First Epistle to the Corinthians
The First Epistle to the Corinthians referred to as First Corinthians and written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle says that Paul the Apostle and "Sosthenes our brother" wrote it to "the church of God, at Corinth" 1 Cor.1:1–2 although the scholarly consensus holds that Sosthenes was the amanuensis who wrote down the text of the letter at Paul's direction. Called "a masterpiece of pastoral theology", it addresses various issues that had arisen in the Christian community at Corinth; this epistle contains some well-known phrases, including: "all things to all men", "through a glass, darkly", "When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child". There is consensus among historians and Christian theologians that Paul is the author of the First Epistle to the Corinthians; the letter is quoted or mentioned by the earliest of sources, is included in every ancient canon, including that of Marcion.
The personal and embarrassing texts about immorality in the church increase consensus. However, a passage may have been inserted at a stage; this passage is 1 Corinthians 14:34–35, the authenticity of, hotly debated. Part of the reason for doubt is that in some manuscripts, the verses come at the end of the chapter instead of at its present location. Furthermore, Paul is here appealing to the law, uncharacteristic of him. Lastly, the verses come into conflict with 11:5 where women are described as praying and prophesying; as well, 10:1–22 is sometimes regarded as another letter fragment, interpolation, or inserted midrash because, among other things, this section seems to equate the consumption of idol meat with idolatry, but Paul seems more lenient regarding its consumption in 8:1–13 and 10:23–11:1. Such views are rejected by other scholars who give arguments for the unity of 8:1–11:1. About the year AD 50, towards the end of his second missionary journey, Paul founded the church in Corinth, before moving on to Ephesus, a city on the west coast of today's Turkey, about 180 miles by sea from Corinth.
From there he traveled to Caesarea, Antioch. Paul returned to Ephesus on his third missionary journey and spent three years there, it was while staying in Ephesus that he received disconcerting news of the community in Corinth regarding jealousies and immoral behavior. It appears that based on a letter the Corinthians sent Paul, the congregation was requesting clarification on a number of matters, such as marriage and the consumption of meat offered to idols. By comparing Acts of the Apostles 18:1–17 and mentions of Ephesus in the Corinthian correspondence, scholars suggest that the letter was written during Paul's stay in Ephesus, dated as being in the range of AD 53–57. Anthony C. Thiselton suggests that it is possible that I Corinthians was written during Paul's first stay in Ephesus, at the end of his Second Journey dated to early AD 54. However, it is more that it was written during his extended stay in Ephesus, where he refers to sending Timothy to them; the epistle may be divided into seven parts: Salutation Paul addresses the issue regarding challenges to his apostleship and defends the issue by claiming that it was given to him through a revelation from Christ.
The salutation reinforces the legitimacy of Paul's apostolic claim. Thanksgiving The thanksgiving part of the letter is typical of Hellenistic letter writing. In a thanksgiving recitation the writer thanks God for health, a safe journey, deliverance from danger, or good fortune. In this letter, the thanksgiving "introduces charismata and gnosis, topics to which Paul will return and that he will discuss at greater length in the letter". Division in Corinth Facts of division Causes of division Cure for division Immorality in Corinth Discipline an immoral Brother Resolving personal disputes Sexual purity Difficulties in Corinth Marriage Christian liberty Worship Doctrine of Resurrection Closing Paul's closing remarks in his letters contain his intentions and efforts to improve the community, he would first conclude with his paraenesis and wish them peace by including a prayer request, greet them with his name and his friends with a holy kiss, offer final grace and benediction:Now concerning the contribution for the saints: as I directed the churches of Galatia… Let all your things be done with charity.
