The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who lived south of Lake Ontario. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution. In the 21st century, more than 10,000 Seneca live in the United States, which has three federally recognized Seneca tribes. Two are in New York: the Seneca Nation of New York, with two reservations in western New York near Buffalo; the Seneca-Cayuga Nation is located in Oklahoma, where their ancestors were relocated from Ohio during Indian Removal. 1,000 Seneca live in Canada, near Brantford, Ontario, at the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. They are descendants of Seneca who resettled there after the American Revolution, as they had been allies of the British and forced to cede much of their lands. A legend of the Seneca tribe states that the tribe originated in a village called Nundawao, near the south end of Canandaigua Lake, at South Hill.
Close to South Hill stands the 865 foot -high Bare Hill, known to the Seneca as Genundowa. Bare Hill is part of the Bare Hill Unique Area, which began to be acquired by the state in 1989. Bare Hill had been the site of a pre-Seneca indigenous fort; the first written reference to this fort was made in 1825 by David Cusick in his history of the Seneca Indians. The traces of an ancient fort, covering about an acre, surrounded by a ditch, by a formidable wall, are still to be seen on top of Bare Hill, they indicate defenses raised by Indian hands, or more belong to the labors of a race that preceded the Indian occupation. The wall is now about tumbled down, the stones seem somewhat scattered, the ground is overgrown with brush. In the early 1920s, the material that made up the Bare Hill fort was used by the Town of Middlesex highway department for road fill; the Seneca traditionally lived in what is now New York state between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. The dating of an oral tradition mentioning a solar eclipse yields 1142 AD as the year for the Seneca joining the Iroquois.
Some recent archaeological evidence indicates their territory extended to the Allegheny River in present-day northwestern Pennsylvania after the Iroquois destroyed both the Wenrohronon and Erie nations in the 17th century, who were native to the area. The Seneca were by far the most populous of the Haudenosaunee nations, numbering about four thousand by the seventeenth century. Seneca villages were located as far east as current-day Schuyler County, south into current Tioga and Chemung counties and east into Tompkins and Cayuga counties, west into the Genesee River valley; the villages were the headquarters of the Seneca. While the Seneca maintained substantial permanent settlements and raised agricultural crops in the vicinity of their villages, they hunted through extensive areas, they prosecuted far-reaching military campaigns. The villages, where hunting and military campaigns were planned and executed, indicate the Seneca had hegemony in these areas. Major Seneca villages were protected with wooden palisades.
Ganondagan, with 150 longhouses, was the largest Seneca village of the 17th century, while Chenussio, with 130 longhouses, was a major village of the 18th century. The Seneca had two branches; each branch distinct, they were individually incorporated and recognized by the Iroquois Confederacy Council. The western Seneca lived predominately in and around the Genesee River moving west and southwest along the Erie and Niagara rivers south along the Allegheny River into Pennsylvania; the eastern Seneca lived predominantly south of Seneca Lake. They moved east into Pennsylvania and the western Catskill area; the west and north were under constant attack from their powerful Iroquoian brethren, the Huron To the South, the Iroquoian-speaking tribes of the Susquehannock threatened constant warfare. The Algonkian tribes of the Mohican blocked access to the Hudson River in the northeast. In the southeast, the Algonkian tribes of the Lenape people threatened war from eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the Lower Hudson.
The Seneca used the Genesee and Allegheny rivers, as well as the Great Indian War and Trading Path, to travel from southern Lake Ontario into Pennsylvania and Ohio. The eastern Seneca had territory just north of the intersection of the Chemung, Susquehanna and Delaware rivers, which converged in Tioga; the rivers provided passage deep into all parts of eastern and western Pennsylvania, as well as east and northeast into the Delaware Water Gap and the western Catskills. The men of both branches of the Seneca wore the same head gear. Like the other Haudenosaunee, they wore hats with dried cornhusks on top; the Seneca had one feather sticking up straight. Traditionally, the Seneca Nation's economy was based on hunting and gathering activities and the cultivation of varieties corn and squash; these vegetables were the staple of the Haudenosaunee diet and were called "the three sisters". Seneca women grew and harvested varieties of the three sisters, as well as gathering and processing medicinal plants, berries and fruit.
Seneca women held sole ownership of the homes. The women tended to any domesticated animals such as dogs and turkeys; the Iroquois had a matrilineal kinship system. Women we
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Creamed corn is a type of creamed food made by pulping corn kernels and collecting the milky residue from the corn. Originating in Native American cuisine, it is now most eaten in the Midwestern and Southern United States, it is an soupy version of sweetcorn, but unlike other preparations of sweetcorn, creamed corn is puréed, releasing the liquid contents of the kernels. Sugar and starch may be added, homemade versions may include some variety of milk even cream. In store-bought canned preparations, adding milk is less common. Corn soup Corn stew Grits List of maize dishes List of soups Maize portal Food portal Cream corn at NY Times Diner's Journal Blog
Sweet corn is a cereal with a high sugar content. Sweet corn is the result of a occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the ENO of the corn kernel. Unlike field corn varieties, which are harvested when the kernels are dry and mature, sweet corn is picked when immature and prepared and eaten as a vegetable, rather than a grain. Since the process of maturation involves converting sugar to starch, sweet corn stores poorly and must be eaten fresh, canned, or frozen, before the kernels become tough and starchy, it is one of the six major types of corn, the others being dent corn, flint corn, pod corn and flour corn. Sweet corn occurs as a spontaneous mutation in field corn and was grown by several Native American tribes; the Iroquois gave the first recorded sweet corn to European settlers in 1779. It soon became a popular food in the central regions of the United States. Open pollinated cultivars of white sweet corn started to become available in the United States in the 19th century.
