The term skald, or skáld, is used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages. Skaldic poetry forms one of two main groupings of Old Norse poetry, the other being the anonymous Eddic poetry; the most prevalent metre of skaldic poetry is dróttkvætt. The subject is historical and encomiastic, detailing the deeds of the skald's patron. There is no evidence that the skalds employed musical instruments, but some speculate that they may have accompanied their verses with the harp or lyre; the technical demands of the skaldic form were equal to the complicated verse forms mastered by the Welsh bards and Gaelic ollams. Like those poets, much skaldic verse consisted of panegyrics to kings and aristocrats or memorials and testimonials to their battles; the word skald is ultimately related to Proto-Germanic *skalliz "sound, shout". Old High German has skalsang "song of praise, psalm", skellan means "ring, resound"; the Old High German variant stem skeltan etymologically identical to the skald- stem means "to scold, accuse, insult".
The person doing the insulting is skeltāri. This bears striking similarities to the Dutch verb schelden and the southern German schelten, which mean "shouting abuse" or "calling names"; the West Germanic counterpart of the skald is the scop. Like the scop, related to Modern English scoff, the name skald is continued in English scold, reflecting the central position of mocking taunts in Germanic poetry. Skaldic poetry can be traced to the earlier-9th century with Bragi Boddason and his Ragnarsdrápa, considered the oldest surviving Norse poem. Bragi is considered original skald. However, many skalds came after him, like Egill Skallagrímsson and Þorbjörn Hornklofi, who gained much fame in the 10th century for the poems composed for the kings they served of their own exploits. At the time, the Icelanders and Nordic people were still pagan, their work reflected that by many references to gods like Thor and Odin and to seers and runes; the poetry from also can be noted for its portrayal of a "heroic age" for the Vikings and "praise poetry, designed to commemorate kings and other prominent people in the form of quite long poems."As time went on, skalds became the main source of Icelandic and Norse history and culture, as it was the skalds who learned and shared the oral history.
That led to a shift in the role of the skald. Every king and chieftain needed a skald to record their feats and ensure their legacy lived on, as well as becoming the main historians of their society; the written artefacts of that time come from skalds, as they were the first from the time and place to record on paper. Some skalds became clerical workers, recording laws and happenings of the government, some being elected to the Thing and Althing, while others worked with churches to record the lives and miracles of Saints, along with passing on the ideals of Christianity; the last point is important, as skalds were the main agents of culture when they began glorifying and passing on Christianity over the old pagan beliefs, the Viking culture shifted towards Christianity, as well. As the years passed, the skald profession was threatened with extinction until Snorri Sturluson compiled the Prose Edda, as a manual to preserve an appreciative understanding of their art. Snorri, born in Iceland during the 12th century, played a important part in the history of Skaldic poetry.
In addition to being a great poet, he was leader of the Althing for part of his life, leading the government of Iceland. His Prose Edda preserved and passed on the traditions and methods of the Skalds, adding a much needed stimulus to the profession, providing much of the information now known about skalds and how they worked. For example, the Prose Edda broke down and explained kennings used in skaldic poetry, allowing many of them to be understood today. Beyond writing the Prose Edda, Snorri wrote other important works, from retelling old Norse legends to tales of the exploits of kings, which gave him much fame and made his reputation live on beyond his death. Most Nordic verse of the Viking Age came in one of two forms: skaldic. Eddic verse was simple, in terms of content and metre, dealing with mythological or heroic content. Skaldic verse, was complex, composed as a tribute or homage to a particular jarl or king. There is debate over the performance of skaldic poetry, but there is a general scholarly consensus that it was spoken rather than sung.
