Southcentral Alaska is the portion of the U. S. state of Alaska consisting of the shorelines and uplands of the central Gulf of Alaska. Most of the population of the lives in this region, concentrated in. The area includes Cook Inlet, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, the Kenai Peninsula, Prince William Sound, tourism and petroleum production are important economic activities. Other towns include Palmer, Kenai, Homer, Valdez, the climate of Southcentral Alaska is subarctic. Temperatures range from a high of 65°F in July to an average low of 10°F in December. The hours of daylight per day varies from 24 hours in June and July to 6 hours in December, the coastal areas consist of temperate rainforests and alder shrublands. The interior areas are covered by boreal forests, the Wrangell Volcanoes are older, lie in the East, and include Mount Blackburn, Mount Bona, Mount Churchill, Mount Drum, Mount Gordon, Mount Jarvis, Mount Sanford, and Mount Wrangell. Most recently and Fourpeaked erupted in 2006, and Mount Redoubt erupted in March 2009, Anchorage Metropolitan Area Matanuska-Susitna Valley Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2, thus known as continental glacier. Ice sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers, masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap. An ice cap will typically feed a series of glaciers around its periphery, although the surface is cold, the base of an ice sheet is generally warmer due to geothermal heat. In places, melting occurs and the melt-water lubricates the ice sheet so that it more rapidly. This process produces fast-flowing channels in the ice sheet — these are ice streams, the present-day polar ice sheets are relatively young in geological terms. The Antarctic Ice Sheet first formed as an ice cap in the early Oligocene, but retreating and advancing many times until the Pliocene. The Greenland ice sheet did not develop at all until the late Pliocene and this had the unusual effect of allowing fossils of plants that once grew on present-day Greenland to be much better preserved than with the slowly forming Antarctic ice sheet.
The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth and it covers an area of almost 14 million km2 and contains 30 million km3 of ice. Around 90% of the water on the Earths surface is held in the ice sheet. The continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is positive and significant at >0.05 °C/decade since 1957, the Antarctic ice sheet is divided by the Transantarctic Mountains into two unequal sections called the East Antarctic ice sheet and the smaller West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The EAIS rests on a land mass but the bed of the WAIS is, in places. It would be seabed if the ice sheet were not there, the WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. The WAIS is bounded by the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ronne Ice Shelf, the Greenland ice sheet occupies about 82% of the surface of Greenland, and if melted would cause sea levels to rise by 7.2 metres. Estimated changes in the mass of Greenlands ice sheet suggest it is melting at a rate of about 239 cubic kilometres per year and these measurements came from NASAs Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite, launched in 2002, as reported by BBC News in August 2006.
Ice movement is dominated by the motion of glaciers, whose activity is determined by a number of processes and their motion is the result of cyclic surges interspersed with longer periods of inactivity, on both hourly and centennial time scales. The Greenland, and probably the Antarctic, ice sheets have been losing mass recently, because losses by melting, the IPCC projects that ice mass loss from melting of the Greenland ice sheet will continue to outpace accumulation of snowfall. Accumulation of snowfall on the Antarctic ice sheet is projected to outpace losses from melting, understanding of these processes is limited and there is no consensus on their magnitude. More research work is required to improve the reliability of predictions of ice-sheet response on global warming
It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles and other equipment, food processing and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U. S. capital, which is named for George Washington, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State, or, in more formal contexts. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D. C. or, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park
Parts of this article have been adapted from the BC Parks website. Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park is a park located on the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia. As a result of planning for Vancouver Island, this former 28,780 hectare recreation area was upgraded in 1995 to a Class ‘A’ Provincial Park. In addition to this upgrade,22,851 hectares known as the Brooks-Nasparti area, has added to the park. The park is 51,631 hectares in size, Brooks Peninsula is located about 20 kilometres southwest of Port Alice, British Columbia. Access to the park is by boat or float plane, Brooks Peninsula juts 20 kilometres into the Pacific Ocean and has a rugged and varied coastline, with long fjords and sandy beaches. The inland is seldom-explored and densely wooded with mostly old growth forest, the highest point is a sub-peak of Snowsaddle Mountain at 1143m elevation. Mountains in the park, known as the Refugium Range, include Klaskish, peaks in the area higher than 700m were above the glaciers during the last ice age and are therefore a refugium with unique plants.