Greet one another with a holy kiss... I, write this greeting with my own hand. If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha; the grace of the Lord Jesus be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen; some time before 2 Corinthians was written, Paul paid them a second visit to check some rising disorder, wrote them a letter, now lost. They had been visited by Apollos by Peter, by some Jewish Christians who brought with them letters of commendation from Jerusalem. Paul wrote this letter to correct. Several sources informed Paul of conflicts within the church at Corinth: Apollos, a letter from the Corinthians, the "household of Chloe", Stephanas and his two friends who had visited Paul. Paul wrote this letter to the Corinthians, urging uniformity of belief ("that ye all speak the same thing and that t
The Corinthian (Manhattan)
The Corinthian is a 57 story apartment building, New York City's largest apartment building when it opened in 1988. It was designed by Der Scutt, design architect, John Schimenti, its fluted towers with bay windows are unusual compared to the traditional boxy shape of buildings in the city, it bears a resemblance to Marina City and Lake Point Tower in Chicago. The building incorporates a portion of the former East Side Airline Terminal designed by John B. Peterkin and opened in 1953. At 1,100,000 square feet it is the largest project of Bernard Spitzer, it occupies a full city block between First Avenue and Tunnel Entrance Street and between East 37th and 38th Streets, overlooks the Manhattan entrance to the Queens-Midtown Tunnel. It has 863 apartments, 125,000 square feet of commercial space on the first through third floors, a 48,000-square-foot garage and setback roof deck. At the entrance to the building is a cascading, semicircular waterfall fountain and an Aristides Demetrios bronze sculpture, "Peirene."
Its lobby is 28 feet high. Notes Media related to The Corinthian at Wikimedia Commons Cityrealty.com profile NYC-architecture.com profile Emporis profile
Great Mosque of Kairouan
The Great Mosque of Kairouan known as the Mosque of Uqba, is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia. Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square metres and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all mosques in the Maghreb; the Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa. This space contains a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. In addition to its spiritual prestige, the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of Islamic architecture, notable among other things for the first Islamic use of the horseshoe arch. Under the Aghlabids, huge works gave the mosque its present aspect; the fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and repopulate increasingly. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences.
Its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. With the decline of the city of Kairouan from the mid-11th century, the centre of intellectual thought moved to the University of Ez-Zitouna in Tunis. Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami; this location corresponded to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. Human factors including Hilalian's invasions in 449 AH led to the decline of the city and halted development. For all these reasons, the mosque which once occupies the center of the medina when first built in 670 is now on the easternmost quarter abutting the city walls; the building is a vast irregular quadrilateral covering some 9,000 m2. It is longer on the east side than the west, shorter on the north side the south; the main minaret is centered on the north.
From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. The corner towers measuring 4.25 metres on each side are buttressed with solid projecting supports. Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. Despite the austere façades, the rhythmic patterns of buttresses and towering porches, some surmounted by cupolas, give the sanctuary a sense of striking sober grandeur. At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi chose the site of his mosque in the centre of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers conducted by Kusaila, it was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'man in 703. With the gradual increase of the population of Kairouan and the consequent increase in the number of faithful, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, charged his governor Bishr ibn Safwan to carry out development work in the city which include the renovation and expansion of the mosque around the years 724–728.
In view of its expansion, he rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. It was under his auspices. In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid Ibn Hatim. Under the rule of Aghlabid sovereigns, Kairouan was at its apogee, the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. In 836, Ziadet-Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more: this is when the building acquired, at least in its entirety, the appearance we see today. At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome on squinches was raised. Around 862–863, Abul Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. In 875 Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard, further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries; the current state of the mosque can be traced back to the reign of Aghlabids—no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihrab—except for some partial restorations and a few additions made in 1025 during the reign of Zirids, 1248 and 1293–1294 under the reign of Hafsids, 1618 at the time of mouradites beys, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of Mawlid of 1972. Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages; the stories concern the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration. Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived are Al
Bagatelle is a billiards-derived indoor table game, the object of, to get a number of balls past wooden pins into holes that are guarded by wooden pegs. It developed from the table made with raised sides for trou madame, played with ivory balls and continued to be popular into the nineteenth century, after which it developed into bar billiards, with influences from the French/Belgian game billard russe. A bagatelle variant using fixed metal pins, billard japonais led to the development of pachinko and pinball. Bagatelle is laterally related to miniature golf. Table games involving sticks and balls evolved from efforts to bring outdoor games like ground billiards and bowling inside for play during inclement weather, they are attested in general by the 15th century, although the 19th-century idea that bagatelle itself derived from the English "shovel-board" described in Charles Cotton's 1674 Compleat Gamester has since been disregarded. In France, during the long 1643–1715 reign of Louis XIV, billiard tables were narrowed, with wooden pins or skittles at one end of the table, players would shoot balls with a stick or cue from the other end, in a game inspired as much by bowling as billiards.
Pins took too long to reset when knocked down, so they were fixed to the table, holes in the bed of the table became the targets. Players could ricochet balls off the pins to achieve the harder scorable holes. Quite a number of variations on this theme were developed. In 1777 a party was thrown in honour of Louis XVI and the queen at the Château de Bagatelle erected at great expense by the king's brother, the Count of Artois. Bagatelle from Italian bagattella, signifies'a trifle','a decorative thing'; the highlight of the party was a new table game featuring a slender table and cue sticks, which players used to shoot ivory balls up an inclined playfield. The game was dubbed bagatelle by the count and shortly after swept through France; the name Bagatelle was first used to describe such a game in 1819. Its dimensions soon standardised at 7 feet by 21 inches; some French soldiers carried their favorite bagatelle tables with them to America while helping to fight the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Bagatelle spread and became so popular in America as well that a political cartoon from 1863 depicts US President Abraham Lincoln playing a small tabletop version of bagatelle against presidential rival George B. McClellan; the world's largest bagatelle board is believed to be one made by 5th Chislehurst Scout Group in 2016. It measures four by sixteen feet. Pub games Pardon, George Frederick, "Bagatelle", in Baynes, T. S. Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 229–230 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Bagatelle", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, Cambridge University Press, pp. 192–193 Instructional / informational video of Bagatelle game
Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club
The Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club is one of the oldest yacht clubs in the Western Hemisphere, located in Centre Island, New York, with access to Long Island Sound. The Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club was founded in September 1871 aboard the sloop Glance, anchored off Centre Island. Glance's captain, William L. Swan, was elected Seawanhaka's first Commodore. For many years, club meetings were held aboard this flagship. In 1881, the club leased space on Centre Island, the word "Corinthian" was incorporated into the club's name. In 1887 the organization leased a club house in Manhattan. In 1891-1892, the club returned to Centre Island, where a new club house was opened, the club merged with the Oyster Bay Yacht Club. Recognizing its important history, the Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. William L. Swan Elias Cornelius Benedict Hugh Jones Willets Meyers Seawanhaka Corinthian Jr. Yacht club was honored with The Captain Joe Prosser Award at the 2017 US Sailing Awards ceremony.
In 1882, the club adopted a rating rule that would govern all its races: R a t i n g = L o a d W a t e r l i n e L e n g t h + S a i l A r e a 2 Simply known as the "Seawanhaka Rule", it served as a rating for all eastern seaboard races from 1887 onwards, including the America's Cup from 1893 to 1903. The Load Waterline Length was placed under a class limit, where any amount beyond the limit was counted double. In the 1893 America's Cup the limit was set at 85 ft, so the Load Waterline Length of an 86 ft yacht would have counted as 87 ft. Official website The History of the Schooner Seawanhaka 1890s Yacht Photography of J. S. Johnston
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n
Esporte Clube Corinthians
Esporte Clube Corinthians known as Corinthians de Presidente Prudente, was a Brazilian football club based in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo state. They competed in the Série C once; the club was founded on February 8, 1945, Corinthians won the Campeonato Paulista Série A2 in 1959. Named after Sport Club Corinthians Paulista, they competed in the Série C in 1996, when they were eliminated in the Second Stage by Rio Branco-PR. The club folded. Campeonato Paulista Série A2: Winners: 1959 Esporte Clube Corinthians played their home games at Estádio Eduardo José Farah, nicknamed Farahzão; the stadium has a maximum capacity of 44,414 people