Dr Donald Cordner was an Australian rules footballer who played with Melbourne in the Victorian Football League during the 1940s. His brothers Denis and Ted played for the club. Cordner played for Melbourne University prior to joining the VFL, studying medicine when not on the football field. A ruckman, used in defence, Cordner made his debut for Melbourne in the 1941 finals series, playing in their winning grand final in just his second appearance for the club. Injured, he played 144 consecutive games between 1942 and 1950. Cordner was Melbourne's best and fairest in 1943 and was a Brownlow Medal winner in 1946, finishing equal sixth the following season, he was club captain in 1949, the former in a premiership season. He captained Victoria in interstate football in the same year. Cordner was the first Melbourne Cricket Club member to receive the Brownlow Medal, he retired from football after the 1950 season and went on to become a member of the VFL Tribunal as well as serving on the Melbourne Football Club committee.
In 2000 he was named in the back pocket in Melbourne's official Team of the Century. Don Cordner died on 13 May 2009 at age 87. List of Australian rules football families Don Cordner's playing statistics from AFL Tables Don Cordner at AustralianFootball.com DemonWiki profile Legend – Melbourne Herald Sun
A yearbook known as an annual, is a type of a book published annually to record and commemorate the past year of a school. The term refers to a book of statistics or facts published annually. A yearbook has an overarching theme, present throughout the entire book. Many high schools and elementary and middle schools publish yearbooks. From 1995 to 2013, the number of U. S. college yearbooks dropped from 2,400 to 1,000. Elementary and middle schools may have a designated staff member, in charge of putting together that school's yearbook, with or without the help of the students; these books are considerably smaller than a high school or college yearbook. High school yearbooks cover a wide variety of topics from academics, student life, sports and other major school events; each student is pictured with their class, while seniors might get a page-width picture or a larger photo than the underclassmen to reflect their status in the school. Each school organization, such as a sports team or academic/social club, is pictured.
A high school yearbook staff consists of students with one or more faculty advisors. The yearbook staff can be chosen in a variety of ways, including volunteer extracurricular organization, academic class, or assigned to the entire senior class. High school yearbooks are considered a form of journalism by scholastic journalism such as the Columbia Scholastic Press Association, the National Scholastic Press Association, the Journalism Education Association and state and regional scholastic press associations. Numerous awards are given for journalistic excellence annually. Colleges that publish yearbooks follow a similar format to high schools; some include detailed recaps of basketball games. College yearbooks are considered by the Associated Collegiate Press to be a form of journalism. ACP holds the annual Pacemaker competition for college yearbooks as well as other collegiate media outlets. Many colleges have phased out yearbooks due to high prices and low demand, while some, like Auburn University, opt to support annual publications with small portions of student fees to continue this over 120 year old tradition.
The Glomerata continues to be one of the most circulated yearbooks in the country, distributing 8,000 copies to Auburn University's student body in April 2018. Yearbooks published by Australian schools follow a consistent structure to their North American counterparts. Australian yearbooks function as an annual magazine for the school body, with a significant focus on objectively reporting the events that occurred during the schooling year, they cover various topics including academic, extra-curricular, student life and other activities. Yearbook staff predominantly consist of only one or two school teachers who serve as editors in chief. Australian school yearbooks are predominantly created on A4 paper size, featuring a softcover style front-and-back cover 250 or 300 g/m² density. Hardcover style yearbooks are not as common. In recent years, companies have been servicing Australian schools with online yearbook systems that allow schools to create their yearbooks collaboratively online; this is sold as allowing a higher level of student involvement whilst making the workflow simpler and easier for all involved.
Additionally, some schools feature a separate yearbook for students in Year 12. Australian school yearbooks are published with offset printing technology, with a mix of colour, spot colour, black and white pages, depending on the school's budget. In the past, Year 12 yearbooks were printed using a photocopier, but Australian yearbook publishers have improved the quality of these publications by providing low cost digital printing solutions. India does not have a long history of publishing school yearbooks. However, top Business schools and Engineering colleges publish custom yearbooks; this is created by the final year students of the batch. A yearbook or a memory book would consist of testimonials and common pages such as Directors address and events, festivals picture collages. Most top schools do create schools magazines; some of the early adopters among school students are starting to create custom yearbooks in the same line as created by students from US or Europe. This trend is to pick up with the advent of technology platforms that make it easy for students to create them.
