West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Kingwood, West Virginia
Kingwood is a city in and the county seat of Preston County, West Virginia, United States, Founded in 1815, Kingwood is part of the Morgantown, WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 2,939 at the 2010 census. Kingwood is home to the West Virginia Zoo; the James Clark McGrew House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. Kingwood is located at 39°28.3′N 79°41.1′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.43 square miles, all of it land. Kingwood contains three public schools serviced by the Preston County School District, including Kingwood Elementary, Central Preston Middle School and Preston High School; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,939 people, 1,291 households, 818 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,209.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,454 housing units at an average density of 598.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.3% White, 0.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 1,291 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.6% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the city was 43.8 years. 19.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,944 people, 1,283 households, 844 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,192.9 people per square mile. There were 1,417 housing units at an average density of 574.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.69% White, 1.02% African American, 0.44% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.34% of the population. There were 1,283 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,155, the median income for a family was $36,313. Males had a median income of $30,658 versus $18,190 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,299. About 16.3% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.2% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.
T. Stephen Crawford, chemical engineer and college administrator. Izetta Jewel Brown and women's rights advocate, second wife of Kingwood resident, Congressman William Gay Brown, Jr. William Gay Brown, Jr. three term US Congressman from Kingwood. James McGrew, a founding father of West Virginia. Preston County Buckwheat Festival
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Albright, West Virginia
Albright is a town and former coal town in Preston County, West Virginia, United States, along the Cheat River. The population was 299 at the 2010 census; the town derives its name from an early settler. In 1985, a mass flooding of the Cheat River wiped out most structures in the town. Located near Albright is the Virginia Furnace, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.27 square miles, of which, 0.23 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. At the 2010 census, there were 299 people, 120 households and 79 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,300.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 128 housing units at an average density of 556.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.3% White, 0.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.3% from two or more races. There were 120 households of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families.
30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the town was 38.2 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. At the 2000 census, there were 247 people, 99 households and 61 families residing in the town; the population density was 857.9 per square mile. There were 113 housing units at an average density of 392.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.79% White, 0.40% African American, 0.81% from two or more races. There were 99 households of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.06.
27.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median household income was $21,389 and the median family income was $21,500. Males had a median income of $20,764 compared with $16,250 for females; the per capita income was $10,581. About 27.9% of families and 26.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 27.3% of those sixty five or over. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Albright has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Rowlesburg, West Virginia
Rowlesburg is a town and former railroad town in Preston County, West Virginia, United States, along the Cheat River. The population was 584 at the 2010 census. Rowlesburg was incorporated as a town in 1858, it was named for a railroad engineer. During the American Civil War, its two Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridges were of great strategic importance. Confederate troops failed to reach Rowlesburg in 1861, but the Jones-Imboden raid did reach the town. However, Union troops and townsmen called out of their churches on Sunday morning, April 26, 1863 defended the town and "Lincoln's lifeline," so Gen. Jones retreated and court-martialed a subordinate; the Downtown Rowlesburg Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Rowlesburg is located at 39°21′0″N 79°40′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.10 square miles, of which 1.01 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. The climate in this area displays significant differences between summer average high temperatures and winter average lows.
In winter months, precipitation is in the form of snow or sleet. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rowlesburg has a continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. At Rowlesburg, the Cheat River is considered to be at flood stage; as of the census of 2010, there were 584 people, 255 households, 163 families residing in the town. The population density was 578.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 304 housing units at an average density of 301.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.5% White, 0.2% from other races, 0.3% from two or more races. There were 255 households of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.1% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.88.
The median age in the town was 48 years. 18.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 613 people, 260 households, 164 families residing in the town; the population density was 582.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 304 housing units at an average density of 288.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.53% White, 0.16% African American, 0.33% Asian, 0.98% from two or more races. There were 260 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.98. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,125, the median income for a family was $32,813. Males had a median income of $25,962 versus $12,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,663. About 7.6% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.0% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Rowlesburg Revitalization Committee website