Two of the most enduring cultivars, still available today, are'Country Gentleman' and'Stowell's Evergreen'. Sweet corn production in the 20th century was influenced by the following key developments: hybridization allowed for more uniform maturity, improved quality and disease resistance In 1933'Golden Cross Bantam' was released, it is significant for being the first successful single-cross hybrid and the first developed for disease resistance. Identification of the separate gene mutations responsible for sweetness in corn and the ability to breed cultivars based on these characteristics: su se sh2 There are hundreds of cultivars, with more being developed; the fruit of the sweet corn plant is the corn kernel, a type of fruit called a caryopsis. The ear is a collection of kernels on the cob; because corn is a monocot, there is always an number of rows of kernels. The ear is covered by wrapped leaves called the husk. Silk is the name for the pistillate flowers; the husk and silk are removed by hand, before boiling but not before roasting, in a process called husking or shucking.
In most of Latin America, sweet corn is traditionally eaten with beans. In Brazil, sweet corn cut off from the cobs is eaten with peas. In Malaysia, there's a variety unique to the region of Cameron highlands named "pearl corn"; the kernels are glossy white resembling pearls and can be eaten raw of the cob but boiled in water and salt. Sweet corn in Indonesia is traditionally ground or soaked with milk, which makes available the B vitamin niacin in the corn, the absence of which would otherwise lead to pellagra; the kernels are steamed. In Europe, Korea and India, they are used as a pizza topping, or in salads. Corn on the cob is a sweet corn cob, boiled, steamed, or grilled whole. Creamed corn is sweet corn served in a cream sauce. Sweet corn can be eaten as baby corn. In the United States, sweet corn is eaten as a steamed vegetable, or on the cob served with butter and salt, it can be found in Tex-Mex cooking in chili and salads. When corn is mixed with lima beans it is called succotash. Sweet corn is one of the most popular vegetables in the United States.
Fresh and frozen sweet corn rank among the top ten vegetables in value and per capita consumption. Frozen cut corn is exceeded only by frozen potato products while frozen corn on the cob is 4th following peas. If left to dry on the plant, kernels may be taken off the cob and cooked in oil where, unlike popcorn, they expand to about double the original kernel size and are called corn nuts. A soup may be made from the plant, called sweet corn soup. Cooking sweet corn increases levels of ferulic acid, which has anti-cancer properties. Open pollinated corn has been replaced in the commercial market by sweeter, earlier hybrids, which have the advantage of maintaining their sweet flavor longer. Su cultivars are best. Despite their short storage life, many open-pollinated cultivars such as'Golden Bantam' remain popular for home gardeners and specialty markets or are marketed as heirloom seeds. Although less sweet, they are described as more tender and flavorful than hybrids. Early cultivars, including those used by Native Americans, were the result of the mutant su allele.
They contain about 5–10% sugar by weight. Supersweet corn are cultivars of sweet corn which produce higher than normal levels of sugar developed by University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign professor John Laughnan, he was investigating two specific genes in sweet corn, one of which, the sh2 gene, caused the corn to shrivel when dry. After further investigation, Laughnan discovere
Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, fish, or vegetables have been simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most used to prepare other dishes, such as soups and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths are available for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, vegetable broth. In North America, dehydrated meat stock in the form of tablets is called a bouillon cube. Industrially produced bouillon cubes were commercialized under the brand name Maggi in 1908, by Oxo in 1910. Using commercially prepared broths saves home and professional cooks time in the kitchen. By 2013, broth labeled as "bone broth" became popularized as a health food trend or fad in certain parts of the United States. Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture.
Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone. In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. In the late 18th century, Benjamin Thompson, an American-born physicist in service to the Elector of Bavaria and mass-produced a nutritious, solidified stock of bones, inexpensive meat by-products and other ingredients, using it to feed the Elector's army, his invention was the precursor of the bouillon cube. Broth has been made for many years using the animal bones which, are boiled in a cooking pot for long periods to extract the flavor and nutrients.
