Dewey–Humboldt is a town in Yavapai County, United States. The population of the town was 3,894 according to the 2010 census; the Dewey–Humboldt area was a census-designated place at the 2000 census, at which time its population was 6,295. Dewey–Humboldt was incorporated on December 20, 2004, from the existing unincorporated towns of Dewey and Humboldt, located adjacent to one another in the Agua Fria River Valley, 15 miles east of Prescott. After discovery of gold on Lynx Creek in the spring of 1863, the Dewey area was settled around the summer 1863 by pioneer prospector and Indian-fighter King Woolsey, who founded the Agua Fria Ranch, in what was known as "Woolsey Valley," to supply the miners. Woolsey used stones from a prehistoric ruin to build his ranch house, built an irrigation system off the Agua Fria, introduced some of the first cattle into newly organized Yavapai County. At the "falls" of the Agua Fria at present Humboldt, Woolsey built a small quartz mill to work gold ores from the nearby hills and a small water-powered grist mill.
During 1864, he led the storied Woolsey Expeditions to the east in retaliatory raids on Apache and in search of gold. All these activities caused his bankruptcy, sale of the ranch property to the Bowers Brothers, sutlers at Fort Whipple; the brothers continued to use the house and farm the lands to supply the region with corn and other agricultural products. As the valley began to fill up with a few ranches and farms, a post office was established in 1875; the stage station and post office nearby was named "Agua Fria." By the early 1870s water diversions were being used to irrigate an extensive area of corn and other crops. In the mid-1870s a small water-powered, silver-lead furnace, "Agua Fria Furnace," was built to work the ores from what would become the Iron King mine area; the small plant, built at the site of Woolsey's earlier mill at today's Humboldt, proved the value of the region, but was too isolated to make a profit. The isolation of the region came to an end in 1898; the Prescott & Eastern Railroad was built from near Prescott to Mayer.
The P & E followed along the Agua Fria and built sidings at Cherry Creek Siding, Val Verde, the site of a smelter built by the Val Verde Smelting Company—a large plant at the site of Humboldt. The Agua Fria post office closed in 1895; when a new post office opened in 1898, the community was renamed Dewey to honor Admiral Dewey's great victory that year at the Battle of Manila—this was the height of the Spanish–American War. Another post office was established at Val Verde in 1899. Farming continued in a small portion of the area until 2006 when the last working farm was sold to developers. Today Dewey is a low-density residential area. In 1902 the Val Verde smelter burnt to the ground. A new company was formed, the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Company, which built a giant smelting plant upon the ashes of the Val Verde works; this operation served not only local mines, but operations throughout the Arizona Territory. The town was renamed Humboldt in 1905 to honor Baron Alexander von Humboldt, who had visited New Spain early in the 19th century and predicted that greater riches would be found to the north.
The smelter and the railroads into the Bradshaws created the most widespread mining boom in the county. By 1907 the population had reached 1,000. With two daily trains, business in the town boomed and the city decided to showcase their development by hosting a Labor Day celebration that year; the celebration featuring a parade on Main Street became an annual tradition, now organized by the Agua Fria Chamber of Commerce and held on the last Saturday in September. The Humboldt smelter operation went through a half decade of reorganization after the Panic of 1907 deflated the local mining boom. Revival came during the high mineral market prices of the World War I era, when the smelting plant operated in conjunction with the Blue Bell Mine, the one productive copper mine in the Bradshaw Mountains; the train connected the mine with the smelter. Many of Humboldt's historic buildings date from the early twentieth century period. One of the early important mines was the nearby Iron King, but its over promotion in the early 1900s, with the panic of 1907, caused it to close temporarily.