Unaffected by the last ice age, Brooks Peninsula is considered a unique geologic feature, as a result, the geology of the peninsula is different from that of the rest of Vancouver Island and many rare plant communities exist, providing unparalleled opportunities for scientific study. The park is located within the territory of the peoples comprising todays Kyuquot/Cheklesahht. Battle Bay in the portion of the park is rich in First Nations cultural history. Many battles were fought at this location in order to control of this prosperous area. First Nations reserves located adjacent to the portion of Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park are not for recreational use. Visitors are encouraged to contact the Kyuquot/Cheklesahht First Nation band office in Kyuquot prior to exploring Brooks Peninsula, Brooks Peninsula is infrequently visited, its surrounding waters however provide superb kayaking and canoeing. It is entirely undeveloped and has no marked trails and no facilities, camping is permitted anywhere in the park, but made complicated due to the remoteness, difficulty of access, and lack of facilities.
Nearby Solander Island is an Ecological Reserve and access is prohibited, List of British Columbia Provincial Parks List of Canadian provincial parks Brooks Peninsula Park. Brooks Peninsula Marine Provincial Park at BC Parks Brooks Peninsula at the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia A collection of photos of Brooks Peninsula
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada. It is part of the Canadian province of British Columbia, the island is 460 kilometres in length,100 kilometres in width at its widest point, and 32,134 km2 in area. It is the largest island on the West Coast of North America and this area has one of the warmest climates in Canada, and since the mid-1990s has been mild enough in a few areas to grow subtropical Mediterranean crops such as olives and lemons. Vancouver Island has a population of 759,366 according to the Canada 2011 Census, nearly half of that figure live in the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria. Other notable cities and towns on Vancouver Island include Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Parksville and Campbell River. Victoria, the city of British Columbia, is located on the island. Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years, the island was explored by British and Spanish expeditions in the late 18th century.
Quadras name was dropped from the name. It is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, Vancouver Island is the worlds 43rd largest island, Canadas 11th largest island, and Canadas second most populous island after the Island of Montreal. It is the largest Pacific island anywhere east of New Zealand, Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The groupings, by language, are the Kwakwakawakw, Nuu-chah-nulth and their cultures are connected to the natural resources abundant in the area. The Kwakwakawakw today number about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and they are known as Kwakiutl in English, from one of their tribes, but they prefer their autonym Kwakwakawakw. Their indigenous language, part of the Wakashan family, is Kwakwala, the name Kwakwakawakw means speakers of Kwakwala. The language is now spoken by less than 5% of the population—about 250 people, today 17 separate tribes make up the Kwakwakawakw.
Some Kwakwakawakw groups are now extinct, Kwakwala is a Northern Wakashan language, a grouping shared with Haisla and Wuikyala. The Nuu-chah-nulth are indigenous peoples in Canada and their traditional home is on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The Nuu-chah-nulth speak a Southern Wakashan language and are related to the Makah of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington State. The Coast Salish are the largest of the southern groups and they are a loose grouping of many tribes with numerous distinct cultures and languages
Spokane is a city in the state of Washington, in the northwestern United States. It is the seat of Spokane County, and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Greater Spokane Area, the city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport,5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second largest city in Washington and the 102nd largest city in the United States. The first humans to live in the area, the Spokane people, known as the birthplace of Fathers Day, Spokane is officially nicknamed the Lilac City. David Thompson explored the area with the expansion and establishment of the North West Companys Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington, completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area, and that same year it was officially incorporated as a city with the name of Spokan Falls.