Unlike many other literary forms of the time, much skaldic poetry is attributable to an author, those attributions may be relied on with a reasonable degree of confidence. Many skalds so were biographically noted; the metre is ornate dróttkvætt or a variation thereof. The syntax is complex, with sentences interwoven, with kennings and heiti being used and gratuitously. Skaldic poetry was written in dialects of Old Norse. Technically, the verse was a form of alliterative verse and always used the dróttkvætt stanza. Dróttkvætt is an eight-line form, each pair of lines is an original single long line, conventionally written as two lines; these are forms of skaldic poetry: a long series of stanzas, with a refrain at intervals. Flokkr, vísur or dræplingr, a shorter series of such stanzas without refrain. Lausavísa, a single sta
The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not survive the conversion to Christianity. However, much of it was preserved in medieval Irish literature, though it was shorn of its religious meanings; this literature represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. Although many of the manuscripts have not survived and much more material was never committed to writing, there is enough remaining to enable the identification of distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Historical Cycle. There are a number of extant mythological texts that do not fit into any of the cycles. Additionally, there are a large number of recorded folk tales that, while not mythological, feature personages from one or more of these four cycles. Today some of the best known tales are of Tír na nÓg, Fionn MacCumhaill, Na Fianna, The Aos Sí / Aes Sídhe, Sétanta, The Tuatha Dé Danann, the Children of Lir, Táin Bó Cúailnge & the Salmon of Knowledge.
Depending on the sources, the importance of gods and goddesses in Irish mythology varies. The geographical tales, emphasize the importance of female divinities while the historical tradition focuses on the colonizers, inventors, or male warriors with the female characters only intervening in episodes. Goddesses are linked to a place and they seem to draw their power from that place, they are maternal deities caring for the earth itself as well as children. They are connected to poetry, smith craft, healing. Many appear to be prophetic when foretelling death as well as transformational. Zoomorphism is an important feature for many Irish deities. Badb Catha, the Raven of Battle, introduces zoomorphism to celtic deities of both sexes. Male deities are less zoomorphic than the female deities in the Irish tradition, but there are still some instances of shapeshifting among gods. There is a presence in Irish Mythology of the Triad referred to as the "power of three," which expresses the extreme potency of a deity rather than dividing the power.
It is an attribute more pronounced among female deities. Dagda is called by two other names, Lug has two brothers, there is the Three Gods of Skill There is a lack of a goddess of love equivalent to Aphrodite or Venus due to the predominance of the maternal element in the culture of the Celts. There are multiple categories of goddesses in Irish Mythology: the Mother Goddess, Seasonal Goddess, Warrior Goddess are a few; some of these goddesses are considered to be all one goddess while other stories treat them as separate. Among the mother goddesses is Anu the goddess of Danu. Additionally, Brigit is a mother goddess, sometimes considered one goddess and sometimes considered the three sisters Brigit, she is the mother goddess that watches over childbirth. She brings abundance. Brigit can be categorized as a seasonal goddess and one can win her favor by burying a fowl alive at the meeting of three waters as a form of sacrifice, she survives as Saint Brigit in the Christian faith and some modern folklore makes her midwife to the Blessed Virgin.
The function of these goddesses involves the entire cycle of life from birth through adolescence and the fertility. They are protecting forces that provide the necessities of life within the home and are envisioned as being the earth itself, their importance have led some scholars to propose a matrilineal social organization and others highlight this argument as being feminist propaganda and deny all indications of importance. These goddesses are the patronesses of feasts, they appear during great feasts of Ireland and they bring abundance. The main goddesses are the Machas: Carman, Tea, but there are other seasonal goddesses. Warrior Goddesses are linked with warrior women because there is historical evidence of women leading their tribes into battle. Oftentimes, warrior goddesses are depicted in a trio; this trio can change to include different goddesses. They reign over the battlefield without having to physically be involved, they do not need to strike a blow because they control the events while the male deities are depicted as being in the battles.
