El Salvador the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador; as of 2016, the country had a population of 6.34 million. El Salvador was for centuries inhabited by several Mesoamerican nations the Cuzcatlecs, as well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City; however the Viceroyalty of Mexico had little or no influence in the daily affairs of the Central American isthmus, which would be colonized in 1524. In 1609 the area became the Captaincy General of Guatemala, from which El Salvador was part of until its independence from Spain, which took place in 1821, as part of the First Mexican Empire further seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, in 1823.
When the Republic dissolved in 1841, El Salvador became a sovereign nation formed a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898. From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, El Salvador endured chronic political and economic instability characterized by coups, a succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War, fought between the military-led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups; the conflict ended with the Chapultepec Peace Accords. This negotiated settlement established a multiparty constitutional republic, which remains in place to this day. El Salvador's economy has been dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant, the most important crop during the colonial period, followed thereafter by coffee, which by the early 20th century accounted for 90 percent of export earnings. El Salvador has since reduced its dependence on coffee and embarked on diversifying the economy by opening up trade and financial links and expanding the manufacturing sector.
The colón, the official currency of El Salvador since 1892, was replaced by the U. S. dollar in 2001. As of 2010, El Salvador ranks 12th among Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index and fourth in Central America due in part to ongoing rapid industrialisation. However, the country continues to struggle with high rates of poverty and crime. Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado named the new province for Jesus Christ – El Salvador; the full name was "Provincia De Nuestro Señor Jesus Cristo, El Salvador Del Mundo", subsequently abbreviated to "El Salvador". Tomayate is a paleontological site located on the banks of the river of the same name in the municipality of Apopa; the site has produced abundant Salvadoran megafauna fossils belonging to the Pleistocene epoch. The paleontological site was discovered accidentally in 2000, in the following year, an excavation by the Museum of Natural History of El Salvador revealed not only several remnants of Cuvieronius, but several other species of vertebrates.
In the Tomayate site, they have recovered at least 19 species of vertebrates, including giant tortoises, Glyptodon, extinct horses, paleo-llamas and a large number of skeletal remains of proboscis genus Cuvieronius. The Tomayate site stands out from most Central American Pleistocene deposits, being more ancient and much richer, which provides valuable information of the Great American Interchange, in which the Central American isthmus landbridge played the title primordial role. At the same time, it is considered the richest vertebrate paleontological site in Central America and one of the largest accumulations of proboscideans in the Americas. Sophisticated civilization in El Salvador dates to its settlement by the indigenous Lenca people; the Lenca were succeeded by the Olmecs, who also disappeared, leaving their monumental architecture in the form of the pyramids still extant in western El Salvador. The Maya arrived and settled in place of the Olmecs, but their numbers were diminished when the Ilopango supervolcano eruption caused a massive Mayan exodus out of what is now El Salvador.
Centuries they themselves were replaced by the Pipil people, Nahua speaking groups who migrated from Mexico in the centuries before the European conquest and occupied the central and western regions. The Pipil were the last indigenous people to arrive in El Salvador, they called their territory Kuskatan, a Pipil word meaning The Place of Precious Jewels, backformed into Classical Nahuatl Cōzcatlān, Hispanicized as Cuzcatlán. The people of El Salvador today are referred to as Salvadoran, while the term Cuzcatleco is used to identify someone of Salvadoran heritage. In pre-Columbian times, the country was inhabited by various other indigenous peoples, including the Lenca, a Chilanga Lencan-speaking group who settled in the eastern highlands. Cuzcatlan was the larger domain until the Spanish conquest. Since El Salvador resided on the eastern edge of the Maya Civilization, the origins of many of El Salvador's ruins are controversial. However, it is agreed that Mayas occupied the areas around Lago de Guija and Cihuatán.
Other ruins such as Tazumal, Joya de Cerén and San Andrés may have been
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry was a French writer, aristocrat and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of several of France's highest literary awards and won the U. S. National Book Award, he is best remembered for his novella The Little Prince and for his lyrical aviation writings, including Wind and Stars and Night Flight. Saint-Exupéry was a successful commercial pilot before World War II, working airmail routes in Europe and South America. At the outbreak of war, he joined the French Air Force, flying reconnaissance missions until France's armistice with Germany in 1940. After being demobilised from the French Air Force, he travelled to the United States to help persuade its government to enter the war against Nazi Germany. Following a 27-month hiatus in North America, during which he wrote three of his most important works, he joined the Free French Air Force in North Africa, although he was far past the maximum age for such pilots and in declining health.
