars that identifiable historical Catharism did not emerge until at least 1143, when the first confirmed report of a group espousing similar beliefs is reported being active at Cologne by the cleric Eberwin of Steinfeld. A landmark in the "institutional history" of the Cathars was the Council, held in 1167 at Saint-Félix-Lauragais, attended by many local figures and by the Bogomil papa Nicetas, the Cathar bishop of Fran
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester
Simon IV de Montfort known as Simon de Montfort the Elder, was a French nobleman and soldier who took part in the Fourth Crusade and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. He died at the Siege of Toulouse in 1218, he was lord of the 5th Earl of Leicester in England. He was the son of Simon IV de Montfort, lord of Montfort l'Amaury in France near Paris, Amicia de Beaumont, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester, he succeeded his father as lord of Montfort in 1181. She would accompany him on his campaigns. In 1199, while taking part in a tournament at Ecry-sur-Aisne, he took the cross in the company of Count Thibaud de Champagne and went on the Fourth Crusade; the crusade soon fell under Venetian control, was diverted to Zara on the Adriatic Sea. Pope Innocent III had warned the Crusaders not to attack fellow Christians; as a result, the delegation returned to Zara and the city resisted. Since most Frankish lords were in debt to the Venetians, they did support the attack and the city was sacked in 1202.
Simon was one of its most outspoken critics. He and his associates, including Abbot Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay, left the crusade when the decision was taken to divert once more to Constantinople to place Alexius IV Angelus on the throne. Instead and his followers travelled to the court of King Emeric of Hungary and thence to Acre, his mother was the eldest daughter of Robert of Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. After the death of her brother Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester without children in 1204, she inherited half of his estates, a claim to the Earldom of Leicester; the division of the estates was effected early in 1207, by which the rights to the earldom were assigned to Amicia and Simon. However, King John of England took possession of the lands himself in February 1207, confiscated its revenues. In 1215, the lands were passed into the hands of Simon's cousin, Ranulph de Meschines, 4th Earl of Chester. Simon remained on his estates in France before taking the cross once more, this time against Christian dissidence.
He participated in the initial campaign of the Albigensian Crusade in 1209, after the fall of Carcassonne, was elected leader of the crusade and viscount of the confiscated territories of the Raymond-Roger Trencavel family. Simon was rewarded with the territory conquered from Raymond VI of Toulouse, which in theory made him the most important landowner in Occitania, he became feared for his ruthlessness. In 1210 he burned 140 Cathars in the village of Minerve who refused to recant – though he spared those who did. In another reported incident, prior to the sack of the village of Lastours, he brought prisoners from the nearby village of Bram and had their eyes gouged out and their ears and lips cut off. One prisoner, left with a single good eye, led them into the village as a warning. Simon's part in the crusade had the full backing of his feudal superior, the King of France, Philip Augustus, but historian Alistaire Horne, in his book Seven Ages of Paris, states that Philip "turned a blind eye to Simon de Montfort's crusade... of which he disapproved, but accepted the spoils to his exchequer".
Following the latter's success in winning Normandy from John Lackland of England, he was approached by Innocent III to lead the crusade but turned this down. He was committed to defend his gains against John and against the emerging alliance among England, the Empire and Flanders. But, Philip claimed full rights over the lands of the house of St Gilles. Philip may well have wanted to appease the papacy after the long dispute over his marriage, which had led to excommunication, he sought to counter any adventure by King John of England, who had marriage and fealty ties with the Toulouse comtal house. Meanwhile, others have assessed Philip's motives to include removing over-mighty subjects from the North, distracting them in adventure elsewhere, so they could not threaten his successful restoration of the power of the French crown in the north. Simon is described as a man of unflinching religious orthodoxy committed to the Dominican order and the suppression of heresy. Dominic Guzman Saint Dominic, spent several years during the war in the Midi at Fanjeau, Simon's headquarters in the winter months when the crusading forces were depleted.
Simon had other key confederates in this enterprise, which many historians view as a conquest of southern lands by greedy men from the north. Many of them had been involved in the Fourth Crusade. One was Guy Vaux de Cernay, head of a Cistercian abbey not more than twenty miles from Simon's patrimony of Montfort Aumary, who accompanied the crusade in the Languedoc and became bishop of Carcassonne. Meanwhile, Peter de Vaux de Cernay, the nephew of Guy, wrote an account of the crusade. Historians consider this to be propaganda to justify the actions of the crusaders, he portrayed outrages committed by the lords of the Midi as the opposite. Simon was an energetic campaigner moving his forces to strike at those who had broken their faith with him – and there were many, as some local lords switched sides whene
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, to life in general. The study of nature is a large, part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena; the word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", in ancient times meant "birth". Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis, which related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants and other features of the world develop of their own accord; the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries. Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects—the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth.