This aspect leads to the discussion of women as the gods of slaughter. Scholars note that the female deities govern the natural event while the male deities govern the social event; the main goddesses of war are Morrigan and Bodb. The Irish Gods are divided into four main groups. Group one encompasses the older gods of Britain; the second group is the main focus of much of the mythology and surrounds the native Irish gods with their homes in burial mounds. The third group are the gods that dwell in the sea and the fourth group includes stories of the Otherworld; the gods that appear most are Dagda and Lug. Some scholars have argued that the stories of these gods align with the Greek gods. Druids were held in high esteem by the community as religious leaders, their functions and origins are debated which some attribute to the fact that there was no written tradition. This lack of documentary evidence is said to be because the practices become common property and this makes the student relax their diligence.
They are figures in Irish Mythology and study astronomy. Heroes in Irish mythology can be found in two distinct groups. There is the hero outside of the tribe; the first group encompasses all, subject to man and his works must belong to the tribe and live under its laws. Within the tribe, heroes are of the race of humans and gods
Cashel, County Tipperary
Cashel is a town in County Tipperary in Ireland. Its population was 4,422 in the 2016 census; the town gives its name to the ecclesiastical province of Cashel. Additionally, the cathedra of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly was in the town prior to the English Reformation, it is part of the parish of Rosegreen in the same archdiocese. One of the six cathedrals of the Anglican Bishop of Cashel and Ossory, who resides in Kilkenny, is located in the town, it is in the civil parish of St. Patricksrock, in the historical barony of Middle Third; the town is situated in an area of rolling pastureland in the province of Munster. It is located off the M8 Dublin to Cork motorway. Prior to the construction of the motorway by-pass, the town was noted as a bottleneck on the N8 Dublin to Cork route. Bus Éireann operates an expressway service between Cork which calls at Cashel. Bus Éireann route 128X provides a link to Portlaoise via Urlingford; the Shamrock Bus Company operates a Thurles to Clonmel route via Cashel.
Cashel used to be served by a railway, the Cashel spur line, now closed. The nearest railway station is Cahir, 17 kilometers away; this station is on an infrequently serviced line, but is useful if travelling east to/from Waterford. The most convenient and serviced rail station for Cashel is Thurles as this is on the Dublin-Cork InterCity rail line; the nearest airports are Cork Shannon Airport, both of which are around 80 km away. Dublin Airport is located 150 km away, is the most accessible and convenient; the Rock of Cashel, to which the town below owes its origin, is an isolated elevation of stratified limestone, rising abruptly from a broad and fertile plain called the Golden Vale. The top of this eminence is crowned by a group of remarkable ruins. Known as Fairy Hill, or Sid-Druim, the Rock was, in pagan times, the dun, or castle, of the ancient Eoghnacht Chiefs of Munster. In Gaelic, Caiseal is the name of several places in Ireland; the "Book of Rights" suggests the name is derived from Cais-il, i.e. "tribute stone", because the Munster tribes paid tribute on the Rock.
Here Corc, grandfather of Aengus Mac Natfraich, erected a fort. Cashel subsequently became the capital of Munster and, like Tara and Armagh, it was a celebrated court. At the time of St. Patrick, when Aengus ruled as king, Cashel claimed supremacy over all the royal duns of the province. In the 5th century, the Eóganachta dynasty founded their capital around the rock. Many kings of Munster have reigned here since. Saint Patrick is believed to have baptised Aengus. In 977 the Dál gCais usurper, Brian Boru, was crowned here as the first non-Eóghanacht king of Cashel and Munster in over five hundred years. In 1101 his great-grandson, King Muirchertach Ua Briain, gave the place to the bishop of Limerick, thus denying it forever to the MacCarthys, the senior branch of the Eóganachta; the bishops had a famous school in Cashel and sent priests all over the continent to Regensburg in Germany, where they maintained their own monastery, called Scots Monastery. The Synod of Cashel of 1172 was organised by Henry II of England.