He disappeared over the Mediterranean on a reconnaissance mission in July 1944, is believed to have died at that time. Prior to the war, Saint-Exupéry had achieved fame in France as an aviator, his literary works – among them The Little Prince, translated into 300 languages and dialects – posthumously boosted his stature to national hero status in France. He earned further widespread recognition with international translations of his other works, his 1939 philosophical memoir Wind and Stars became the name of an international humanitarian group, was used to create the central theme of the most successful world's fair of the 20th century, Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada. Saint-Exupéry was born in Lyon to an aristocratic Catholic family that could trace its lineage back several centuries, he was the third of five children of the Viscountess Marie de Fonscolombe and Viscount Jean de Saint Exupéry. His father, an executive of the Le Soleil insurance brokerage, died of a stroke in Lyon's La Foux train station before his son's fourth birthday.
His father's death affected the entire family, transforming their status to that of'impoverished aristocrats'. Saint-Exupéry had three sisters and a younger blond-haired brother, François, who at age 15 died of rheumatic fever contracted while both were attending the Marianist College Villa St. Jean in Fribourg, during World War I. Saint-Exupéry attended to his brother, his closest confidant, beside François' death bed, wrote that François "...remained motionless for an instant. He did not cry out, he fell as as a tree falls", imagery which would much be recrafted into the climactic ending of The Little Prince. At the age of 17, now the only man in the family following the death of his brother, the young author was left as distraught as his mother and sisters, but he soon assumed the mantle of a protector and took to consoling them. After twice failing his final exams at a preparatory Naval Academy, Saint-Exupéry entered the École des Beaux-Arts as an auditor to study architecture for 15 months, again without graduating, fell into the habit of accepting odd jobs.
In 1921, Saint-Exupéry began his military service as a basic-rank soldier with the 2e Régiment de chasseurs à cheval and was sent to Neuhof, near Strasbourg. While there he took private flying lessons and the following year was offered a transfer from the French Army to the French Air Force, he received his pilot's wings after being posted to the 37th Fighter Regiment in Casablanca, Morocco. Being reposted to the 34th Aviation Regiment at Le Bourget on the outskirts of Paris, experiencing the first of his many aircraft crashes, Saint-Exupéry bowed to the objections of the family of his fiancée, future novelist Louise Lévêque de Vilmorin, left the air force to take an office job; the couple broke off their engagement and he worked at several more odd jobs without success over the next few years. By 1926, Saint-Exupéry was flying again, he became one of the pioneers of international postal flight, in the days when aircraft had few instruments. He complained that those who flew the more advanced aircraft had become more like accountants than pilots.
He worked for Aéropostale between Toulouse and Dakar, also became the airline stopover manager for the Cape Juby airfield in the Spanish zone of South Morocco, in the Sahara desert. His duties included negotiating the safe release of downed fliers taken hostage by Saharan tribes, a perilous task which earned him his first Légion d'honneur from the French Government. In 1929, Saint-Exupéry was transferred to Argentina, where he was appointed director of the Aeroposta Argentina airline, he surveyed new air routes across South America, negotiated agreements, occasionally flew the airmail as well as search missions looking for downed fliers. This period of his life is explored in Wings of Courage, an IMAX film by French director Jean-Jacques Annaud. Saint-Exupéry's first novella, L'Aviateur, was published in a short-lived literary magazine Le Navire d'Argent. In 1929, his first book, Courrier Sud was published; that same year, Saint-Exupéry flew the Casablanca—Dakar route. The 1931 publication of Vol de nuit established Saint-Exupéry as a rising star in the literary world.
It won the prix Femina. The novel mirrored his experiences as a mail pilot and director of the Aeroposta Argentina airline, based in Buenos Aires, Argentina; that same
The Little Prince
The Little Prince, first published in April 1943, is a novella, the most famous work of French aristocrat, writer and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. The novella has been voted the best book of the 20th century in France. Translated into 300 languages and dialects, selling nearly two million copies annually, with year-to-date sales of over 140 million copies worldwide, it has become one of the best-selling and most translated books published. After the outbreak of the Second World War, Saint-Exupéry escaped to North America. Despite personal upheavals and failing health, he produced half of the writings for which he would be remembered, including a tender tale of loneliness, friendship and loss, in the form of a young prince visiting Earth. An earlier memoir by the author had recounted his aviation experiences in the Sahara Desert, he is thought to have drawn on those same experiences in The Little Prince. Since its first publication, the novella has been adapted to numerous art forms and media, including audio recordings, radio plays, live stage, television and opera.