It is taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness—wild animals, forest, in general those things that have not been altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature"; this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that, brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Earth is the only planet known to support life, its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun, its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two narrow temperate zones, a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.
Precipitation varies with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions; the outer surface is divided into several migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field; this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, a fluid outer phase. Convective motion in the core generates electric currents through dynamo action, these, in turn, generate the geomagnetic field; the atmospheric conditions have been altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms, which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods, variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have had major effects on the ecological balance, on the actual geography of the Earth.
Geology is the study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, physical properties and history of Earth materials, the processes by which they are formed and changed; the field is a major academic discipline, is important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, understanding past climates and environments. The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, crystallize as they intrude.
After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side motion; these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, transform boundaries between tectonic plates. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets. The moon formed 20 million years later. Molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources; the energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicat
Count of Toulouse
The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries. Originating as vassals of the Frankish kings, the hereditary counts ruled the city of Toulouse and its surrounding county from the late 9th century until 1270; the counts and other family members were at various times counts of Quercy, Albi, Nîmes, sometimes margraves of Septimania and Provence. Count Raymond IV founded the Crusader state of Tripoli, his descendants were counts there, they reached the zenith of their power during the 11th and 12th centuries, but after the Albigensian Crusade the county fell to the kingdom of France, nominally in 1229 and de facto in 1271. The title was revived for Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse, a bastard of Louis XIV. During the youth of young Louis the Pious his tutor, ruled at Toulouse as the first count. In 788, Count Torson was captured by the Basques under Adalric, who made him swear an oath of allegiance to the Duke of Gascony, Lupus II. Upon his release, Charlemagne, at the Council of Worms, replaced him with his Frankish cousin, William of Gellone.
William in turn subdued the Gascons. In the ninth century, Toulouse suffered in common with the rest of western Europe, it was besieged by Charles the Bald in 844, taken four years by the Normans, who had sailed up the Garonne. About 852, Raymond I, count of Quercy, succeeded his brother Fredelo as Count of Rouergue and Toulouse, it is from Raymond that all the counts of Toulouse document their descent. His grandchildren divided their parents' estates. Raymond II's grandson, William III, married Emma of Provence, handed down part of that lordship to his younger son Bertrand I of Forcalquier. William's elder son, left two children, one of whom, William IV succeeded his father in Toulouse and Quercy. From this time on, the counts of Toulouse were powerful lords in southern France. Raymond IV, assumed the formal titles of Marquis of Provence, Duke of Narbonne and Count of Toulouse. Afterward, the count set sail with the First Crusade. After the conquest of Jerusalem, he set siege to the City of Tripoli in the Levant.
Raymond is considered the first Count of Tripoli. His son, Bertrand took the title, he and his successors ruled the Crusader state until 1187. While Raymond was away in the Holy Land, rule of Toulouse was seized by William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, who claimed the city by right of his wife, the daughter of William IV. Raymond's son and successor, had followed him to the Holy Land in 1109. Therefore, at Raymond's death the family's great estates and Toulouse went to Bertrand's brother, Alfonso Jordan, his rule, was disturbed by the ambition of William IX and his granddaughter, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who urged her husband Louis VII of France to support her claims to Toulouse by war. Upon her divorce from Louis and her subsequent marriage to Henry II of England, Eleanor pressed her claims through Henry, who at last, in 1173, forced Raymond V to do him homage for Toulouse. Raymond V, a patron of the troubadours, died in 1194, was succeeded by his son, Raymond VI. Following the 1208 assassination of the Papal legate, Pierre de Castelnau, Raymond was excommunicated and the County of Toulouse was placed under interdict by Pope Innocent III.
Raymond was eager to appease the Pope, was pardoned. However, following a second excommunication, Raymond's holdings in the Languedoc were desolated by the Albigensian Crusade, led by Simon de Montfort. Raymond's forces were defeated in 1213, depriving him of his fees, he was exiled to England. Montfort occupied Toulouse in 1215. Raymond VII succeeded his father in 1222, he left an only daughter, who married Alphonse, the son of Louis VIII of France and brother of Louis IX of France. At the deaths of Alfonse and Joan in 1271, the vast holdings of the counts of Toulouse lapsed to the Crown. In 1271,Toulouse passed to the Crown of France, by the Treaty of Meaux, 1229. From 1271–1285, Philip III of France, King of France and nephew of Alphonse bore the title of count of Toulouse, but the mention of the title is abandoned after his death. Only in 1681, Toulouse was resurrected as a royal appanage by Louis XIV for his illegitimate son with Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, Louis-Alexandre 778–790 Torson, first Count of Toulouse.
However, recent research suggests there were at least one, as many as three overlooked counts. This has resulted in conflicting numbering systems regarding the Raymonds, although most historians continue to use the established, traditional numbe