The Synod sought to regulate some affairs of the Church in Ireland and to condemn some abuses, bringing the Church more into alignment with the Roman Rite. It has been suggested that the seventh act of the Synod called upon the clergy and people of Ireland to acknowledge Henry II of England as their king. However, a careful reading of the seventh act would not support this interpretation. There is little doubt that the King's purpose in requiring the convocation was to overawe the Irish clergy with a display of his power. In this scenario, the convocation would be viewed as a pretext for the show of strength. St. Dominic's Abbey, a Dominican monastery, was established in 1243. On 30 December 1640, Cashel was captured by an Irish force under Pilib Ó Dubhuir of Dundrum and his brother Donnchadh Ó Dubhuir, they inhabitants. The following day, 15 prisoners were killed as revenge for earlier atrocities against the Irish. In 1647, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the town was stormed and sacked by English Parliamentarian troops under the 6th Baron Inchiquin.
Over 1,000 Irish Catholic soldiers and civilians, including several prominent clerics, were killed in the attack and ensuing massacre. About 450, Saint Patrick preached at converted king Aengus; the Tripartite Life of the saint relates that while "he was baptising Aengus the spike of the crozier went through the foot of the King" who bore with the painful wound in the belief "that it was a rite of the Faith". According to the same authority, twenty-seven kings of the race of Aengus and his brother Aillil ruled in Cashel until 897, when Cerm-gecan was slain in battle. There is no evidence that St Patrick appointed a Bishop of Cashel. St Ailbe, it is supposed, had fixed his see at Emly, not far off, within the king's dominions. Cashel continued to be the chief residence of the Kings of Munster until 1100, hence its title, "City of the Kings". Before that date, there was Archbishop of Cashel. Cormac MacCullinan is referred to, but not as Archbishop of Cashel, by writers, he was a bishop, but not of Cashel.
The most famous man in Ireland of his time, but more of a scholar and warrior than an ecclesiastic, Cormac has left us
Cormac mac Cuilennáin
Cormac mac Cuilennáin was an Irish bishop and was king of Munster from 902 until his death at the Battle of Bellaghmoon. He was killed fighting in Leinster attempting to restore the fortunes of the kings of Munster by reimposing authority over that province. Cormac was regarded as a saintly figure after his death, his shrine at Castledermot, County Kildare, was said to be the site of miracles, he was reputed to be a great scholar, being credited with the authorship of the Sanas Cormaic, the now-lost Psalter of Cashel, among other works. The reliability of some of the traditions concerning Cormac is doubtful, his feastday is September 14. The Ireland of Cormac's time was divided into a small kingdoms, or túatha 150 in all, on average around 500 square kilometres in area with a population of some 3000. In theory, but not in practice, each tuath had its own king and court. Variations in size and power were considerable. Groups of tuatha were dominated by one of their number. Above these stood the five great provincial kingships whose names survive in the provinces of Ireland of today: Connacht, Ulster and Cormac's Munster.
To these can be added the kings of the northern and southern Uí Néill. These last provided were the High Kings of Ireland, kings whose authority was an obvious political fact in Ireland of the 8th and 9th centuries. In Cormac's time the High Kingship was held by Flann Sinna of the Clann Cholmáin branch of the southern Uí Néill. In addition to these native Irish kings, during the Viking Age, had seen Scandinavian and Norse-Gael kings establish themselves along the coasts; the destruction of Viking settlements on the northern coasts by Flann's predecessor Áed Findliath, followed by much internal dissension, had weakened the Vikings, who were expelled from Dublin by Flann's allies in the year that Cormac became king in Munster. Cormac belonged to a minor branch of the Eóganachta kindred which dominated Munster in the 8th and 9th centuries. According to genealogies, he was a member of the Eóganacht Chaisil, the Cashel branch of the kindred; this kin group was important, but Cormac came from a minor branch.