Though ostensibly styled as a children's book, The Little Prince makes several observations about life and human nature. The narrator begins with a discussion on the nature of grown-ups and their inability to perceive important things; as a test to determine if a grown-up is enlightened and like a child, he shows them a picture he drew at age 6 of a snake which has eaten an elephant. The grown-ups always reply that the picture is of a hat, so he knows to talk of "reasonable" things to them, rather than fanciful; the narrator becomes a pilot, one day, his plane crashes in the Sahara, far from civilization. He must fix his airplane to be saved. In the middle of the desert, the narrator is unexpectedly greeted by a young boy, nicknamed as "the little prince"; the prince has golden hair, a lovable laugh, will repeat questions until they are answered. Upon encountering the narrator, the little prince asks him to draw a sheep; the narrator first shows him his old picture of the elephant inside the snake, which, to the narrator's surprise, the prince interprets correctly.
After three failed attempts at drawing a sheep, the frustrated narrator draws a box, claiming that the sheep the prince wants is inside the box. Again, to the narrator's surprise, the prince exclaims that this was the drawing he wanted. Over the course of eight days stranded in the desert, while the narrator attempts to repair his plane, the little prince recounts the story of his life; the prince begins by describing life on his tiny home planet: in effect, a house-sized asteroid known as "B 612" on Earth. The asteroid's most prominent features are three minuscule volcanoes as well as a variety of plants; the prince describes spending his earlier days cleaning the volcanoes and weeding unwanted seeds and sprigs that infest his planet's soil. If the baobabs are not rooted out the moment they are recognized, it may be put off until it is too late and the tree has grown too large to remove, its roots having a catastrophic effect on the tiny planet; the prince wants a sheep to eat the undesirable plants, but worries it will eat plants with thorns.
The prince tells of his love for a vain and silly rose that began growing on the asteroid's surface some time ago. The rose is given to pretension, exaggerating ailments to gain attention and have the prince care for her; the prince says he nourished the rose and attended her, making a screen or glass globe to protect her from the cold wind, watering her, keeping off the caterpillars. Although the prince fell in love with the rose, he began to feel that she was taking advantage of him and he resolved to leave the planet to explore the rest of the universe. Upon their goodbyes, the rose is serious and apologizes that she failed to show she loved him and that they'd both been silly, she wishes him well and turns down his desire to leave her in the glass globe, saying she will protect herself. The prince laments that he did not understand how to love his rose while he was with her and should have listened to her kind actions, rather than her vain words; the prince has since visited six other planets, each of, inhabited by a single, narrow-minded adult, each meant to critique an element of society.
They include: A king with no subjects, who only issues orders that can be followed, such as commanding the sun to set at sunset. A narcissistic man who only wants the praise which comes from admiration and being the most-admirable person on his otherwise uninhabited planet. A drunkard. A businessman, blind to the beauty of the stars and instead endlessly counts and catalogues them in order to "own" them all A lamplighter on a planet so small, a full day lasts a minute, he wastes his life blindly following orders to extinguish and relight the lamppost every 30 seconds to correspond with his planet's day and night. An elderly geographer who has never been anywhere, or seen any of the things he records, providing a caricature of specialization in the contemporary world, it is the geographer who tells the prince that his rose is an ephemeral being, not recorded, recommends that the prince next visit the planet Earth. The visit to Earth begins with a pessimistic appraisal of humanity; the six absurd people the prince encountered earlier comprise, according to the narrator, just about the entire adult world.
On earth there were111 kings... 7000 geographers, 900,00
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Izalco is a stratovolcano on the side of the Santa Ana Volcano, located in western El Salvador. It is situated on the southern flank of the Santa Ana volcano. Izalco erupted continuously from 1770 to 1958 earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific", experienced a flank eruption in 1966. During an eruption in 1926, the village of Matazano was buried and 56 people were killed; the formation of the volcano destroyed arable land on the southern slope of the Santa Ana volcano, used for the production of coffee and sugar cane The lava erupted from Izalco consists of vesicular vitrophyric olivine basalts. Izalco's formation was preceded by fumorolic activity in 1658, before Izalco was born in 1770. Today, Izalco experiences only fumarolic activity in the form of rainwater seeping into the volcano and contacting hot rocks, rather than steam emissions from underground gases; the fumarole deposits of the volcano are sources for several rare minerals. It is the type locality for the copper vanadium minerals bannermanite, fingerite, lyonsite, mcbirneyite and ziesite.
