Denton is a city in and the county seat of Denton County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 113,383, making it the 27th-most populous city in Texas, the 200th-most populous city in the United States, the 12th-most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. A Texas land grant led to the formation of Denton County in 1846, the city was incorporated in 1866. Both were named after pioneer and Texas militia captain John B. Denton; the arrival of a railroad line in the city in 1881 spurred population, the establishment of the University of North Texas in 1890 and Texas Woman's University in 1901 distinguished the city from neighboring regions. After the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport finished in 1974, the city had more rapid growth. Located on the far north end of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in North Texas on Interstate 35, Denton is known for its active music life; the city experiences hot, humid summers and few extreme weather events.
Its diverse citizenry is represented by a nonpartisan city council, numerous county and state departments have offices in the city. With over 45,000 students enrolled at the two universities located within its city limits, Denton is characterized as a college town; as a result of the universities' growth, educational services play a large role in the city's economy. Residents are served by the Denton County Transportation Authority, which provides commuter rail and bus service to the area; the formation of Denton is tied with that of Denton County. White settlement of the area began in the middle of the 1800s when William S. Peters of Kentucky obtained a land grant from the Texas Congress and named it Peters Colony. After initial settlement in the southeast part of the county in 1843, the Texas Legislature voted to form Denton County in 1846. Both the county and the town were named for John B. Denton, a preacher and lawyer, killed in 1841 during a skirmish with Kichai people in what is now Tarrant County.
Pickneyville and Alton were selected as the county seat before Denton was named for that position in 1857. That year, a commission named the first streets. Denton incorporated in 1866. B. Sawyer; as the city expanded beyond its original boundaries, it became an agricultural trade center for the mill and cottage industries. The arrival of the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881 gave Denton its first rail connection and brought an influx of people to the area. North Texas Normal College, now the University of North Texas, was established in 1890, the Girls' Industrial College, now Texas Woman's University, was founded in 1903; as the universities increased in size, their impact on Denton's economy and culture increased. Denton grew from a population of 26,844 in 1960 to 48,063 in 1980, its connection to the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex via I-35E and I-35W played a major role in the growth, the opening of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in 1974 led to an increase in population. In the 1980s, heavy manufacturing companies like Victor Equipment Company and Peterbilt joined older manufacturing firms such as Moore Business Forms and Morrison Milling Company in Denton.
The population jumped from 66,270 in 1990 to 80,537 in 2000. In May 2006, Houston-based real estate company United Equities purchased the 100-block of Fry Street and announced that several of the historic buildings would be demolished to accommodate a new mixed-use commercial center; the proposal drew opposition from some residents, who sought to preserve the area as a historic and cultural icon for the city. The Denton City Council approved a new proposal for the area from Dinerstein Cos in 2010. Denton is located on the northern edge of the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area; these three cities form the area known as the "Golden Triangle of North Texas." According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.316 square miles, of which 87.952 square miles is land and 1.364 square miles is covered by water. The city lies in the northeast edge of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin, characterized by flat terrain. Elevation ranges from 500 to 900 feet. Part of the city is located atop the Barnett Shale, a geological formation believed to contain large quantities of natural gas.
Lewisville Lake, a man-made reservoir, is located 15 miles south of the city. With its hot, humid summers and cool winters, Denton's climate is characterized as humid subtropical and is within USDA hardiness zone 8a; the city's all-time high temperature is 113 °F, recorded in 1954. Dry winds affect the area in the summer and can bring temperatures of over 100 °F, although the average summer temperature highs range from 91 to 96 °F between June and August; the all-time recorded low is −3 °F, the coolest month is January, with daily low temperatures averaging 33 °F. Denton lies on the southern end of what is referred to as "Tornado Alley"; the city receives about 37.7 inches of rain per year. Flash floods and severe thunderstorms are frequent occurrences during spring. Average snowfall in Denton is similar to the Dallas–Fort Worth average of 2.4 inches per year. Denton is home to several annual artistic and cultural events that cater to residents and tou
Denton Independent School District
Denton Independent School District, sometimes shortened to Denton ISD, is a school district based in Denton, Texas. The district covers all or parts of the following cities – Denton, Copper Canyon, Cross Roads, Double Oak, Lincoln Park, Oak Point, Fort Worth and Shady Shores; the district serves the housing developments of Providence, Cross Oak Ranch, Paloma Creek and Lantana all located in unincorporated portions of Denton County. The district encompasses about 180 square miles. DISD's superintendent is Dr. Jamie Wilson. In 2009, the school district was rated "academically acceptable" by the Texas Education Agency. C. H. Collins Athletic Complex DISD Natatorium Secondary schools are divided into two separate levels and high schools. Middle School campuses serve students in grades 6–8 while Comprehensive High Schools serve students in grades 9–12. Braswell High School Denton High School John H. Guyer High School Billy Ryan High School Fred Moore High School Calhoun Middle School Crownover Middle School – named after Ronny Crownover and politician Harpool Middle School – located in Lantana.
