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Corium (nuclear reactor)

Corium called fuel-containing material or lava-like fuel-containing material, is a lava-like material created in the core of a nuclear reactor during a meltdown accident. It consists of a mixture of nuclear fuel, fission products, control rods, structural materials from the affected parts of the reactor, products of their chemical reaction with air and steam, and, in the event that the reactor vessel is breached, molten concrete from the floor of the reactor room; the heat causing the melting of a reactor may originate from the nuclear chain reaction, but more decay heat of the fission products contained in the fuel rods is the primary heat source. The heat production from radioactive decay drops as the short half-life isotopes provide most of the heat and radioactive decay, with the curve of decay heat being a sum of the decay curves of numerous isotopes of elements decaying at different exponential half-life rates. A significant additional heat source can be the chemical reaction of hot metals with oxygen or steam.

Hypothetically, the temperature of corium depends on its internal heat generation dynamics: the quantities and types of isotopes producing decay heat, dilution by other molten materials, heat losses modified by the corium physical configuration, heat losses to the environment. An accumulated mass of corium will lose less heat than a thinly spread layer. Corium of sufficient temperature can melt concrete. A solidified mass of corium can remelt if its heat losses drop, by being covered with heat insulating debris, or if water, cooling the corium evaporates. Crust can form on the corium mass, hindering thermal losses. Heat distribution throughout the corium mass is influenced by different thermal conductivity between the molten oxides and metals. Convection in the liquid phase increases heat transfer; the molten reactor core releases volatile compounds. These may be gas phase, such as molecular iodine or noble gases, or condensed aerosol particles after leaving the high temperature region. A high proportion of aerosol particles originates from the reactor control rod materials.

The gaseous compounds may be adsorbed on the surface of the aerosol particles. The composition of corium depends on the design type of the reactor, on the materials used in the control rods and reactor vessel structural materials. There are differences between pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor coriums. In contact with water, hot boron carbide from BWR reactor control rods forms first boron oxide and methane boric acid. Boron may continue to contribute to reactions by the boric acid in an emergency coolant. Zirconium from zircaloy, together with other metals, reacts with water and produces zirconium dioxide and hydrogen; the production of hydrogen is a major danger in reactor accidents. The balance between oxidizing and reducing chemical environments and the proportion of water and hydrogen influences the formation of chemical compounds. Variations in the volatility of core materials influence the ratio of released elements to unreleased elements. For instance, in an inert atmosphere, the silver-indium-cadmium alloy of control rods releases only cadmium.

In the presence of water, the indium forms volatile indium oxide and indium hydroxide, which can evaporate and form an aerosol of indium oxide. The indium oxidation is inhibited by a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Caesium and iodine from the fission products can react to produce volatile caesium iodide, which condenses as an aerosol. During a meltdown, the temperature of the fuel rods increases and they can deform, in the case of zircaloy cladding, above 700–900 °C. If the reactor pressure is low, the pressure inside the fuel rods ruptures the control rod cladding. High-pressure conditions push the cladding onto the fuel pellets, promoting formation of uranium dioxide–zirconium eutectic with a melting point of 1,200–1,400 °C. An exothermic reaction occurs between steam and zirconium, which may produce enough heat to be self-sustaining without the contribution of decay heat from radioactivity. Hydrogen is released in an amount of about 0.5 m3 of hydrogen per kilogram of zircaloy oxidized. Hydrogen embrittlement may occur in the reactor materials and volatile fission products can be released from damaged fuel rods.

Between 1,300 and 1,500 °C, the silver-indium-cadmium alloy of control rods melts, together with the evaporation of control rod cladding. At 1,800 °C, the cladding oxides begin to flow. At 2,700–2,800 °C the uranium oxide fuel rods melt and the reactor core structure and geometry collapses; this can occur at lower temperatures. At that point, the corium is free of volatile constituents that are not chemically bound, resulting in correspondingly lower heat production as the volatile isotopes relocate; the temperature of corium can be as high as 2,400 °C in the first hours after the meltdown reaching over 2,800 °C. A large amount of heat can be released by reaction of metals in corium with water. Flooding of the corium mass with water, or the drop of molten corium mass into a water pool, may result in a temperature spike and production of large amounts of hydrogen, which can result in a pressure spike in the containment vessel; the steam explosion resulting from such sudden corium-water contact can disperse the materials and form projectiles that may damage the containment vessel by impact.