The volcano is visited and climbed by tourists to El Salvador via the Cerro Verde National Park and is a national icon of the country. It was featured on the 10 colón bank note in circulation until US dollars replaced the colon in 2001; the volcano is dormant but is not thought to be extinct. A hotel was built on the nearby Cerro Verde to provide accommodation with a view of the erupting volcano, but the volcano ceased to erupt shortly before the hotel was completed; the volcano on the stamps' central oval design is an allegorical representation of the coat of arms existing at the time. This argument is based on the fact that the decree signed by Francisco Duenas, creating the coat of arms mentions the Izalco volcano as the inspiration for its design, on the idea that the Izalco volcano was one of the symbols of the country. Covers genuinely used with these stamps are rare. So far, only 37 have been recorded. List of volcanoes in El Salvador List of stratovolcanoes
Consuelo de Saint Exupéry
Consuelo de Saint Exupéry Consuelo Suncín, comtesse de Saint Exupéry was a Salvadoran-French writer and artist, the wife of the French aristocrat and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Born Consuelo Suncín de Sandoval as the daughter of a rich coffee grower and army reservist, she grew up in a family of wealthy landowners in a small town in the Salvadoran department of Sonsonate. Due to her asthma, her father sent her abroad to the United States, where she studied in San Francisco, her first marriage was to a Mexican army captain, Ricardo Cárdenas, whom she met in the United States. Though this marriage ended in divorce, she lied and said it ended with his death during the Mexican Revolution, since divorced women were stigmatized by society, being a widow was preferable to being a divorced woman. While in France, she met and married Enrique Gómez Carrillo, a Guatemalan writer and journalist. Following his death in 1927, she took up residence in Buenos Aires. In 1931, she met and married the French aristocrat and pioneering aviator Count Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, making her a countess.
At the time Consuelo was a twice-widowed Salvadoran writer and artist who possessed a bohemian spirit and was known as a mischief-maker. Saint-Exupéry enchanted by the diminutive woman, would leave and return to her many times, it was a stormy union, with Saint-Exupéry travelling and indulging in numerous extramarital affairs, most notably with the Frenchwoman Hélène de Vogüé, known as'Nelly' and referred to as "Madame de B." in Saint-Exupéry biographies. Consuelo had numerous extramarital affairs. Following the disappearance of her husband in July 1944, with her loss of Saint-Exupéry still fresh, she purportedly wrote a memoir of their life together, The Tale of the Rose, sealed away in a trunk in her home. Two decades after her death in 1979, the manuscript came to light when José Martinez-Fructuoso, her heir and long-time employee, his wife, discovered it in an attic trunk. Alan Vircondelet, author of a biography of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, edited it, improving her French and dividing it into chapters.
Its publication in France in 2000, one century after Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's birth on 29 June 1900, became a national sensation. As of 2011 it had been translated into sixteen languages. Consuelo died on 28 May 1979 and is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, alongside her second husband Enrique Carrillo. Despite their tumultuous relationship, Antoine kept Consuelo close to his heart, she is the inspiration of the major character in The Little Prince, the prince's'flower', identified as The Rose, whom he protects under glass and with a windscreen on his tiny planet, named Asteroid B-612. The Prince's home asteroid possesses three tiny volcanoes inspired by Consuelo's home country El Salvador, i.e. by the three volcanoes in the Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range complex, which are directly visible from Consuelo's home town. The two active volcanoes were inspired by Santa Ana Volcano and the famous conical shaped Izalco, which at the time was active spewing ash and lava when Antoine visited Consuelo's small town in El Salvador, the dormant volcano is Cerro Verde.
Saint-Exupéry's infidelity and doubts about his marriage are symbolised by the field of roses the Prince encounters during his visit to Earth. In the novella, The Fox tells The Prince that his Rose is unique and special, because she is the one whom he loves. Antoine's 1939 memoir, Wind and Stars, was employed to create the central theme—Terre des hommes/Man and his world—of the 1967 International World's Fair in Montreal, Expo 67; the Countess de Saint Exupéry, was a guest of honour at the official opening ceremonies of the world's fair. Actress Janet Waldo was the voice for The Rose in the animated TV series "The Adventures of the Little Prince". Singer Máiréad Carlin played The Rose in The Little Prince musical. Consuelo's relationship with Antoine was portrayed by Miranda Richardson and Bruno Ganz in the 1996 biopic Saint-Ex; the film combines elements of biography and dramatic re-creation. Consuelo is a major character in the forthcoming historical novel Studio Saint-Ex by Ania Szado; the book examines Consuelo and Antoine's time in New York City during World War II while Antoine is writing The Little Prince.
Footnotes Citations Bibliography Paul Webster, Consuelo de Saint-Exupéry, la rose du petit prince, 2000. Alain Vircondelet, O Consuelo, 2000. Abigaíl Suncín, La rosa que cautivó al principito: Consuelo de Saint-Exupéry, 2003. Alain Vircondelet, Antoine et Consuelo de Saint-Exupéry: un amour de légende, 2005. Alain Vircondelet, C'étaient Antoine et Consuelo de Saint-Exupéry, 2009. Marie-Hélène Carbonel et Martine Fransioli Martinez, Consuelo de Saint-Exupéry, une mariée vêtue de noir, 2010. A biography of Consuelo de Saint Exupéry A website dedicated to Mme Consuelo de Saint. Exupéry