In South Africa it is not as common to find yearbooks in schools as it is in countries such as the US and Canada, though there are a number of schools that allocate annual funding and publish yearbooks at the end of the school year. These yearbooks resemble those found in the US, with columns about certain themes, in-depth coverage of major events and large collections of photos, as well as drawings reflecting daily life at these schools. Major events covered include Matric Farewell Dances, annual sporting events, grade group events organized for a specific grade. In Nigeria, it is common to find yearbooks in schools as it is in countries such as the US and Canada, though there are a number of schools that allocate annual funding and publish yearbooks at the end of the school year; these yearbooks resemble those found in the US, with columns about certain themes, in-depth coverage of majo
Melbourne Cricket Ground
The Melbourne Cricket Ground known as "The G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Victoria. Home to the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the 10th largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest in the Southern Hemisphere, the largest cricket ground by capacity, has the tallest light towers of any sporting venue; the MCG is within walking distance of the city centre and is served by Richmond and Jolimont stations, as well as the route 70 tram and the route 246 bus. It is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct. Since it was built in 1853, the MCG has been in a state of constant renewal, it served as the centrepiece stadium of the 1956 Summer Olympics, the 2006 Commonwealth Games and two Cricket World Cups: 1992 and 2015. It is famous for its role in the development of international cricket; the annual Boxing Day Test is one of the MCG's most popular events. Referred to as "the spiritual home of Australian rules football" for its strong association with the sport since it was codified in 1859, it hosts Australian Football League matches in the winter, with at least one game held there in most rounds of the home-and-away season.
The stadium fills to capacity for the AFL Grand Final. Home to the National Sports Museum, the MCG has hosted other major sporting events, including international rules football matches between Australia and Ireland, international rugby union matches, State of Origin games, FIFA World Cup qualifiers. Concerts and other cultural events are held at the venue, with the record attendance standing at around 130,000 for a Billy Graham evangelistic crusade in 1959. Grandstand redevelopments and occupational health and safety legislation have limited the maximum seating capacity to 95,000 with an additional 5,000 standing room capacity, bringing the total capacity to 100,024; the MCG is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and was included on the Australian National Heritage List in 2005. Journalist Greg Baum called it "a shrine, a citadel, a landmark, a totem" that "symbolises Melbourne to the world". Founded in November 1838 the Melbourne Cricket Club selected the current MCG site in 1853 after playing at several grounds around Melbourne.
The club's first game was against a military team at the Old Mint site, at the corner of William and Latrobe Streets. Burial Hill became its home ground in January 1839, but the area was set aside for Botanical Gardens and the club was moved on in October 1846, to an area on the south bank of the Yarra about where the Herald and Weekly Times building is today; the area was subject to flooding, forcing the club to move again, this time to a ground in South Melbourne. It was not long before the club was forced out again, this time because of the expansion of the railway; the South Melbourne ground was in the path of Victoria's first steam railway line from Melbourne to Sandridge. Governor La Trobe offered the MCC a choice of three sites; this last option, now Yarra Park, had been used by Aborigines until 1835. Between 1835 and the early 1860s it was known as the Government or Police Paddock and served as a large agistment area for the horses of the Mounted Police, Border Police and Native Police.
The north-eastern section housed the main barracks for the Mounted Police in the Port Phillip district. In 1850 it was part of a 200-acre stretch set aside for public recreation extending from Governor La Trobe's Jolimont Estate to the Yarra River. By 1853 it had become a busy promenade for Melbourne residents. An MCC sub-committee chose the Richmond Park option because it was level enough for cricket but sloped enough to prevent inundation; that ground was located. At the same time the Richmond Cricket Club was given occupancy rights to six acres for another cricket ground on the eastern side of the Government Paddock. At the time of the land grant the Government stipulated that the ground was to be used for cricket and cricket only; this condition remained until 1933 when the State Government allowed the MCG's uses to be broadened to include other purposes when not being used for cricket. In 1863 a corridor of land running diagonally across Yarra Park was granted to the Hobson's Bay Railway and divided Yarra Park from the river.