In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest, the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed Worlds Fair at Expo 74, many of the older Romanesque Revival-style buildings in the downtown area were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889. The city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, and the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes serves as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, and the private Presbyterian Whitworth University opened three years in north Spokane, in sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Indians in Minor League Baseball, Spokane Empire in arena football, as of 2010, Spokanes only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, has a daily circulation of over 76,000.
The first humans to live in the Spokane area arrived between 13,000 and 8,000 years ago and were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful game. The Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, when asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from up North. Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur. These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, the explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Companys Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs, after establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west.
He sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River in Washington and trade with the local Indians
The highest mountain in North America, Denali, is in the Alaska Range. It is part of the American Cordillera, the range is the highest in the world outside of Asia and the Andes. The mountains act as a barrier to the flow of moist air from the Gulf of Alaska northwards. The heavy snowfall contributes to a number of glaciers, including the Canwell, Black Rapids, Yanert, Eldridge, Tokositna. Four major rivers cross the Range, including the Delta River, and Nenana River in the center of the range and the Nabesna and Chisana Rivers to the east. The range is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, mount Spurr is a stratovolcano located in the northeastern end of the Aleutian Volcanic Arc of Alaska, USA which has two vents, the summit and nearby Crater Peak. Parts of the range are protected within Wrangell-St, elias National Park and Preserve, Denali National Park and Preserve, and Lake Clark National Park and Preserve. The George Parks Highway from Anchorage to Fairbanks, the Richardson Highway from Valdez to Fairbanks, the Alaska Pipeline parallels the Richardson Highway.
The name Alaskan Range appears to have been first applied to mountains in 1869 by naturalist W. H. Dall. The name eventually became Alaska Range through local use, in 1849 Constantin Grewingk applied the name Tschigmit to this mountain range. A map made by the General Land Office in 1869 calls the southwestern part of the Alaska Range the Chigmit Mountains, however the Chigmit Mountains are now considered part of the Aleutian Range. Canada to Lake Clark, Roman Dial, Carl Tobin, and Paul Adkins by mountain bike and packraft, Tok to Lake Clark, Kevin Armstrong, Doug Woody, and Jeff Ottmers by snowshoe and packraft, first foot traverse. Lake Clark to Mentasta Lake, Gavin McClurg by paraglider and foot, summit Lake, Alaska Churkin, M. Jr. and C. Stratigraphy and graptolites of an Ordovician and Silurian sequence in the Terra Cotta Mountains, Alaska Range, U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Washington, on the south by California, on the east by Idaho, the Columbia River delineates much of Oregons northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary. The parallel 42° north delineates the boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848, Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14,1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, the capital of Oregon is Salem, the second most populous of its cities, with 164,549 residents. Portland is Oregons most populous city, with 632,309 residents, Portlands metro population of 2,389,228 ranks the 23rd largest metro in the nation. The Willamette Valley in western Oregon is the states most densely populated area, the tall conifers, mainly Douglas fir, along Oregons rainy west coast contrast with the lighter-timbered and fire-prone pine and juniper forests covering portions to the east.
Abundant alders in the west fix nitrogen for the conifers, stretching east from central Oregon are semi-arid shrublands, deserts and meadows. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood is the states highest point, Oregons only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae. Because of its landscapes and waterways, Oregons economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing. It is the top timber-producer of the lower 48 states, Technology is another one of the states major economic forces, which began in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the states largest public corporation with a revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins and this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon.
There are two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the part of the region. Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain, the term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon, in his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote, The rout. is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon
Strait of Juan de Fuca
The Strait of Juan de Fuca is a large body of water about 95 miles long that is the Salish Seas outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The international boundary between Canada and the United States runs down the center of the Strait, barkley was the first non-indigenous person to find the strait, unless Juan de Fucas story was true. The strait was explored in detail between 1789 and 1791 by Manuel Quimper, José María Narváez, Juan Carrasco, Gonzalo López de Haro, the USGS defines the Strait of Juan de Fuca as a channel. It extends east from the Pacific Ocean between Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, to Haro Strait, San Juan Channel, Rosario Strait, and Puget Sound. The Pacific Ocean boundary is formed by a line between Cape Flattery and Tatoosh Island and Carmanah Point, British Columbia, the northern coast of the Olympic Peninsula forms the southern boundary of the strait. In the eastern entrance to the Strait, the Race Rocks Archipelago is located in the current zone halfway between Port Angeles and Victoria, BC.