It was reopened during the high mineral market prices of World War I. After World War I, a post-war economic down turn caused the mine to close again. Revival came by the mid-1920s and the local farm and mine economy prospered until the Wall Street crash of 1929 hit. Mines and the smelter closed, by 1930 the population of Humboldt had dwindled to 300. Humboldt had a second but smaller boom in 1934 when the mine reopened, but its duration of operation would be longer under the Shattuck-Denn company of Bisbee, Arizona fame; the Iron King became the most productive mine in the Bradshaws, produced $100 million in gold, silver and zinc before its closure in 1968. The mine tailings are presently being reprocessed into iron-rich Ironite fertilizer. There have been questions raised about the lead and arsenic content of the fertilizer, but the company maintains its product is harmless. "The lead and arsenic are in forms. You can eat them
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the project is considered its primary output; the creation and growth of OSM has been motivated by restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world, the advent of inexpensive portable satellite navigation devices. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the predominance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since it has grown to over 2 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, other free sources; this crowdsourced data is made available under the Open Database License. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, a non-profit organisation registered in England and Wales; the data from OSM is available for use in both traditional applications, like its usage by Facebook, OsmAnd, MapQuest Open, JMP statistical software, Foursquare to replace Google Maps, more unusual roles like replacing the default data included with GPS receivers.
OpenStreetMap data has been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, although in 2009 data quality varied across the world. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004 focusing on mapping the United Kingdom. In the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like the Ordnance Survey created massive datasets but failed to and distribute them; the first contribution, made in the British city of London in 2005, was thought to be a road by the Directions Mag. In April 2006, the OpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share. In December 2006, Yahoo! confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production. In April 2007, Automotive Navigation Data donated a complete road data set for the Netherlands and trunk road data for India and China to the project and by July 2007, when the first OSM international The State of the Map conference was held, there were 9,000 registered users.
Sponsors of the event included Yahoo! and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset. In December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. Ways to import and export data have continued to grow – by 2008, the project developed tools to export OpenStreetMap data to power portable GPS units, replacing their existing proprietary and out-of-date maps. In March, two founders announced that they have received venture capital funding of €2.4 million for CloudMade, a commercial company that uses OpenStreetMap data. In November 2010, Bing changed their licence to allow use of their satellite imagery for making maps. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Chief among these were Foursquare and Craigslist, which adopted OpenStreetMap, Apple, which ended a contract with Google and launched a self-built mapping platform using TomTom and OpenStreetMap data.
Map data is collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using tools such as a handheld GPS unit, a notebook, digital camera, or a voice recorder. The data is entered into the OpenStreetMap database. Mapathon competition events are held by OpenStreetMap team and by non-profit organisations and local governments to map a particular area; the availability of aerial photography and other data from commercial and government sources has added important sources of data for manual editing and automated imports. Special processes are in place to avoid legal and technical problems. Editing of maps can be done using the default web browser editor called iD, an HTML5 application using D3.js and written by Mapbox, financed by the Knight Foundation. The earlier Flash-based application Potlatch is retained for intermediate-level users. JOSM and Merkaartor are more powerful desktop editing applications that are better suited for advanced users. Vespucci is the first full-featured editor for Android.
StreetComplete is a new, easy Android app launched in 2016, which allows users without any OpenStreetMap knowledge to answer simple quests for existing data in OpenStreetMap, thus contribute data. Maps.me is a mobile application offering offline maps which includes a limited OSM data editor. Go Map!! is an iOS app that lets you edit information in OpenStreetMap. Pushpin is another iOS app; the project has a geographically diverse user-base, due to emphasis of local knowledge and ground truth in the process of data collection. Many early contributors were cyclists who survey with and for bicyclists, charting cycleroutes and navigable trails. Others are GIS professionals. Contributors are predominately men, with only 3–5% being women. By August 2008, shortly after the second The State of the Map conference was held, there were over 50,000 registered contributors. In April 2012, OpenStreetMap cleared 600,000 registered contributors. On 6 January 2013, OpenStreetMap reached 1 million registered users.
Around 30% of users have contributed at least one point to the OpenStreetMap database. Ground surveys are performed on foot, bicycle, or in a car, motorcycle or boat. Map data are
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Ash Fork, Arizona
Ash Fork is a census-designated place in Yavapai County, Arizona. The population was 457 at the 2000 U. S. Census. Ash Fork is located at 35°13′16″N 112°29′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all of it land. Geologic places of interest include the Cathedral Caves which are 10 miles west of town off Arizona Road, Dante's Descent, a 275-foot deep sinkhole known as "Devil's Hole", five miles northwest of Ash Fork, off of Crookton Road. After closure by the state, Dante's Descent cannot be visited by the public. Pictorial and historic documentation of the natural attraction may be found at the Ash Fork Library. Ash Fork lies in close proximity to Kaibab National Forest and Coconino National Forest, international attractions such as the Grand Canyon are an hour's drive away using major roads. Service roads allow swifter access to back areas of Grand Canyon National Park, but may not be open to public thoroughfare. 15 miles to the north of Ash Fork is Beale Road, which has the distinction of being the first federally funded highway.
The internationally renowned U. S. Route 66 runs directly through the town. Notably, the longest original, uninterrupted stretch of Route 66 still in existence can be found between Ash Fork and Seligman, beginning just beyond Ash Fork at Crookton Road; the surrounding geographical area and settlements served as inspiration for the 2006 Pixar film Cars. Ash Fork has proclaimed itself "The Flagstone Capital of the World," due to the large number of stone quarries and stone yards in and around the town; the title of "Flagstone Capital of the World," however, was bestowed upon Ash Fork by the Ash Fork Development Association and Ash Fork Historical Society. The title was bestowed upon the town in 2014 by the Arizona House of Representatives with the passage of H. R. 2001. The community was established as a siding of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad known as the Santa Fe Railroad, in October 1882, it was purportedly named in 1883 by F. W. Smith, General Superintendent of the railroad, in reference to a thicket ash trees at the site.
The first official post office was established on April 12, 1883, with one Henry W. Kline serving as the first Postmaster. Following an uncontrollable fire in 1885, the entire town of Ash Fork burned to the ground in 1893, was rebuilt on the opposite side of the railroad tracks from its original location, where it remains today. In years, Ash Fork was the location of the Escalante, a large hotel and "Harvey House" built in 1907 and closed in 1948, operated by the Fred Harvey Company. Ash Fork's convenient location along the railway and famous U. S. Route 66 made it recognizable to many cross-country travelers, as evidenced by its fleeting mention in several films from the era of Classical Hollywood cinema such as 1947's Dark Passage, starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. U. S. Route 66 provided a slight boost to the town's economy in the 1950s, but construction of the divided highway through the town resulted in the destruction of many of the storefronts and residential streets, forever altering the aesthetic qualities of the downtown area.
When the Santa Fe Railroad moved its main line north and away from the town in 1960, Ash Fork lost nearly half its population, as most families employed by the railway were forced to leave the area. Another large fire, known locally as the "Big Fire", devastated the community on November 20, 1977, destroying most of the downtown businesses; when I-40 bypassed the town soon after, drastically reducing traffic on U. S. Route 66, the local economy never recovered; the community's last major fire occurred on October 7, 1987, destroying nearly all the remaining buildings along the two block business district located on the south side of Route 66. Part of what was once Route 66 still runs directly through Ash Fork, though as a divided highway, with Park Avenue running east and Lewis Avenue running west, both serving as a main thoroughfare. Historic buildings, including a false front structure and old railroad company houses can be seen along these streets; the majority of the town's limited commercial establishments, including the Oasis Lounge and the Ranch House Cafe, can be found along Park Avenue.
