Cork is the second largest city in Ireland. Located in the south-west of Ireland, in the province of Munster, since an extension to the city's boundary in 2019, its population is c.210,000. The city centre is an island positioned between two channels of the River Lee which meet downstream at the eastern end of the city centre, where the quays and docks along the river lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, one of the largest natural harbours in the world. A monastic settlement, Cork was expanded by Viking invaders around 915, its charter was granted by Prince John in 1185. Cork city was once walled, the remnants of the old medieval town centre can be found around South and North Main streets; the third largest city by population on the island of Ireland, the city's cognomen of "the rebel city" originates in its support for the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Corkonians sometimes refer to the city as "the real capital", a reference to its opposition to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in the Irish Civil War.
Cork was a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century. Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman settlers founded a trading port, it has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network. The ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking longphort, with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship; the city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185. The city was once walled, some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city; the present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the Barony of Cork City.
Together, these baronies are located between the Barony of Barrymore to the east, Muskerry East to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south. The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt and wine; the medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people. It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England; the mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, the title was changed to lord mayor in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent mayor by Queen Victoria on her visit to the city.
Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood behind William O'Brien's dissident All-for-Ireland Party. O'Brien published the Cork Free Press. In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British Black and Tans, in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea; the climate of Cork, like the vast majority of Ireland, is mild oceanic and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in plant Hardiness zone 9b. Met Éireann maintains a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city centre; the airport is at an altitude of 151 metres and temperatures can differ by a few degrees between the airport and the rest of the city.
There are smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill. Due to its position on the coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Temperatures below 0 °C or above 25 °C are rare. Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimetres of precipitation annually, most of, rain. The airport records sleet a year; the low altitude of the city, moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow rarely occurs in the city itself. There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year, of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain". Cork is a foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Despite this, Cork is one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine" during and around winter. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork.
Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theat
Bachir Gemayel Bashir Gemayel, was a member of the right-wing Christian Kataeb Party known as the Phalange Party, the son of its founder Pierre Gemayel. He became the supreme commander of the Lebanese Forces, uniting major Christian militias by force during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War under the campaign of "Uniting the Christian Rifle" and founded the Lebanese Forces military organization. Gemayel's Forces became the most powerful militia in Lebanon and is remembered for its resistance and battles against the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Syrian Army, most notably the Hundred Days' War and the Battle of Zahleh, he was democratically elected president on 23 August 1982 by the majority of Christian and Muslim MPs while the country was torn by civil war and occupied by Israel and Palestinian factions. Gemayel started enacting policies to disarm Christian militias, ordered the Lebanese Army to enter West Beirut for the first time since the start of the war and forced Yasser Arafat and the PLO to leave Lebanon.
On 14 September, before he could take office, he was assassinated, along with 26 others, when a bomb exploded in Beirut Phalange headquarters. While some have blamed Habib Tanious Shartouni, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation blamed the Syrian Social Nationalist Party. Gemayel remains the youngest elected president and one of the most charismatic and controversial figures in Lebanese history. Bachir Gemayel was born in the Achrafieh neighborhood of Beirut on 10 November 1947, the youngest of six children; the Gemayel family originated from Bikfaya village in the Matn District of Lebanon and is one of the most influential Christian families in the country. His father was Pierre Gemayel, he attended the Institution Moderne du Liban - Fanar. He completed his university education at St. Joseph University in Beirut. After teaching for three years at the Lebanese Modern Institute, he graduated in 1971 with a bachelor's degree in law and another in political sciences in 1973. In 1971, Gemayel studied at The Center for American and International Law near Dallas, Texas in the United States.
Qualifying in 1972, he opened an office in Hamra Street, West Beirut. Gemayel's father Pierre Gemayel studied pharmacology in Europe and founded the Phalange Party in 1936 upon his return to Lebanon, modelling the party after the Spanish and Italian Fascist parties he had observed there, it swelled to 40,000 members. Although he became a Lebanese minister, was targeted in at least two assassination attempts, Pierre Gemayel never rose to the prominence of his sons, yet remained a powerful figure until his death in 1984. A month after Gemayel's death, his brother Amine Gemayel was elected president in 1982, remaining in office until the end of his constitutional second term in 1988. Many of Gemayel's other family members would go on to be elected into the Lebanese parliament: His widow Solange Gemayel, his son Nadim Gemayel, his nephews Sami Gemayel and Pierre Amine Gemayel who served as the Minister of Industry from 2005 until his assassination on 21 November 2006. Gemayel became a member of the Kataeb Party's youth section.
He realized the dangers that surrounded Lebanon in 1958, spent a lot of time with the organized political wing of the Kataeb Party. He attended the meetings organized by the Kataeb Student Section, was the president of the Kataeb Circle in St. Joseph University between 1965 and 1971. In the late 1960s, he underwent paramilitary training in Bikfaya, he was appointed squad leader of a militia unit of the Kataeb Regulatory Forces, the party's military wing formed in 1961. In the early 1970s, he formed the "Bikfaya Squad" within the RKF, where he became acquainted with the basics of military combat. In 1968, he participated in a student colloquium organized by the newspaper Orient, following events which occurred across Lebanese universities between the Muslim and leftist Pan-Arabist students supporting the Palestinians in Lebanon on one side, Lebanese Christian nationalist students on the other. After the 1968-69 clashes between the Lebanese Army and the PLO, Gemayel gathered a group of Christian students, started training them in the Kataeb-run Tabrieh training camp, located near Bsharri in the Keserwan District mountains.