The Mounted Police barracks were operational until the 1880s when it was subdivided into the current residential precinct bordered by Vale Street. The area closest to the river was developed for sporting purposes in years including Olympic venues in 1956; the first grandstand at the MCG was the original wooden members’ stand built in 1854, while the first public grandstand was a 200-metre long 6000-seat temporary structure built in 1861. Another grandstand seating 2000, facing one way to the cricket ground and the other way to the park where football was played, was built in 1876 for the 1877 visit of James Lillywhite's English cricket team, it was during this tour. In 1881 the original members' stand was sold to the Richmond Cricket Club for £55. A new brick stand, considered at the time to be the world's finest cricket facility, was built in its place; the foundation stone was laid by Prince George of Wales and Prince Albert Victor on 4 July and the stand opened in December that year. It was als
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
Melbourne Grammar School
Melbourne Grammar School is an independent, Anglican and boarding school predominantly for boys, located in South Yarra and Caulfield, suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Founded on 7 April 1858 as the Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, the school caters for 1,800 students from Prep to Year 12, including 120 boarders from Years 7 to 12. Melbourne Grammar is affiliated with the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference, the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia, the Independent Primary School Heads of Australia, the Australian Boarding Schools' Association, the Association of Independent Schools of Victoria, is a founding member of the historic Associated Public Schools of Victoria; the School is a member of the G20 Schools Group, a partner school with Waseda University in Japan at the University-level. The origins of Melbourne Grammar School can be traced back to 1849, with the establishment of an experimental grammar school at St Peter's Eastern Hill, East Melbourne.
This school had been established by Melbourne's first Church of England Bishop, Charles Perry, who founded the Diocese of Melbourne, had been opened to meet the growing educational needs of the young colony. In 1853, Bishop Perry commenced planning for the diocesan experimental school to become permanent, although on a larger site and not under his direct management, so he set up a committee of eminent men to consider the task; the school however did not thrive and was suspended at the end of 1854. The first Board of Governors was elected in 1854 to take over from the committee, it set about drawing up a Constitution, finding a Headmaster and a new site. Locations considered included Prahran and St Kilda. Perry's dream of building a permanent, centrally located grammar school, based on the principles of the great English public schools, was realised in 1855, with a grant from the Governor Charles Hotham of 15 acres on St Kilda Road; this is the inner South Yarra land now occupied by Senior School and Wadhurst, next to the Royal Botanic Gardens and a short walk from the central city.
At the time it was considered isolated and remote. The Governors chose architects Charles Webb and Thomas Taylor, well known Melbourne contractors George Cornwell and Co. undertook the construction, Bishop Perry laid the School's foundation stone on 30 July 1856. The Melbourne Church of England Grammar School was opened on 7 April 1858 with 77 pupils, with John E. Bromby as the first Headmaster. Enrolments grew to 136 during the first year, with four students being the sons of Bromby, about one quarter of them boarders; the school's first forty years proved to be a struggle, exacerbated in the 1890s by economic depression, financial concerns and changes of Headmaster. Senior School enrolments fell from 272 in 1889 to 117 in 1894 prompting a group of former students to do something "to save the old School", they formed The Old Melburnians Society in 1895, "to be the means of bringing together many former schoolmates, reviving pleasant recollections, at the same time benefiting the life of the School as it is today".
Two significant developments of the late nineteenth century were, the recognition that with a limited site, one storey buildings were not a wise use of space. A move began, continued now, of adding second stories or replacing buildings with two- or three-level structures; the second was the dedication of the Chapel of St Peter in 1893, the first school chapel in the colony of Victoria. The beginning of the new century saw the School's future assured, with enrolments increasing and the Jubilee celebrated in 1908. Hundreds of former students enlisted in the Great War of 1914–1918, as they had in the South African War, more than 200 did not return; the 1920s were a stable time for the School, experiencing high academic and sporting results. The 1930s however were an unsettling time; the Great Depression put pressure on members of the Grammar community, while administrative instability affected the whole school. Between 1935 and 1938 the School had three Headmasters and two Acting Headmasters, the outbreak of war the following year meant building plans were put on hold.
Some 3,500 Old Boys enlisted in the services, school buildings were commandeered by Australian and American forces with some students dispatched to the country and others doubled up in crowded quarters. By the 1950s it became clear that the School was lacking adequate space, with expansions and renovations crammed into Bromby's original 15 acres; the School subsequently embarked upon a building program which it was thought could take 30 years to complete, with the Senior School and Grimwade campuses all receiving attention. The Centenary Building Campaign of 1958 began this expansion. Another solution to this problem since this time has been the steady acquisition of neighbouring properties. In 1986 the Governors decided on a staged restructure of the School; until Wadhurst, established as a preparatory school in 1886 and Grimwade House, opened in 1918, had operated as two parallel feeder schools taking students through to Year 8. Grimwade's boarding house had closed in the mid-1970s, leading to debate on the best use of the newly available space.
It was decided to introduce girls at primary levels at Grimwade House, today Grimwade House caters for girls and boys up to Year 6 and Wadhurst for boys in Years 7 and 8. The 1980s and 1990s were times of further growth, with the outdoor program expanded with three permanent campsites at Breakfast Creek near Licola and Banksia Peninsula on the Gippsland Lakes. On 7 April 2008, as part of the celebrations of Melbourn
A logbook is a record of important events in the management and navigation of a ship. It is essential to traditional navigation, must be filled in at least daily; the term referred to a book for recording readings from the chip log, used to estimate a ship's speed through the water. Today's ship's log has grown to contain many other types of information, is a record of operational data relating to a ship or submarine, such as weather conditions, times of routine events and significant incidents, crew complement or what ports were docked at and when; the term logbook has spread to a wide variety of other usages. Today, a virtual or electronic logbook is used for record-keeping for complex machines such as nuclear plants or particle accelerators. In military terms, a logbook is a series of official and binding documents; each document is marked with the time of an action of significance. Most national shipping authorities and admiralties specify that logbooks are kept to provide a record of events, to help crews navigate should radio, radar or the GPS fail.
Examination of the detail in a ship's log is an important part of the investigative process for official maritime inquiries, in much the same way as a "black box" is used on airplanes. Logbook entries are sometimes of great importance in legal cases involving maritime commercial disputes. Commercial ships and naval vessels keep a "rough log", – or "scrap log" – a preliminary draft of the ship's course, speed and other data, transcribed as the "smooth log", – or "official log" – the final version of the ship's record. Changes may be made to the rough log but the smooth log is considered permanent and no erasures are permitted. Alterations or corrections in an official logbook must be initialled by the authorised keeper of the logbook and the original data entries which have been cancelled or corrected must remain legible; the V5C motor vehicle registration document in the United Kingdom is referred to as the "logbook". In the fishing industry, a logbook is used to record catch data as part of the fisheries regulations.
It is submitted to the fishing authorities of the vessel's flag state. For amateur radio, the logbook is where the hams register their radio activity. There are several programs to help radio operators in the management of their logbook. Aircraft pilots must maintain a pilot logbook to record their time spent flying and in a simulator. In New Zealand, a logbook is used to register driver and operator work time for commercial heavy vehicles. In scuba diving, the logbook documents the experience of a diver by logging a diver's dives; the Hornblower series mentions logs to explain plot development, or to make the story more realistic. In Star Trek, the Captain's log, a form of ship's log, is used to fill in the audience as to the events in progress, acts as a more realistic form of soliloquy; this is part of a larger log system that includes personal logs and other officers' official logs, for stories that could not believably be reflected in the official Captain's log. Binnacle CLIWOC Patent log, instruments used to measure the speed of a ship Periplus, various ancient logs valuable for ethno- and geographic information included with the itineraries Navigation
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the