The Ash Fork Post Office is located on this street. Certain areas of the town were selected to be used as sets in the filming of 1992's Universal Soldier due to the low purchase price and poor condition of several buildings, including an old motel, which were blown up for cinematic effect; as of the census of 2000, there were 457 people, 149 households, 109 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 199.1 people per square mile. There were 189 housing units at an average density of 82.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.28% White, 1.31% Native American, 1.53% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 51.42% of the population. There were 149 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.45. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The med
Congress is a census-designated place in Yavapai County, United States. Once a gold-mining center for the Congress Mine and a ghost town, Congress now serves as a retirement and bedroom community for nearby Wickenburg; the population was 1,717 at the 2000 census. Gold was discovered at the Congress Mine in 1884. By 1893, the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway passed within three miles of the mine, at Congress Junction. Congress boomed, remained prosperous until the mid-1930s, when the mines closed. Total gold production at the Congress Mine exceeded $8 million, at the then-current price of $20.67 per ounce — or about $400 million, at the 2007 price. The post office moved to Congress Junction in 1938; the community now known as Congress is the old Congress Junction. Little remains at the original townsite. Congress is located at 34°8′46″N 112°50′48″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 37.7 square miles, of which, 37.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Congress has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps. At the 2000 census, there were 1,717 people, 821 households and 579 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 45.6 per square mile. There were 1,070 housing units at an average density of 28.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.92% White, 0.52% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 1.81% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 7.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 821 households of which 12.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.5% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.43. 13.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 13.3% from 25 to 44, 32.1% from 45 to 64, 37.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 60 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males. The median household income was $27,868 and the median family income was $32,250. Males had a median income of $25,588 and females $19,000; the per capita income was $15,926. About 10.0% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over. Date Creek Mountains Piedmont, Arizona Stanton, Arizona Congress Elementary School District v. Warren Little Miss Nobody case Congress ghost town, includes photo gallery
Camp Verde, Arizona
Camp Verde is a town in Yavapai County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the town is 10,873; the town hosts an annual corn festival in July and organized by Hauser and Hauser Farms. Other annual festivals include Fort Verde Days; the 42.6 sq mi town is intersected by I-17, extending 8 miles to the West and 10 miles to the East of the interstate. Three freeway exits provide local access: Exits 285, 287, 289; the Town's Historic Downtown is 1-mile from I-17 and contains a grocery store, physician facilities, dining, historical museum, Fort Verde State Historic Park, chamber of commerce/visitor center and town offices. Camp Verde is located at 34°34′0″N 111°51′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.6 square miles, of which, 42.6 square miles of it is land and 0.02% is water. It is in the Verde River valley. To the southwest lie the Black Hills mountain range. Camp Verde is surrounded by Prescott National Forest; the Mogollon Rim is just north of the town and forms the southwestern edge of the large, geologically ancient Colorado Plateau.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,451 people, 2,611 households, 2,538 families residing in the town. The population density was 222.0 people per square mile. There were 3,969 housing units at an average density of 93.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.05% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 7.31% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 4.70% from other races, 2.23% from two or more races. 10.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,611 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.97. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,868, the median income for a family was $37,049. Males had a median income of $30,104 versus $20,306 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,072. About 9.5% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Tourist attractions include the nearby Montezuma Castle National Monument located in Verde Valley. In the town is Fort Verde State Historic Park, Out of Africa Wildlife Park; the Cliff Castle Casino, operated by the Yavapai-Apache Nation Indian tribe, is an important gambling destination for north and central Arizona. Fort Verde State Historic Park is located in Camp Verde's Historic Downtown 1-mile from all three Camp Verde exits. Camp Verde Unified School District serves the community; the Marvel Comics superhero characters James and John Proudstar are from a reservation in Camp Verde.
The 1977 horror movie, Kingdom of the Spiders, was filmed in Camp Verde. In the 2011 film Paul, Simon Pegg and Nick Frost plan to visit Camp Verde as a UFO hot spot along with Rachel, Area 51, Apache Junction and Roswell, New Mexico. In Cable #7, Camp Verde is a bunker headquarters of the X-Force. Camp Verde Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. AZ-26, "Camp Verde, Officer's House, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ", 1 photo The Camp Verde Bugle - Local newspaper The Camp Verde Journal - Local newspaper
Wickenburg is a town located in Maricopa County, United States, with a portion in neighboring Yavapai County. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 6,363; the Wickenburg area with much of the Southwest became part of the United States by the 1848 treaty that ended the Mexican–American War. The first extensive survey was conducted by Gila Rangers who were pursuing hostile Indians who had raided the Butterfield Overland Mail route and attacked miners at Gila City. In 1862, a gold strike on the Colorado River near present-day Yuma brought American prospectors, who searched for minerals throughout central Arizona. Many of the geographic landmarks now bear the names of these pioneers, including the Weaver Mountains, named after mountain man Pauline Weaver, Peeples Valley, named after a settler. A German named, his efforts were rewarded with the discovery of the Vulture Mine, from which more than $30 million worth of gold has been dug. Ranchers and farmers soon built homes along the fertile plain of the Hassayampa River.
Together with the miners, they founded the town of Wickenburg in 1863. Wickenburg was the home of Jack Swilling, who prospected in the Salt River Valley in 1867. Swilling helped ground the city of Phoenix, Arizona. Wickenburg was supplied from the Colorado River, by steamboat over the La Paz - Wikenburg Road by wagons and pack mules. Wickenburg in turn became a supply point for the mines and army posts in the interior of Arizona Territory; as the town grew, conflicts developed with the Yavapai Native American tribe, who rejected a treaty signed by their chiefs breaking the treaty. When the American Civil War began in 1861, the Federal troops were all withdrawn and the settlements were left unprotected; the Yavapai promptly began a series of attacks on the white intruders. A company of Confederate cavalry brought temporary relief, but it fell back before the advance of Union troops from California. By 1869, an estimated 1000 Yavapai and 400 settlers had been killed, with many on both sides fleeing to safer areas.
With the end of the war, the Union troops and local volunteers forced the Yavapai onto a reservation, where they remain to this day. However, Yavapai recalcitrants remained for years, raids on stage-coaches, isolated farm houses, periodic raids on villages kept the area in a constant state of tension. Following several murders of Yavapai chiefs allied with America by insurgent Yavapai warriors, hostile warrior tribal leaders mobilized the entire Yavapai warrior band into a massive assault on the primary American settlement of Wickenburg and massacred or drove out much of the American populace. In 1872, in response to the assassination of friendly Yavapai chiefs, the take-over of the entire Yavapai nation and its reservation by hostile elements, with most of the American area under continual penetrating raids by Yavapai warrior bands, General George Crook began an all-out campaign against the Yavapai, with the aim of forcing the insurgent Yavapai warrior bands into a decisive battle and the removal of Yavapai settlers from American territory.
After several months of forced marches and pitched skirmishes by combined Arizona territorial militia and US Army Cavalry, Crook forced the Yavapai bands into a single decisive battle. In December 1872, the Battle of Salt River Canyon in the Superstition Mountains decisively routed the Yavapai, within a year most Yavapai resistance was crushed. Having broken their treaty with America several times, with most of the friendly and allied chiefs killed by insurgent Yavapais, who killed Americans, Crook was authorized to enter into new negotiations with the aim of reducing the size of the Yavapai reservation and removing it to an area more cordoned off from American communities and their communication lines; the surviving Yavapai warrior leaders grudgingly accepted the treaty which left the nation in far worse conditions than previously. They were compelled to surrender their firearms, move to the Fort Verde Reservation, accept a permanent Army garrison on their territory, accept direct administration by American Bureau of Indian Affairs agents and commissioners, have trade emplaced in the hands of American government agents, be regulated by an Indian Police force picked and trained by the US Army and Arizona Territorial officers.
After only two years on the Rio Verde Reservation, local officials grew concerned about the Yavapais' continued hostility and self-sufficiency, so they persuaded the federal government to close their reservation and move all the Yavapai to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. The infant town of Wickenburg went through many trials and tribulations in its first decades, surviving the Indian Wars including repeating Indian raids, mine closures, a disastrous flood in 1890 when the Walnut Creek Dam burst, killing nearly 70 residents. In spite of such challenging circumstances, the town continued to grow, its prosperity was ensured with the coming of the railroad in 1895. In those years, the town had once been viewed as a possible candidate for territorial capital; the historic train depot today houses the Visitor's Center. As of 2007, only freight trains pass through Wickenburg. Along the town's main historic district, early businesses built many structures that still form Wickenburg's downtown area.
Tourism led to the development of guest ranches, with as many as 14 operating in the 1950s and 60s, when Wickenburg billed itself as the "Dude Ranch Capital of the World", with development spurred by the construction of. As of 2007, some