The bones may not have meat still on them. Egg whites may be added during simmering; the egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment and turbidity into an strained mass. Not allowing the original preparation to boil will increase the clarity. Roasted bones will add a rich flavor to the broth but a dark color. A clarified broth eaten as a soup is called a consommé. In East Asia, a form of kelp called kombu is used as the basis for broths. In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of the term. By 2013, "bone broth" had become a popular health food trend, due to the resurgence in popularity of dietary fat over sugar, interest in "functional foods" to which "culinary medicinals" such as turmeric and ginger could be added. Bone broth bars, bone broth home delivery services, bone broth carts and freezer packs grew in popularity in the United States; the fad was heightened by the 2014 book Nourishing Broth, in which authors Sally Fallon Morell and Kaayla T. Daniel state that the broth's nutrient density has a variety of health effects: boosting the immune system.
However, there is no scientific evidence to support many of the claims made for bone broth. For example, while bone broths do contain collagen, there is no evidence that consuming bone broths improves joint pain or improve skin, because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, is not transported directly to joints or skin in the form in which it is ingested. In addition, the fact that the broth is derived from bone does not mean that therefore it will build bone or prevent osteoporosis, as the bones release little calcium into the broth when prepared. There is little evidence that the gelatin. A few small studies have found some possible benefit for chicken broth, such as the clearing of nasal passages. Chicken soup may reduce inflammation. Canja de galinha Bouillon cube Dashi Ramen Rosół Scotch broth Bouillon, a Haitian soup Court-bouillon
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Paganism, is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism. This was either because they were rural and provincial relative to the Christian population, or because they were not milites Christi. Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were hellene and heathen. Ritual sacrifice was an integral part of ancient Graeco-Roman religion and was regarded as an indication of whether a person was pagan or Christian. Paganism was a pejorative and derogatory term for polytheism, implying its inferiority. Paganism has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", During and after the Middle Ages, the term paganism was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion, the term presumed a belief in false god. Most modern pagan religions existing today - Modern Paganism, or Neopaganism - express a world view, pantheistic, polytheistic or animistic; the origin of the application of the term pagan to polytheism is debated.
In the 19th century, paganism was adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. In the 20th century, it came to be applied as a self-descriptor by practitioners of Modern Paganism, Neopagan movements and Polytheistic reconstructionists. Modern pagan traditions incorporate beliefs or practices, such as nature worship, that are different from those in the largest world religions. Contemporary knowledge of old pagan religions comes from several sources, including anthropological field research records, the evidence of archaeological artifacts, the historical accounts of ancient writers regarding cultures known to Classical antiquity, it is crucial to stress right from the start that until the 20th century, people did not call themselves pagans to describe the religion they practised. The notion of paganism, as it is understood today, was created by the early Christian Church, it was a label that Christians applied to others, one of the antitheses that were central to the process of Christian self-definition.
As such, throughout history it was used in a derogatory sense. The term pagan is derived from Late Latin paganus, revived during the Renaissance. Itself deriving from classical Latin pagus which meant'region delimited by markers', paganus had come to mean'of or relating to the countryside','country dweller','villager', it is related to pangere and comes from Proto-Indo-European *pag-. The adoption of paganus by the Latin Christians as an all-embracing, pejorative term for polytheists represents an unforeseen and singularly long-lasting victory, within a religious group, of a word of Latin slang devoid of religious meaning; the evolution occurred only in the Latin west, in connection with the Latin church. Elsewhere, Hellene or gentile remained the word for pagan. Medieval writers assumed that paganus as a religious term was a result of the conversion patterns during the Christianization of Europe, where people in towns and cities were converted more than those in remote regions, where old ways lingered.
However, this idea has multiple problems. First, the word's usage as a reference to non-Christians pre-dates that period in history. Second, paganism within the Roman Empire centred on cities; the concept of an urban Christianity as opposed to a rural paganism would not have occurred to Romans during Early Christianity. Third, unlike words such as rusticitas, paganus had not yet acquired the meanings used to explain why it would have been applied to pagans. Paganus more acquired its meaning in Christian nomenclature via Roman military jargon. Early Christians saw themselves as Milites Christi. A good example of Christians still using paganus in a military context rather than religious is in Tertullian's De Corona Militis XI. V, where the Christian is referred to as paganus: Paganus acquired its religious connotations by the mid-4th century; as early as the 5th century, paganos was metaphorically used to denote persons outside the bounds of the Christian community. Following the sack of Rome by the Visigoths just over fifteen years after the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I, murmurs began to spread that the old gods had taken greater care of the city than the Christian God.
In response, Augustine of Hippo wrote De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos. In it, he contrasted the fallen "city of Man" to the "city of God" of which all Christians were citizens. Hence, the foreign invaders were "not of the city" or "rural"; the term pagan is not attested in the English language until the 17th century. In addition to infidel and heretic, it was used as one of several pejorative Christian counterparts to gentile as used in Judaism, to kafir and mushrik as in Islam. In the Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire of the newly Christianizing Roman Empire, Koine Greek became associated with the traditional polytheistic religion of Ancient Greece, regarded as a foreign language in the west. By the latter half of the 4th century in the Greek-speaking Eastern Empire, pagans were—paradoxically—most called Hellenes; the word entirely