He was reckoned an 11th generation descendant of Óengus mac Nad Froích and none of his ancestors since Óengus were counted as kings of Cashel. For this reason, it is most thought that Cormac, as well as other 9th century kings of Munster who were bishops and abbots, was a compromise candidate; the Annals of the Four Masters, a 17th-century compilation of annals based on earlier works, but including much of uncertain reliability, say that Cormac was tutored by Snerdgus of Dísert Díarmata. Some accounts claim that Cormac had been married or betrothed to Gormlaith, daughter of Flann Sinna, the High King of Ireland, but instead took vows of celibacy. Russell suggests these are fictions and Byrne sees in them an echo of earlier tales of the sovereignty goddess. Although there is no doubt that Cormac was a bishop before and while he was king of Munster, it is not clear which see Cormac held; some writers have suggested. Cormac was chosen as king of Munster following the death of Finguine Cenn nGécan, said by the Annals of Ulster to have been "deceitfully killed by his associates" and by the Annals of Innisfallen to have been killed by the Cenél Conaill Chaisil, a branch of the Cashel Eóganachta.
The Annals of Innisfallen note the beginning of Cormac's reign, calling him a "noble bishop and celibate". Cormac may have attempted to restore the authority of the kings of Munster over neighbouring Leinster and aspired to be chief king in Ireland; the surviving record, written from a northern and pro-Uí Néill perspective, presents a misleading picture understating the power and pretensions of the Eóganachta. So it is that in 907 only the southern Annals of Innisfallen report campaigns by Cormac in Connacht and Mide, where Flann Sinna was defeated, record a fleet operating on the River Shannon on his orders which captured Clonmacnoise. In 908, Cormac and Flaithbertach mac Inmainén, Cormac's chief councillor and abbot of Scattery Island, collected an army to campaign against their eastern neighbours, whose king Cerball mac Muirecáin was Flann Sinna's son-in-law and staunch ally; the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, a source compiled in the 11th century for Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige, king of Leinster, contain a long account of these events written within living memory.
After the army of Munster had gathered, while riding through the camp, Flaithbertach mac Inmainén's horse stumbled and threw him to the ground. This was taken to be a bad omen. Many of the Munstermen were unwilling to fight, news of this came to Cerball mac Muirecáin, who proposed a negotiated settlement; the Leinstermen would pay tribute, give hostages, but the hostages would be given to Móenachem abbot of Dísert Díarmata, rather than to the Munstermen. Cormac was willing to accept this settlement, but Flaithbertach—Byrne notes that traditions make Flaithbertach Cormac's evil genius— was not and persuaded Cormac to fight, in spite of the king's conviction that he would be killed. This, the news than Flann and the Uí Néill had come to Cerball's aid, led to desertions from Cormac's army, but he marched on Leinster all the same, meeting Cerball and Flann at Bellach Mugna; the Fragmentary Annals say that "the men of Munster came to the battle weak and in disorder" and they broke and fled the field.
Many were killed. Cormac was among them. Flaithbertach was captured
Armagh is the county town of County Armagh and a city in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish. It is the ecclesiastical capital of Ireland – the seat of the Archbishops of Armagh, the Primates of All Ireland for both the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of Ireland. In ancient times, nearby Navan Fort was a pagan ceremonial site and one of the great royal capitals of Gaelic Ireland. Today, Armagh is home to two cathedrals and the Armagh Observatory, is known for its Georgian architecture. Although classed as a medium-sized town, Armagh was given city status in 1994 and Lord Mayoralty status in 2012, both by Queen Elizabeth II, it had a population of 14,749 people in the 2011 Census, making it the least-populated city in Ireland and the fifth smallest in the United Kingdom. Eamhain Mhacha, at the western edge of Armagh, is believed to have been an ancient pagan ritual or ceremonial site. According to Irish mythology it was one of the great royal sites of Gaelic Ireland and the capital of Ulster.
It appears to have been abandoned after the 1st century. In the 3rd century, a ditch and bank was dug around the top of Cathedral Hill, the heart of what is now Armagh, its circular shape matches the modern street layout. Evidence suggests that it was the successor to Navan. Like Navan, it too was named after the goddess Macha – Ard Mhacha means "Macha's height"; this name was anglicised as Ardmagh, which became Armagh. After Christianity spread to Ireland, the pagan sanctuary was converted into a Christian one, Armagh became the site of an important church and monastery. According to tradition, Saint Patrick founded his main church there in the year 457, it became the "ecclesiastical capital" of Ireland. Saint Patrick was said to have decreed. According to the Annals of the Four Masters: Ard Mhacha was founded by Saint Patrick, it having been granted to him by Daire, son of Finnchadh, son of Eoghan, son of Niallan. Twelve men were appointed by him for building the town, he ordered them, in the first place, to erect an archbishop's city there, a church for monks, for nuns, for the other orders in general, for he perceived that it would be the head and chief of the churches of Ireland in general.