Navo Middle School Strickland Middle School – 1994–96 National Blue Ribbon School Myers Middle School - Named after Dr. Bettye Myers, a public education advocate and community leader; this school was scheduled to open in August 2013. Lester Davis School Dorothy Adkins Bell Blanton Borman Cross Oaks Evers Park Ginnings Hawk Hodge L. A. Nelson Lee E. P. Rayzor J. Newton Rayzor McNair Paloma Creek Pecan Creek Providence Rivera Sam Houston Savannah Stephens W. S. Ryan Wilson Ann Windle Gonzalez Homes in the Denton ISD area get the Denton ISD channel on cable Channel 31 on Charter Communications Channel 40 on Frontier FiOS Channel 88 on AT&T U-verse List of school districts in Texas Denton ISD Homepage 380Guide.com – Community website for the U. S. 380 corridor in the Denton ISD LantanaLinks.com – Community website for the southern portion of the Denton ISD
Aubrey is a city in Denton County, United States. The population was 2,595 at the 2010 census. Aubrey, the town, was founded 1867, when Civil War veteran Lemuel Noah Edwards built the second frame house there. Edwards gave each of his 10 children a lot on which to build a home; the Edwards family was instrumental in several civil developments. Dancing was not allowed, but the townspeople gathered in the Edwards home for singing and listening music performed on an organ that Edwards had imported. In 1881, the Texas and Pacific Railway completed a track and station in Aubrey and commenced operations. In 1885, Edwards offered a lot to each congregation. In 1882 Edwards and Louis Caddel, Sr. donated land for a one-room schoolhouse in town. Edwards, through one of his daughters — Edna Mae Edwards, who married Hugh Tobin — was the grandfather of Louise Tobin, a prolific big band jazz vocalist who reached national notoriety in 1932. Aubrey became known for the peanut farms that surrounded the town. By 2009 horse ranches surrounded Aubrey.
Around that time new houses were constructed in Aubrey, replacing the grounds of the old peanut farms. Aubrey is located at 33°18′26″N 96°59′2″W, it is 12 miles north of Denton. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.6 square miles, of which 2.6 square miles is land and 0.019 square miles, or 0.73%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,500 people, 559 households, 418 families residing in the city; the population density was 720.4 people per square mile. There were 597 housing units at an average density of 286.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 4.7% some other race, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.7% of the population. There were 559 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.2% were non-families.
20.8% of all households were made up of families and 6.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,131, the median income for a family was $46,190. Males had a median income of $31,367 versus $23,594 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,176. About 5.8% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Aubrey is served by the Aubrey Independent School District; the Aubrey High School mascot is the chaparral. A new intermediate school was completed in 2005 and now houses the middle school as of 2008.
A new elementary school was completed and Aubrey Elementary School was renamed Brockett Elementary School in 2008. The old middle school building now houses the district's administration offices. Braswell High School of the Denton Independent School District is south of Aubrey and serves some areas with "Aubrey, Texas" addresses; as of 2009 Starr's Service Station, located off Sherman Drive and across the street from the Ever After chapel, serves as a social center for Aubrey. Louise Tobin, big band vocalist City of Aubrey official website Aubrey historic photos from the Portal to Texas History Aubrey, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste
North Central Texas College
North Central Texas College is a public community college in Gainesville, Texas. It serves Cooke County, Denton County, Montague County, Texas; as with many of the early community colleges, NCTC began as an extension of the local school district. In NCTC's case, a branch of the Gainesville Independent School District known as Gainesville Junior College was proposed by Superintendent Randolph Lee Clark, who started a junior college that became Midwestern State University; the Gainesville college was established May 20, 1924, held its first classes in the fall of that year. For the first 22 years of the school's existence, it shared the same building with Gainesville High School sharing teachers and administrators. In 1946 a building located next to the high school was purchased and the college had its own building. However, by the mid-1950s the college grew to the point that sharing space with the high school was no longer practical. Local citizens passed a bond issue to build separate facilities for the college.
However, discussions took place as to whether a separate entity, apart from the Gainesville ISD, should be created. With the support of citizens such as W. T. Bonner, Cooke County voters approved the creation of the new district, Gainesville Junior College became Cooke County Junior College. In 1994, the institution's name was changed to North Central Texas College to reflect its increasing instructional offerings in two Denton County cities—Lewisville and Denton. During this time, NCTC operated under a "gentlemen's agreement" with the other junior colleges, thus no separate schools were formed in neighboring Denton and Montague Counties. In 1992, president Ronnie Glasscock led the school to two major accomplishments. First, the "gentlemen's agreement" was codified into state law. Second, Glasscock lobbied for a name change, realizing that Cooke County College would handicap the college's effort to be a true regionally focused college, he was successful, on June 1, 1994, the Regents voted to change the college's name to its current designation.