Subsequent pressure spikes can be caused by combustio

Utamaro's pictures of abalone divers

The Japanese ukiyo-e artist Kitagawa Utamaro made a number of prints depicting ama divers—women whose work is to dive for shellfish or pearls—catching haliotis abalone sea snails. Amongst the prints are the first print in the erotic book Utamakura. 1788–90 and the other from c. 1797–98. 1804–06. Utamaro's heir Utamaro II published the triptych Enoshima Awabi-ryō no Zu in the early 19th century, signed Utamaro. Ukiyo-e art flourished in Japan during the Edo period from the 17th to 19th centuries, took as its primary subjects courtesans, kabuki actors, others associated with the "floating world" lifestyle of the pleasure districts. Alongside paintings, mass-produced woodblock prints were a major form of the genre. In the mid-18th century full-colour nishiki-e prints became common, printed using a large number of woodblocks, one for each colour. A prominent genre was bijin-ga, which depicted most courtesans and geisha at leisure, promoted the entertainments of the pleasure districts. Kitagawa Utamaro made his name in the 1790s with his bijin ōkubi-e portraits, focusing on the head and upper torso.

He experimented with line and printing techniques to bring out subtle differences in the features and backdrops of subjects from a wide variety of class and background. Utamaro's individuated beauties were in sharp contrast to the stereotyped, idealized images, the norm. Ama divers have for two thousand years practised their trade of diving for shellfish and pearls off the coasts of Japan. Traditionally they dive naked except for a cord with one end above the water, they carry a knife to pry open shells. Ama once numbered many thousands, but by the beginning of the 21st century only about a thousand remained. Though depicted in their youth in ukiyo-e pictures, the ama was a lifetime job that continued into the woman's fities. Ama were known for their coarse manners, their work coarsened their skin; this was in great contrast to the geishas and courtesans who were the subject of ukiyo-e art—their manners were refined, they dressed elegantly, they immersed themselves in high art and culture, they commanded high prices for their services.

The ama were perceived as less feminine and sexually free. Utamaro and others played with these contrasts, portraying ama in elegant, resting poses as they did with geisha, but nude and unkempt in their work environment. While Utamaro's supple and vigorously healthy ama come across in a way erotic, his depictions of them differ from his sexually explicit shunga, it has been speculated such prints of women who appeared nude in broad daylight may have arisen in reaction to government suppression of shunga. Utamakura is a book of 12 erotic prints attributed to Utamaro, published in 1788; the first print depicts a pair of kappa river creatures raping an ama diver underwater. Her hair flows with the running current, small curious fish swim near. Another ama watches seated on a rock with her right hand held to her mouth, her drenched, dishevelled hair sticks to her. She wears a red waistcloth. To the French art critic Edmond de Goncourt she "appear susceptible to temptation. Utamaro employs a varied contrast of tones in the area of the rocks, while fine lines of the running current obscure the underwater scene.

Careful attention goes to the individual strands of the women's hair. The amas in this picture demonstrate the manner. Three vertical ōban prints of about 39 by 26 centimetres each make up the first Awabi-tori triptych, they are signed Utamaro ga and were published c. 1788–90 by Tsuruya Kiemon's firm Senkakudō. The scene depicts a group of women on a rocky shore watching ama divers. In a boat to the left, two women undress while another in the central print helps a swimming colleague. Another swimming ama appears in the right print; the swimmers appear small and thin, their bodies enveloped in their wet hair. The French art critic Edmond de Goncourt compares these firgure to traditional Japanese representations of "dead souls coming to haunt the earth"; the rocks appear to be Manaita-iwa in Enoshima in. In that case, the women on the rocks are pilgrims on their way to Enoshima Shrine to worship the deity Benten; the shrine displayed its treasures every six years. The three prints make up a triptych.

The prints are nishiki-e "brocade prints"—multicolour woodblock prints made with pigments on hand-made washi paper. They are in each about 38 by 25 centimetres, they were published c. 1797–98. Each sheet is signed Utamaro hitsu; the publisher is unknown, there is no censor's seal, which has raised speculation as to how acceptable what the picture depicts was at the time. Utamaro depicts a group of nude ama divers finishing a day of diving for haliotis abalone sea snails, he draws them naturalistically, without elongation or other distortions that ukiyo-e artists employed to present ideal models of beauty. They are tall with white skin and long, stringy black hair, wet and dangles from them, they appear soft

2018 Northern Mariana Islands gubernatorial election

The 2018 Northern Mariana gubernatorial election took place on Tuesday, November 13, 2018, to elect the Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands and the Lieutenant Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands to a four-year term in office. The election, which corresponds to the larger Northern Mariana general election and the United States midterms, was scheduled to be held on Tuesday, November 6, 2018. However, Governor Ralph Torres postponed all elections in the territory until November 13 due to the impact of Typhoon Yutu, which struck the Northern Mariana Islands as a Category 5 storm in October 2018, shortly before the planned elections. Incumbent Republican Governor Ralph Torres, who became governor in December 2015 following the death in office of the late Governor Eloy Inos, sought election to a full term. Unlike past gubernatorial elections, there was no runoff election in 2018, since there are only two candidates contesting the gubernatorial contest, incumbent Ralph Torres and former Gov. Juan Babauta.

On November 13, 2018, Governor Ralph Torres won his first full term as Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands. In the 2014 gubernatorial race, Republican Governor Eloy Inos and his running mate, Ralph Torres, were elected to a full four-year term; the Inos-Torres ticket defeated independent candidate, Heinz Hofschneider, in the gubernatorial runoff on November 18, 2014. Governor Eloy Inos died in office at a hospital in Seattle, Washington, on Monday, December 28, 2015; because of the time difference between Seattle, it was Tuesday morning, December 29, in the Northern Mariana Islands at the time of Governor Inos' death. Lieutenant Governor Ralph Torres became the new Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands on Tuesday, December 29, to serve the remainder of Inos' unexpired term. Victor Hocog, the then-President of the Northern Mariana Islands Senate, was sworn in as the new Lieutenant Governor that day on December 29. On November 8, 2017, Lt. Governor Victor Hocog announced that he would not run for re-election as lieutenant governor in 2018.

Instead, Hocog would seek election for one of the two Senate seats representing the island of Rota in the 2018 general election. Governor Ralph Torres declared his candidacy for a full term in a press conference on November 19, 2017, at his home in As Teo. Torres chose Senate President Arnold Palacios as his new running mate for lieutenant governor in 2018 gubernatorial contest. Juan Babauta, the former Governor from 2002 to 2006, announced his candidacy on April 12, 2018, as an independent, he selected Dr. Rita Sablan, the former commissioner of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Public School System, as his running mate for lieutenant governor; the Northern Mariana Islands' general and gubernatorial elections were scheduled for Tuesday, November 6, 2018, to correspond with the nationwide 2018 United States midterm elections. However, Typhoon Yutu made landfall in the Northern Mariana Islands as a Category 5 super typhoon, devastating the main islands of Saipan and Tinian. In response, Governor Torres postponed all elections in the Northern Mariana Islands until Tuesday, November 13, 2018, including the gubernatorial race.

Early voting was held from Tuesday, November 6, 2018, until Monday, November 12, 2018. Ralph Torres – incumbent Governor since December 29, 2015Running mate: Arnold Palacios - President of the Northern Mariana Islands Senate in the 20th Legislature since January 9, 2017. Palacios was announced as Torres's running mate on November 19, 2017 Juan Babauta - former Governor and 2014 gubernatorial candidate. Announced gubernatorial candidacy on January 19, 2018. Withdrew from the race on February 7, 2018, citing a lack of unified support from his family; the gubernatorial contest was held on Tuesday, November 13, 2018, having been delayed one week due to recovery efforts from Typhoon Yutu. Early voting began on November 6. Incumbent Ralph Torres won re-election to his first full term

Dark Streets

Dark Streets is a 2008 film adaptation of the play by Glenn M. Stewart. Directed by Rachel Samuels from a screenplay by Wallace King; the film stars Gabriel Mann, Bijou Phillips, Izabella Miko, Elias Koteas Michael Fairman and Toledo Diamond. The film is produced by Claus Clausen, Corina Danckwerts and Glenn M. Stewart; the film's rich blues score is composed by George Acogny, featuring B. B. King. Set in a visually dazzling fantasy of 1930s New York, Dark Streets tells the story of Chaz Davenport, a dashing playboy who owns what promises to become the hottest new nightclub in town if only the lights would stay on. Surrounded by the sumptuous blues music he adores, with his pick of the gorgeous women who perform their sensual dance numbers on stage every night, Chaz is the envy of every man, but with the city thrown into darkness by frequent blackouts and a menacing loan shark closing in, Chaz is in danger of losing the club and far more. At the same time, he finds himself embroiled in a painful love triangle with the club's alluring star singer, a new arrival at the club, the mysterious and seductive chanteuse Madelaine.