In 839 and 869, the monastery in Armagh was raided by Vikings. As with similar raids, their goal was to acquire valuables such as silver, which could be found in churches and monasteries; the Book of Armagh came from the monastery. It is a 9th-century Irish manuscript now held by Trinity College Library in Dublin, it contains some of the oldest surviving specimens of Old Irish. Brian Boru is believed to be buried in the graveyard of the St. Patrick's Church of Ireland cathedral. After having conquered the island during the 990s, he became High King of Ireland in 1002, until his death in 1014. In 1189, John de Courcy, a Norman knight who had invaded Ulster in 1177, plundered Armagh. Armagh has been an educational centre since the time of Saint Patrick, thus it has been referred to as "the city of saints and scholars"; the educational tradition continued with the foundation of the Royal School in 1608, St Patrick's College in 1834 and the Armagh Observatory in 1790. The Observatory was part of Archbishop Lord Rokeby's plan to have a university in the city.
This ambition was fulfilled, albeit in the 1990s when Queen's University of Belfast opened an outreach centre in the former hospital building. Three brothers from Armagh died at the Battle of the Somme during World War I. None of the three has a known grave and all are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. A fourth brother was wounded in the same attack. On 14 January 1921, during the Irish War of Independence, a Royal Irish Constabulary sergeant was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army in Armagh, he was attacked with a grenade as he walked along Market Street and died of his wounds. On 4 September 1921, republican leaders Michael Collins and Eoin O'Duffy addressed a large meeting in Armagh, attended by up to 10,000 people. During the Troubles in Armagh, the violence was substantial enough for the city to be referred to by some as "Murder Mile". Over the span of 20 years, 24 individuals were killed in 13 different incidents. Armagh City and District Council was a single district council until 2015 when it merged with Banbridge District Council and Craigavon Borough Council under local government reorganisation in Northern Ireland to become Armagh and Craigavon District Council known as the ABC council.
In the Armagh and Craigavon District Council election, 2014, a total of two Sinn Fein, two SDLP, one DUP and one UUP councillors were elected from Armagh electoral area. In 2018 the Lord Mayor of the ABC council was Julie Flaherty and the Deputy Lord Mayor was Paul Duffy. Armagh is part of the Armagh. In the 2017 elections, the following were elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly: Megan Fearon, Cathal Boylan, Conor Murphy, Justin McNulty of the SDLP and William Irwin of the DUP. Together with part of the district of Newry and Mourne, it forms the Newry & Armagh constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly; the Member of Parliament is Mickey Brady of Sinn Féin. He won the seat in the United Kingdom general election, 2015; as the seat of the Primate of All Ireland, Armagh was regarded as a city, recognisably had the status by 1226. It claimed the title by prescription.
Archbishop of Westminster
The Archbishop of Westminster heads the Roman Catholic Diocese of Westminster, in England. The incumbent is the Metropolitan of the Province of Westminster, Chief Metropolitan of England and Wales and, as a matter of custom, is elected President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, therefore de facto spokesman of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. All previous Archbishops of Westminster have become Cardinals. Although all the bishops of the restored diocesan episcopacy took new titles, like that of Westminster, they saw themselves in continuity with the pre-Reformation Church and post-Reformation Vicars Apostolic and Titular Bishops. Westminster, in particular, saw itself as the continuity of Canterbury, hence the similarity of the coat of arms of the two Sees, with Westminster believing it has more right to it since it features the pallium, a distinctly Catholic symbol of communion with the Holy See. With the gradual abolition of the legal restrictions on the activities of Catholics in England and Wales in the early 19th century, Rome on its own decided to fill the partial vacuum, which Queen Elizabeth I had created, by restoring Catholic dioceses on a regular historical pattern and replacing existing titular bishops or Vicars Apostolic with diocesan ones.