In January 2000, NCTC opened a branch campus in Bowie. The citizens of Bowie voted a 1/2 cent sales tax increase to build the 16,000-square-foot, $2.196 million facility. NCTC opened the Corinth campus at the same time. A historical marker outside the Administration Building claims that NCTC is the oldest continuously operating public community college in Texas, having been approved for operations in May 1924; this is based on the fact that several junior colleges which predate NCTC in terms of its opening either ceased operations, were not founded as public institutions, or became four-year colleges. Stephenville College started in 1893 as a private institution, became a public college in 1898. However, financial troubles led to its buyout by Texas A&M in 1917, it became Tarleton State University. El Paso Junior College opened in 1920, it became the University of Texas at El Paso. Wichita Falls Junior College, which has historical ties to Randolph Clark, opened in 1922, it became Midwestern State University.
South Park Junior College opened in 1923. It became Lamar University. Four junior colleges, all of which opened prior to NCTC, permanently ceased operations. Weatherford College in Weatherford dates its history back to 1869, can claim the title of oldest two-year college in Texas. However, it began as a Masonic institution and became a Methodist school, operating as a four-year institution until 1921 when it reorganized as a two-year college. So, it was operated as a private institution until 1949 when Parker County took over operations. Hill College opened in 1923, has always operated as a public two-year college. However, Hill College ceased operations in July 1950 and re-opened in September 1962. Jacksonville College in Jacksonville, opened in 1899 and has operated continuously since that time. However, like Weatherford College, it operated as a four-year college until 1918 when it reorganized as a two-year college. Jacksonville College has never been a public institution, having been owned and operated by a Baptist denomination or organization since its founding.
The original location, the Cooke County Campus, is the main campus. NCTC maintains full-service campuses in Corinth and Bowie, with branch campuses in Graham and Flower Mound; the current president of NCTC is Dr. Brent Wallace. Dr. Wallace served as the Vice-President of Instruction; as defined by the Texas Legislature, the official service area of NCTC consists of the following: all of Cooke and Montague Counties, all of Denton County excluding the cities of Frisco and The Colony, those portions of the county included within the Carrollton-Farmers Branch and Prosper school districts. The college athletics teams are nicknamed the Lions; the lions compete in the North Texas Junior College Athletic Conference of the NJCAA. North Texas Central College offers athletic scholarships in baseball, softball and women's tennis. On September 26, 2014, four members of the North Central Texas College L
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, municipality, or local government area. Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the exact definition of a City Council varies. However, it is only those local government areas which have been granted city status that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities; the official title is "Corporation of the City of ______" or similar. Some of the urban areas of Australia are governed by a single entity, while others may be controlled by a multitude of much smaller city councils; some significant urban areas can be under the jurisdiction of otherwise rural local governments. Periodic re-alignments of boundaries attempt to rationalize these situations and adjust the deployment of assets and resources; the 2001 Local Government Act restyled the five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway and Limerick as city councils, with the same status in law as county councils. The 2014 Local Government Act Merged Limerick City and Limerick County Council together and Waterford City and Waterford County Council together abolishing Waterford and Limerick City council, While Limerick and Waterford maintain City Status.
The city councils and city halls in Malaysia are as follows. Alor Setar City Council Ipoh City Council Iskandar Puteri City Council Johor Bahru City Council Kota Kinabalu City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Terengganu City Council Kuching North City Hall Kuching South City Council Melaka City Council Miri City Council Penang Island City Council Petaling Jaya City Council Shah Alam City Council Local councils in New Zealand do vary in structure, but are overseen by the government department Local Government New Zealand. For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city; the boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. New Zealand's local government structural arrangements were reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities.
As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings. The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries; this informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000. In the Republic of China, a city council represents a provincial city. Members of the councils are elected through local elections for provincial cities which are held every 4–5 years. Councils for the provincial cities in Taiwan are Chiayi City Council, Hsinchu City Council, Keelung City Council. In the UK, not all cities have city councils, the status and functions of city councils vary. A city council may be: The council of a metropolitan district, granted city status; the council of a non-metropolitan district, granted city status.
Some of these councils are some share functions with county councils. A parish council, granted city status; these councils have limited functions. The council of a London borough, granted city status, or the City of London Corporation. A city council may be: One of the three councils of principal areas that have been granted city status. One of the three community councils, with limited functions, that have been granted city status. A city council is the council of one of four council areas designated a City by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the three cities which are not council areas have no city council. Belfast City Council is now the only city council. Since the local government reforms of 2015 the other four cities form parts of wider districts and do not have their own councils. City councils and town boards consist of several elected aldermen or councillors. In the United States, members of city councils are called council member, council man, council woman, councilman, or councilwoman, while in Canada they are called councillor.
In some cities, the mayor is a voting member of the council. In larger cities the council may elect other executive positions as well, such as a council president and speaker; the council functions as a parliamentary or congressional style legislative body, proposing bills, holding votes, passing laws to help govern the city. The role of the mayor in the council varies depending on whether or not the city uses council–manager government or mayor–council government, by the nature of the statutory authority given to it by state law, city charter, or municipal ordinance. There is a mayor pro tem councilmember. In cities where the council elects the mayor for one year at a time, the mayor pro tem is in line to become the mayor in the next year. In cities where the mayor is elected by the city's voters, the mayor pro tem serves as acting mayor in the absence of the mayor; this position is known as vice mayor. In some cities a different name for the municipal legislature is used. In San