This was the start of what would become the Lebanese Forces. At this stage, he was a junior militia commander under the orders of William Hawi, the founder and head of the KRF. In 1970, Gemayel was kidnapped by Palestinian militants in Lebanon and taken to the Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp, he was released eight hours later. Gemayel became a member of the "BG Squad" formed by William Hawi, he was a revolutionary in the party. He became close with Jean Nader, the leader of Achrafieh at that time, became the vice president of that Lebanese Capital district, a position that he held from 1971 until 1975. Gemayel became the head of the "BG Squad" after its members found him as a leader more close to their views; this group was formed of 12 specially trained members such as Fouad Abou Nader, Fadi Frem, Elie Hobeika and others. They were fierce fighters, they were known for their violent performance in the field; this group was out of the direct control of the party. He had his own views and principles, he wanted to run for the Vice
Wilse B. Webb, familiarly known as Bernie Webb, was an American psychologist and sleep researcher, long associated with the University of Florida. Wilse B. Webb was born in 1920 in Yazoo City, Mississippi, he graduated from Louisiana State University. When WWII broke out, he was in graduate school at the University of Iowa, where he studied under Kurt Lewin and Carl Seashore. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, he left school to become a psychologist in the Army Air Force. While studying combat pilot efficiency, he flew in strike missions against China, he returned to Iowa after the war, where he became "a believer in Clark Hull and a disciple of Kenneth Spence". He completed his PhD in 1947. Early in his career, Webb held teaching positions at the University of Tennessee and Washington University, was head of the U. S. Navy's Aviation Psychology Laboratory in Florida. In 1959, he moved to the University of Florida as chairman of the psychology department, he remained there for the rest of his career, serving into his 90s as a Graduate Research Professor of psychology.
His doctoral students at Florida included Thomas Kilduff, among many others. Wilse B. Webb was an Honorary Life Member of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology, was its president in 1960, he held many responsible positions in the American Psychological Association. Webb died on January 15, 2018, aged 97. Wilse B. Webb wrote or edited seven books and about 250 papers on the subject of sleep, his last known publication, at age 91, was a comment on the article Harnessing the Power of Wikipedia for Scientific Psychology. He said "I view this project as one of the most important in advancing the public knowledge of psychology that I have seen." Sleep: The Gentle Tyrant. Anker Publishing Co. 1992 Biological Rhythms and Performance. John Wiley & Sons, 1982 Sleep: An Experimental Approach. Prentice Hall, 1976 Sleep: An Active Process: Research and Commentary. Pearson Scott Foresman, 1973 Sleep Therapy: A Bibliography and Commentary. Charles C. Thomas, Ltd. 1966 This is a list of Wilse Webb's 20 most recent articles.
More can be found on his page at ResearchGate. "Opinion Polls and Science". In Sleep 33:865-6 · July 2010 "The first night effect: An EEG study". In Psychophysiology 2:263 - 266 · January 2007 "The different prevention science". In American Psychologist 52:1141 · October 1997 "Sleep as a biological rhythm: A historical view". In Sleep · March 1994 "Human Subjects Review Boards: A Modest Proposal". In American Psychologist 42:516-517 · May 1987 "Enhanced slow sleep in extended sleep". In Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 64:27-30 · August 1986 "A Further Analysis of Age and Sleep Deprivation Effects". In Psychophysiology 22:156 - 161 · March 1985 "Experiments on extended performance: Repetition and limited sleep periods". In Behavior Research Methods 17:27-36 · January 1985 "Age, Sleep Deprivation, Performance". In Psychophysiology 19:272 - 276 · May 1982 "A historical footnote on sex differences research". In American Psychologist 37:338-338 · March 1982 "My Problems with Human Subjects".
In Teaching of Psychology 8:113-114 · April 1981 "An Essay on Consciousness". In Teaching of Psychology 8:15-19 · February 1981 "Sleep and Sleeplessness in Advanced Age, Vol. 5". Advances in Sleep Research. In PsycCRITIQUES 26 · January 1981 "In pursuit of the shiftworker: A discussion of methodologies". In Behavior Research Methods 11:24-25 · January 1979 "The Reliability of Arousal Threshold During Sleep". In Psychophysiology 15:412 - 416 · September 1978 "The research-academic psychologist". In American Psychologist 32:894-895 · October 1977 "Temporal Distribution and Ontogenetic Development of EEG Activity During Sleep". In Psychophysiology 14:315 - 321 · May 1977 "Progress in psychology: 1903-1907". In American Psychologist 29:897-902 · December 1974 "The displacement of stages 4 and REM sleep with a full night of sleep". In Psychophysiology 5:142-148 · September 1968 "Sleep cycle reversal". In Psychophysiology 5:216 · January 1968