Thus Pope Pius IX issued the Bull Universalis Ecclesiae of 29 September 1850 by which thirteen new dioceses were created. Although these dioceses could not formally claim pre-Elizabethan territorial dioceses, they did claim validity and continuity with the pre-Elizabethan Church. Historian and descendant of recusants, Paul Johnson, claims that as early as 1718, only 30 years after the Glorious Revolution, Catholics could take heart when Parliament repealed the Schism Act, the Occasional Conformity Act and the Act for Quieting and Establishing Corporations, which allowed Dissenters to hold certain offices. Although these repeals at the time only benefited Dissenters, their rescission and abolition suggested reform was in the air and on Parliament's mind. In 1727, in the wake of the repeal of the annual Indemnity Acts, which relieved Dissenters of most of their civil disabilities, Catholics non-aristocratic Catholics, could start to creep out into the open again, long before the Catholic Emancipation of 1832.
As a result of the 1727 Act, Christianity in England ceased to be a "compulsory society". Still, Catholics had to wait another 95 years before being given full religious rights; the gains of the Dissenters a century earlier were a significant step towards eliminating Catholic disabilities later. The Ecclesiastical Titles Act had been proposed by the British Parliament and was passed in 1851 as an anti-Catholic measure to prevent any newly created Catholic dioceses from taking existing Anglican diocesan names, forbidding the wearing of clerical dress or setting bells in Catholic places of worship, it was repealed by Gladstone in 1871. One of these newly restored dioceses was the Diocese of Westminster, the sole Metropolitan See at that time. However, under Pope Pius X, on 28 October 1911, two new Provinces of Liverpool and Birmingham were created, Westminster retained as suffragan dioceses only Northampton, Nottingham and Southwark; these increased when under Pope Benedict XV a Bull of 20 July 1917, fixed the seat of a new diocese corresponding to the County of Essex, detached now from Westminster, at Brentwood, making it a suffragan of Westminster.
During the pontificate of Pope Paul VI, on 28 May 1965, a new Province of Southwark was erected, with as its suffragans Portsmouth, detached from Westminster, detached from Birmingham, a new diocese of Arundel and Brighton erected in the Counties of Sussex and Surrey with territory taken from the diocese of Southwark. Westminster retained as suffragan dioceses only Northampton and Brentwood. Subsequently these were joined by a new diocese of East Anglia, elected with territory from the Northampton diocese in the Counties of Cambridge and Suffolk by Paul VI on 13 March 1976; the previous Catholic jurisdiction of the London area was headed by the Vicar Apostolic of the London District or Titular Bishop, appointed by the pope. The diocese presently covers an area of 3,634 km² of the London Boroughs north of the River Thames excluding Barking & Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest together with the districts of Staines-upon-Thames and Sunbury-on-Thames and the County of Hertfordshire; the see is in the City of Westminster, the Archbishop's cathedra or seat is located at the Metropolitan Cathedral Church of the "Most Precious Holy Blood, Saint Mary, Saint Joseph and Saint Peter" referred to as Westminster Cathedral, set back from Victoria Street.
The Archbishop's residence is Ambrosden Avenue, London. Cardinal Vincent Nichols was installed as the 11th Archbishop on 21 May 2009, he was elevated to cardinal on 22 February 2014, becoming the 43rd English cardinal since the 12th century. Among the old European Catholic Sees, the Archbishop of Westminster is referred to as the Primate of England and Wales. However, in the United Kingdom, this is not correct, since the title is formally claimed only by the archbishops of the established Church of England, is applied to the Archbishop of York as "Primate of England", the Archbishop of Canterbury, as "Primate of All England". In global Catholicism, the last time there was an elected Catholic Primate of England in the
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions