The iPod Classic is a portable media player created and marketed by Apple Inc. There were six generations of the iPod Classic, as well as a spin-off, re-integrated into the main iPod line. All generations used a 1.8-inch hard drive for storage. The "classic" suffix was formally introduced with the rollout of the sixth-generation iPod on September 5, 2007. Prior to this, all iPod Classic models were referred to as iPods, it was available in silver or black replacing the "signature iPod white". On September 9, 2014, Apple discontinued the iPod Classic; the sixth-generation 160GB iPod Classic was the last Apple product in the iPod line to use the original 30-pin iPod connector and the iconic Click Wheel. IPods with color displays use text, with sliding animations. All iPods have five buttons and the generations have the buttons integrated into the click wheel — a design which gives an uncluttered, minimalist interface, though the circuitry contains multiple momentary button switches; the buttons are: Menu: to traverse backwards through the menus, toggle the backlight on older iPods, jump to the main menu on newer iPods Center: to select a menu item Play / Pause: this doubles as an off switch when held Skip Forward / Fast Forward Skip Backwards / Fast Reverse The iPod's operating system is stored on its dedicated storage medium.
An additional NOR flash ROM chip contains a bootloader program that tells the device to load its OS from the storage medium. Each iPod has 32 MB of RAM, although the 60GB and 80GB fifth generation, the sixth-generation models have 64 MB. A portion of the RAM is used to hold the iPod OS loaded from firmware, but the majority of it serves to cache songs from the storage medium. For example, an iPod could spin its hard disk up once and copy 30 MB of upcoming songs into RAM, thus saving power by not requiring the drive to spin up for each song. Custom firmware has been developed such as Rockbox and iPodLinux which offer open-source alternatives to the standard firmware and operating system. In March 2002, Apple added limited PDA-like functionality: text files can be displayed, while contacts and schedules can be viewed and synchronized with the host computer; some built-in games are available, including Brick, Solitaire, iPod Quiz. A firmware update released in September 2006 brought some extra features to fifth-generation iPods including adjustable screen brightness, gapless playback, downloadable games.
However, as of September 30, 2011, these games are no longer available on the iTunes Store. Apple introduced the first-generation iPod on October 23, 2001, with the slogan "1,000 songs in your pocket", they went on sale on November 10, 2001. The first iPod had a monochrome LCD screen and featured a 5GB hard drive capable of storing 1,000 songs encoded using MP3 and was priced at US$399. Among the iPod's innovations were its small size, achieved using a 1.8" hard drive, whereas its competitors were using 2.5" hard drives at the time, its easy-to-use navigation, controlled using a mechanical scroll wheel, a center select button, four auxiliary buttons around the wheel. The iPod had a rated battery life of ten hours. On March 20, 2002, Apple introduced a 10GB model of the first-generation iPod for US$499. VCard compatibility was added, as well as allowing iPods to display business card information synced from a Mac; the second-generation of the iPod was introduced on July 17, 2002. Using a similar body style as the first generation, the top of the iPod was redesigned, switching from a single swooping cutout in the back plate to mount the firewire port, hold switch and headphone assembly, to individual ports being cut into the back plate to allow these ports to be accessed.
Furthermore, the hold switch was redesigned, a cover was added to the FireWire port, the mechanical wheel was replaced with a touch-sensitive wheel. The second-generation class was available in 10GB for US$399 and 20GB for US$499; the first-generation 5GB iPod was carried over, but its price was reduced to US$299. Notably, the second-generation iPods and the updated first-generation iPod were now Windows-compatible; these versions were bundled with Musicmatch Jukebox. At that time iTunes was Mac unavailable for Windows. In December 2002, Apple unveiled its first limited edition iPods, with either Madonna’s, Tony Hawk’s, or Beck’s signature or No Doubt's band logo engraved on the back for an extra US$50. On April 29, 2003, Apple announced a redesigned third-generation iPod. Thinner than the previous models, the third-generation models replaced the FireWire port with a new Dock Connector and introduced the Touch Wheel, a non-mechanical interface with the four auxiliary buttons located in a row between the screen and the touch wheel.
The front plate had rounded edges, the rear casing was rounded as well. A new wired remote connector was introduced. Whereas first and second-generation iPods had an auxiliary ring around the headphone port for the remote, the third-generation iPods had a 4-pin jack adjacent to the headphone port. A 10GB model was sold for US$299, a 15GB model for US $399, a 30GB model for US $499. All iPods were now compatible with Mac and Windows out of the box, was requiring Windows users to reformat the iPod before use on a PC and both iTunes and Musicmatch Jukebox were bundled with all iPods; the battery life was reduced to 8 hours due to the use of a lithium-i
GIMP is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, more specialized tasks. GIMP is released under GPLv3+ licenses and is available for Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows. GIMP was released as the General Image Manipulation Program. In 1995 Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at the University of California, Berkeley for the eXperimental Computing Facility. In 1996 GIMP was released as the first publicly available release. In the following year Richard Stallman visited UC Berkeley where Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis asked if they could change General to GNU. Richard Stallman approved and the definition of the acronym GIMP was changed to be the GNU Image Manipulation Program; this reflected its new existence as being developed as Free Software as a part of the GNU Project. The number of computer architectures and operating systems supported has expanded since its first release.
The first release supported UNIX systems, such as Linux, SGI IRIX and HP-UX. Since the initial release, GIMP has been ported to many operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and macOS. Following the first release, GIMP was adopted and a community of contributors formed; the community began developing tutorials and shared better work-flows and techniques. A GUI toolkit called GTK was developed to facilitate the development of GIMP. GTK was replaced by its successor GTK+ after being redesigned using object-oriented programming techniques; the development of GTK+ has been attributed to Peter Mattis becoming disenchanted with the Motif toolkit GIMP used. GIMP is developed by volunteers as a free software project associated with both the GNU and GNOME Projects. Development takes place in a public git source code repository, on public mailing lists and in public chat channels on the GIMPNET IRC network. New features are held in public separate source code branches and merged into the main branch when the GIMP team is sure they won't damage existing functions.
Sometimes this means that features that appear complete do not get merged or take months or years before they become available in GIMP. GIMP itself is released as source code. After a source code release installers and packages are made for different operating systems by parties who might not be in contact with the maintainers of GIMP; the version number used in GIMP is expressed in a major-minor-micro format, with each number carrying a specific meaning: the first number is incremented only for major developments. The second number is incremented with each release of new features, with odd numbers reserved for in-progress development versions and numbers assigned to stable releases; each year GIMP applies for several positions in the Google Summer of Code. From 2006 to 2009 there have been nine GSoC projects that have been listed as successful, although not all successful projects have been merged into GIMP immediately; the healing brush and perspective clone tools and Ruby bindings were created as part of the 2006 GSoC and can be used in version 2.8.0 of GIMP, although there were three other projects that were completed and are available in a stable version of GIMP.
Several of the GSoC projects were completed in 2008, but have been merged into a stable GIMP release in 2009 to 2014 for Version 2.8.xx and 2.9.x. Some of them needed some more code work for the master tree. Second public Development 2.9-Version was 2.9.4 with many deep improvements after initial Public Version 2.9.2 Third Public 2.9-Development version is Version 2.9.6. One of the new features is removing the 4GB size limit of XCF file. Increase of possible threads to 64 is an important point for modern parallel execution in actual AMD Ryzen and Intel Xeon processors. Version 2.9.8 included many bug improvements in gradients and clips. Improvements in performance and optimization beyond bug hunting were the development targets for 2.10.0. MacOS Beta is available with Version 2.10.4 The next stable version in the roadmap is 3.0 with a GTK3 port. The user interface of GIMP is designed by a dedicated usability team; this team was formed. A user interface brainstorming group has since been created for GIMP, where users of GIMP can send in their suggestions as to how they think the GIMP user interface could be improved.
GIMP is presented in two forms and multiple window mode. In multiple-window mode a set of windows contains all GIMP's functionality. By default and tool settings are on the left and other dialogues are on the right. A layers tab is to the right of the tools tab, allows a user to work individually on separate image layers. Layers can be edited by right-clicking on a particular layer to bring up edit options for that layer; the tools tab and layers tab are the most common dockable tabs. The Libre Graphics Meeting (L
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
IMac is a family of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its debut in August 1998, has evolved through seven distinct forms. In its original form, iMac G3 had a gumdrop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive; the second major revision, iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a moving arm attached to it. The third and fourth major revisions, iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base; the fifth major revision shared the same form as the previous model, but was thinner and used anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. The sixth major revision uses a different display unit, omits the SuperDrive, uses different production techniques from the older unibody versions.
This allows it to be thinner with an edge thickness of 5.9 mm. It includes a dual microphone setup, includes solid-state drive or hard disk storage, or an Apple Fusion Drive, a hybrid of solid state and hard disk drives; this version of iMac was announced in October 2012, with the 21.5-inch version released in November and the 27-inch version in December. In October 2014, the seventh major revision of the 27-inch iMac was announced, whose main feature is a "Retina 5K" display at a resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels; the new model includes a new processor, graphics chip, IO, along with several new storage options. The seventh major revision of the 21.5-inch iMac was announced in October 2015. Its main feature is a "Retina 4K" display at a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels, it has the same new processor, graphics chip, I/O as the 27-inch iMac, along with several new storage options. On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a workstation-class version of the iMac, called the "iMac Pro"; the iMac Pro shares the design and screen of the 5K iMac, but is colored in Space Gray rather than silver.
It comes with standard SSD storage. Apple began shipping the iMac Pro in December 2017; the announcement of iMac in 1998 was a source of controversy and anticipation among commentators, Mac fans, detractors. Opinions were divided over Apple's drastic changes to the Macintosh hardware. At the time, Apple had suffered a series of setbacks as consumers opted for Wintel machines instead of Apple's Performa models. Many in the industry thought that "beleaguered" Apple would soon be forced to start selling computers with a custom interface built on top of one or more potential operating system bases, such as Taligent, Solaris, or Windows 98. Part of Apple's effort to maintain the Mac platform was trying to improve its retail strategy; as these stores developed, they became a detriment to Apple sales, as CompUSA employees were unfamiliar with the Macintosh and directed customers to Wintel boxes instead. The designer behind iMac's case was Jonathan Ive. Ken Segall was an employee at an L. A. ad agency handling Apple's account who came up with the name "iMac" and pitched it to Steve Jobs.
Jobs wanted the product to be called "MacMan", but warmed to Segall's suggestion. Segall says that the "i" stands for "Internet", but represents the product as a personal and revolutionary device. Apple adopted the'i' prefix across its consumer hardware and software lines, such as iPod, iBook, iPhone, iPad and various pieces of software such as the iLife suite and iWork and the company's media player/store, iTunes. Attention was given to the out-of-box experience: the user needed to go through only two steps to set up and connect to the Internet. "There's no step 3!" was the catch-phrase in a popular iMac commercial narrated by actor Jeff Goldblum. Another commercial, dubbed "Simplicity Shootout", pitted seven-year-old Johann Thomas and his border collie Brodie, with an iMac, against Adam Taggart, a Stanford University MBA student, with an HP Pavilion 8250, in a race to set up their computers. Johann and Brodie finished in 8 minutes and 15 seconds, whereas Adam was still working on it by the end of the commercial.
By 2005, it had become more and more apparent that IBM's development for the desktop implementation of PowerPC was grinding to a halt. Apple announced at the Worldwide Developers Conference that it would be switching the Macintosh to the x86 architecture and Intel's line of Core processors; the first Intel-equipped Macs were unveiled on January 10, 2006: the Intel iMac and the introductory MacBook Pro. Within nine months, Apple had smoothly transitioned the entire Macintosh line to Intel. One of the touted side benefits of this switch was the ability to run Windows on Mac hardware. On July 27, 2010, Apple updated its line of iMacs to feature the new Intel Core "i-series" processors across the line; the 21.5" models now feature the Core i3 processor, but these are upgradable to the Core i5. The high end 27" features a Quad-Core i5 processor, upgradable to a Quad-Core i7. On this date Apple announced its new "Apple Magic Trackpad" peripheral, a trackpad similar to that of MacBook Pro for use with iMac or any other Apple computer.
For better performance, patch execution follows a lazy evaluation approach, meaning that patches are only executed when their output is needed. There are three types of patches: Consumers and External Input patches that can receive and output mouse clicks and movements. A collection of patches can be melded into one, called a macro. Macros can be nested and their subroutines edited. To control the order of rendering, each renderer is assigned a layer, indicated in its upper-right corner. Layers are rendered sequentially, lowest to highest. Renderers can be enabled or disabled turning on or off that particular layer. Turning off unused layers results in better performance, since fewer upstream patches need to be evaluated; some patches can have subpatches, which allows for global parameter changes to just the included subpatches. This is useful for lighting, 3D transformation, GLSL shaders, among other things. Subpatch support is indicated by square corners on a patch, rather than the typical rounded corners.
With Version 3.0, it became possible to turn compositions into Virtual Patches. These allow the user to reuse functionality without having to store duplicate copies in each composition; the Quartz Composer Editor allows the user to save a "flattened" copy, for easy distribution. Version 4.0 extended this functionality more, automatically includes "flattened" copies of virtual patches for use as a fallback if the desired virtual patch isn't installed on the host system. This simplifies composition distribution. Network functionality was improved with the release of Leopard, it became possible to transmit data and synchronize over a network interface, it added support for Open Sound Control transmission and reception. New in Version 3.0 was the possibility to write custom patch plugins, using an Xcode template, the notion of a "safe mode", where plugins and other unsafe patches fail to load. This prevents malicious compositions from performing insecure operations. Custom patches using, it was possible to develop custom patch plugins for Version 2.0, but the API was undocumented and private, was never supported by Apple.
Templates were released to simplify this procedure. In the Quartz Composer editor, holding the option key while selecting "Preferences..." from the menu adds 3 additional tabs of options for the user to configure. These options include System settings, Editor settings, QuickTime integration settings. Notable options include expanded tooltips, software rendering, uncapped framerate rendering. Multisample antialiasing was added as a hidden option in version 4.0, allowing for antialiasing inside the QC Editor, though it only works on GPU's that support MSAA. Data inside QC can be one of the following types: Boolean - a boolean value, 0 or 1 Index - a positive integer between 0 and 2147483647 Number - a double precision floating point number String - a unicode string Color - an RGBA or CMYK quartet, or a Grayscale value Image - a 2D image of arbitrary dimensions Structure - a named or ordered collection of objects, including nested structures Virtual - any of the aboveTwo additional types were introduced in version 4.0: Mesh - a collection of vertices, per-vertex normals, texture coordinates, colors in 3-space Interaction - a valueless type used to associate user input with user-interactive elements of the composition Data can be converted to other types transparently.
In Quartz Composer 3.0, the connections between patches change color to indicate conversions that are taking place. Yellow connections mean no conversion is taking place, Orange indicates a possible loss of data from conversion, Red indicates a severe conversion. Quartz Composer documents are called Compositions. Compositions are Binary Property Lists with a filename extension.qtz, a com.apple.quartz-composer-composition UTI. Patches, their connections, their input port states are saved in the composition file. Images can be stored inside a composition as well, making for self-contained compositions with embedded graphics. By dragging a movie file into the Quartz Composer editor, a reference to the movie file is created, providing a changing image that can be connected to a renderer. Compositions store metadata such as composition author and description; the user can add arbitrary metadata items, if desired. Many image
The MacBook is a brand of Macintosh laptop computers by Apple Inc. that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during Apple's transition to Intel processors. The current lineup consists of the MacBook, the MacBook Air, the MacBook Pro. A different MacBook line existed from 2006 to 2012; the MacBook family were housed in designs similar to the iBook and PowerBook lines which preceded them, now making use of a unibody aluminum construction first introduced with the MacBook Air. This new construction has a black plastic keyboard, first used on the MacBook Air, which itself was inspired by the sunken keyboard of the original polycarbonate MacBooks; the now standardized keyboard brings congruity to the MacBook line, with black keys on a metallic aluminum body. The lids of the MacBook family are held closed by a magnet with no mechanical latch, a design element first introduced with the polycarbonate MacBook. Memory and batteries were accessible in the old MacBook lineup, though the newest compact lineup solders or glues all such components in place.
All of the current MacBooks feature backlit keyboards. The MacBook was discontinued until March 2015, when a new model featuring an ultraportable design and an all-metal enclosure was introduced; the MacBook features many firsts from Apple, using a butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Force Touch trackpad, a USB Type-C port. This lack of Type-A USB ports ubiquitous among modern PCs means it requires a physical adapter to attach any 3rd-party peripheral on release; the ports consist of one USB Type-C, able to charge the MacBook, a headphone/microphone jack compatible with inline remote control. Adapters are available for USB, mDP, HDMI, VGA; this Apple laptop is the first in 17 years since the "Wallstreet" PowerBook G3 to lack a translucent illuminated Apple logo on the back of its lid, instead having a polished metal logo. The MacBook Air is Apple's least expensive notebook computer; the 2017 base model comes with a 13-inch screen, was Apple's thinnest notebook computer until the introduction of the MacBook in March 1984.
This MacBook Air model features a Thunderbolt 2 port. This model of MacBook Air does not have a Retina Display. A MacBook Air model with an 11-inch screen was available from October 1992 to October 2002. In 2007, the MacBook Air received a small refresh, with the processor speed increased to 1.8 GHz. On October 30, 2009, the MacBook Air underwent a major design change, dropping the USB Type-A ports, MagSafe, the SD card slot in favor of two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports and a headphone jack, it was updated with a Retina display and Intel Y-series Amber Lake i5 CPUs, as well as a Force Touch trackpad, a third generation butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Touch ID sensor found in the fourth generation MacBook Pro, but without the Touch Bar. The base price was raised, although the base configuration of the 2011 model was retained; the MacBook Pro is Apple's higher end laptop available in both 15-inch configurations. A redesigned MacBook Pro was introduced on October 27, 2016, thinner and lighter than the previous generation MacBook Pro.
Both size models feature a touch-sensitive OLED display strip located in place of the function keys, a Touch ID sensor integrated with the power button, a butterfly mechanism keyboard similar to the MacBook, four USB-C ports that serve as Thunderbolt 3 ports. The 13-inch model is available in a less expensive configuration with conventional function keys and only two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports. Comparison of Macintosh models
Impromptu (programming environment)
Impromptu is a Mac OS X programming environment for live coding. Impromptu is built around the Scheme language, a member of the Lisp family of languages; the source code of its core has been opened as the Extempore project. The environment allows to make changes to a program at runtime, so variables and functions may be redefined and the changes take effect immediately. A programmer can create and schedule code for future execution, as well as data events such as notes and graphics objects. Once an event is scheduled, execution continues. Looping is performed by using an idiom called "temporal recursion" which works by having a function asynchronously schedule a future call to itself as its final action; the library allows communicating with Audio Units for audio synthesis, with graphics layers such as QuickTime, Core Image, OpenGL for video composition. Code written in Objective-C can be called from the editor, Objective-C frameworks can perform calls to the Scheme interpreter. Impromptu's Scheme interpreter was built from the TinyScheme 1.35 baseline, but it has been modified since to better suit the live coding context.
A real-time garbage collector, Objective-C integration were added. A new statically typed language called the Extempore Language has been integrated to the system; this language is syntactically Scheme-like, but semantically closer to C, is designed for real-time sound synthesis and other computationally heavy tasks. It provides type inference and is compiled to machine language by LLVM. A Study in Keith is a live coding performance in Impromptu by Andrew Sorensen; the first two minutes are silent, while the performer writes the program that will produce the introduction of the piece. From on, he modifies the code on the fly to evolve the composition; the core of Impromptu has been released as Extempore under a BSD style licence. It runs under both Linux and Mac OS X, it includes the Extempore Language compiler and the scheduler. The bindings to Apple libraries are absent, but the environment can interface with dynamic libraries. Comparison of audio synthesis environments SuperCollider Processing OpenFrameworks ChucK List of music software Max Pure Data Sorensen, A "A Distributed Memory For Networked Livecoding Performance" International Computer Music Conference 2010, New York Sorensen, A & Brown, A "A Computational Model For The Generation Of Orchestral Music In The Germanic Symphonic Tradition: A progress report" paper presented to the Australasian Computer Music Conference 2008, Sydney Sorensen, A & Brown, A "aa-cell in Practice: An Approach to Musical Live Coding" paper presented to the International Computer Music Conference 2007, Copenhagen Sorensen, A.
"Impromptu: An interactive programming environment for composition and performance" a paper presented to the Australasian Computer Music Conference 2005, Brisbane: ACMA, pp. 149–153. Sorensen, A. "ICR - Impromptu Compiler Runtime" Thor Magnusson, "Confessions of a Live Coder", Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference, 2011. Peter Kirn, "Thought and Performance, Live Coding Music, Explained to Anyone - Really", Create Digital Music, 2011 Mitchell Whitelaw, "From Scratch - A Conversation with Andrew Sorensen", 2007 Official website