When people close to Chaz begin turning up dead, he does not know whom to trust. And the harder he tries to uncover the truth, the further he is drawn into lies and betrayal. Dark Streets features 12 original songs written by James Compton, Tim Brown and Tony DeMeur, performed by stars Bijou Phillips and Izabella Miko as well as artists including Dr. John, Etta James, Natalie Cole, Aaron Neville, Solomon Burke, Chaka Khan and Richie Sambora; the film's stylish and seductive dance numbers are choreographed by Keith Young and performed by sensational underground performer Toledo Diamond and a stage full of L. A.'s most talented dancers. Dark Streets on IMDb Dark Streets at AllMovie Dark Streets at Rotten Tomatoes

Arthur Sellers

Arthur Sellers was an English amateur first-class cricketer, who played for Yorkshire County Cricket Club from 1890 to 1899, in other first-class matches for the North of England and Gentlemen of England. Born in Keighley, Sellers, in 53 first-class games, scored 1,852 runs at 19.91, hitting two centuries against Middlesex and Somerset. Sellers took 47 catches and two wickets, at 74.50. Both victims came in a spell of 2 for 28 against Kent. Sellers died in Keighley in September 1941, his son, Brian Sellers, was Yorkshire captain from 1933 to 1947, a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1940. Media related to Arthur Sellers at Wikimedia Commons Arthur Sellers at ESPNcricinfo

Subway Surfers

Subway Surfers is an endless runner mobile game co-developed by Kiloo and SYBO Games, private companies based in Denmark. It is available on Android, iOS, Windows Phone platforms and uses the Unity game engine. In the game, players take the role of young graffiti artists who, upon being caught in the act of applying graffiti to a metro railway site, run through the railroad tracks to escape from the inspector and his dog; as they run, they grab gold coins, power-ups and other items along the way while dodging collisions with trains and other objects, can jump on top of the trains and surf with hoverboards to evade the capture until the character crashes on an obstacle, getting caught by the inspector or getting hit by a train. Special events, such as the Weekly Hunt, can result in in-game characters. Subway Surfers was released on 24 May 2012 with updates based on seasonal holidays. Since January 2013, updates have been based on a "World Tour" theme, which updates the setting of the game every three weeks.

In 2017, Subway Surfers was the most downloaded game across the globe. In March 2018, Subway Surfers became the first game on the Google Play Store to cross the one billion downloads threshold. In May 2018, Subway Surfers crossed the two billion download mark. App Annie reported Subway Surfers as the #2 downloaded game of all time in iOS App Store. In addition to the mobile game, SYBO Games introduced the Subway Surfers animated series and SUBSURF lifestyle brand. Subway Surfers is the most downloaded mobile game from 2012 to 2019. Subway Surfers is an endless runner video game; the game starts by tapping the touchscreen, while Jake or any other character sprays graffiti on a train, gets caught in the act by the inspector and his dog, who starts chasing the character. While running, the player can swipe up, left, or right to avoid crashing into oncoming obstacles moving trains, tunnel walls and barriers. By swiping as speed increases, more points can be acquired. A crash results in a game over; the player can collect various items such as coins, score multipliers, super sneakers, magnets, mystery boxes and power jumpers.

A power jumper provides combustion by launching up the character, while a jetpack has an ability to fly, a coin magnet that attracts all coins on the track, super sneakers that gives the ability to jump higher and a score multiplier that multiplies the score. Items, such as a hoverboard, allows the character to avoid collisions lasting about 30 seconds. Daily Challenges and Weekly Hunts give rewards for unique movements throughout gameplay. Missions have various tasks measured by player accuracy. Up to 18 characters are unlocked using via coins, keys, in-game purchases, collecting specific items, or connecting to a Facebook account. Most characters have up to 2 different outfits. Meanwhile, up to 17 hoverboards can be unlocked with the same methods; when the game updates to a new location, a new character and hoverboard will be available temporarily until the next update. Subway Surfers received decent reviews. Critics praised the game's visual style and entertaining gameplay, but criticized it for its monotonous world and unresponsive controls.

Review aggregator website Metacritic gave the game 71 out of 100 based on 8 reviews. Dan Griliopoulos of Pocket Gamer gave the game a score of 5 out of 10, praising the game's fun gameplay and free access, but criticizing the game's controls and parsimonious game design. Gamezebo's Dant Rambo scored the game 3.5 out of 5, writing "It makes little attempt to stand out from other endless runners, but it's hard not to appreciate the polish of Subway Surfers. The controls are responsive, the gameplay is addictive, it doesn't try and force you into spending cash on in-game items."Other reviewers were not as critical. 148Apps and TouchArcade gave the game 4/5. The game was nominated for "Action Game" and "Kids Game" at the 2019 Webby Awards. On 1 June 2018, a series of animated shorts debuted on SYBO Games' YouTube channel; the 10 x 4 minute episodic series is scripted by Brent Friedman and Francesca Marie Smith and produced by Sander Schwartz. Chris Bartleman is supervising director and Michael Hegner is director.

Denmark's WilFilm provides post-production services. The series has 11 episodes