While the climate is oceanic in nature, the dry summers result in the Mediterranean classification in the Köppen system. Rainfall ranges from over 100 inches conditions at the west end to as little as 16 inches at the east end and this strait remains the subject of a maritime boundary dispute between Canada and the United States. The dispute is only over the boundary extending 200 miles west from the mouth of the strait. The maritime boundary within the strait is not in dispute, both governments have proposed a boundary based on the principle of equidistance, but with different basepoint selections, resulting in small differences in the line. Resolution of the issue should be simple, but has been hindered because it might influence other unresolved maritime boundary issues between Canada and the United States, the proposed equidistant boundary currently marks the northern boundary of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. British Columbias position is based on the principle of natural prolongation which developed in international law and it poses a dilemma for the federal government of Canada.
In this Atlantic Ocean context, Canada favours an outcome based on the principle of equidistance. C, making Salish Sea official required a formal application to the Geographical Names Board of Canada. This latter definition was made official in 2009 by geographic boards of Canada, the United States Board on Geographic Names approved the name on November 12,2009. Some Pacific Coast murres paddle north to the bays of the Strait of Juan de Fuca to feed on herring. A live weather station of the Race Rocks
Lake Missoula was a prehistoric proglacial lake in western Montana that existed periodically at the end of the last ice age between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago. The lake measured about 7,770 square kilometres and contained about 2,100 cubic kilometres of water, the lake was the result of an ice dam on the Clark Fork caused by the southern encroachment of a finger of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet into the Idaho Panhandle. The height of the ice dam typically approached 610 metres, flooding the valleys of western Montana approximately 320 kilometres eastward and it was the largest ice-dammed lake known to have occurred. The cumulative effect of the floods was to excavate 210 cubic kilometres of loess and basalt from the scablands of eastern Washington. These floods are noteworthy for producing canyons and other geologic features through cataclysms rather than through more typical gradual processes. Based upon these criteria, Quaternary geologists estimated that the oldest of the Pleistocene Missoula floods happened before 1.5 million years ago, the older Pleistocene glaciofluvial deposits within the Hanford formation are fragmentary in nature because they have been repeatedly eroded and largely removed by subsequent Missoula floods
Laurentide Ice Sheet
Louis, Missouri—and followed quite precisely the present course of the Missouri River up to the northern slopes of the Cypress Hills, beyond which it merged with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. The ice coverage extended approximately as far south as 38 degrees latitude in the mid-continent and this ice sheet was the primary feature of the Pleistocene epoch in North America, commonly referred to as the ice age. It was up to 2 mi thick in Nunavik, Canada and it created much of the surface geology of southern Canada and the northern United States, leaving behind glacially scoured valleys, moraines and glacial till. It caused changes to the shape, size. Its cycles of growth and melting were an influence on global climate during its existence. This is because it served to divert the jet stream which would flow from the relatively warm Pacific Ocean through Montana. This interrupted the thermohaline circulation, creating the brief Younger Dryas cold epoch and a temporary re-advance of the ice sheet, some people have argued that huge influxes of fresh water stopped the feeding of the ice sheet and starved it, aiding the retreat that had already begun.
During the Pre-Illinoian Stage the Laurentide Ice Sheet extended even farther south, advancing as far as the Missouri, the ultimate collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet is suspected to have influenced European agriculture indirectly through the rise of global sea levels. Canadas oldest ice is a 20, 000-year-old remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet called the Barnes Ice Cap, canadian Shield Glacial history of Minnesota Lake Agassiz Wisconsin glaciation Noahs Flood Kick-started European Farming. The Retreat of Glaciers in North America