Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Dutch Golden Age
The Dutch Golden Age was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years War which ended in 1648, the Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century. The Netherlandss transition from a possession of the Holy Roman Empire in the 1590s to the foremost maritime, in 1568, the Seven Provinces that signed the Union of Utrecht started a rebellion against Philip II of Spain that led to the Eighty Years War. Antwerp fell on August 17,1585 after a siege, the United Provinces fought on until the Twelve Years Truce, which did not end the hostilities. Under the terms of the surrender of Antwerp in 1585, the Protestant population were given four years to settle their affairs before leaving the city, similar arrangements were made in other places. Protestants were especially well-represented among the craftsmen and rich merchants of the port cities of Bruges, Ghent.
More moved to the north between 1585 and 1630 than Catholics moved in the direction, although there were many of these. Many of those moving north settled in Amsterdam, transforming what was a port into one of the most important ports. The Pilgrim Fathers spent time there before their voyage to the New World, Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O’Rourke contribute part of the Dutch ascendancy to its Calvinistic ethic, which promoted thrift and education. This contributed to the lowest interest rates and the highest literacy rates in Europe, several other factors contributed to the flowering of trade, the arts and the sciences in the Netherlands during this time. A necessary condition was a supply of energy from windmills and from peat. The invention of the sawmill enabled the construction of a massive fleet of ships for worldwide trading. In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was founded and it was the first-ever multinational corporation, financed by shares that established the first modern stock exchange.
This company received a Dutch monopoly on Asian trade and would keep this for two centuries and it became the worlds largest commercial enterprise of the 17th century. Spices were imported in bulk and brought huge profits, due to the efforts and risks involved and this is remembered to this day in the Dutch word peperduur, meaning something is very expensive, reflecting the prices of spices at the time. To finance the trade within the region, the Bank of Amsterdam was established in 1609. According to Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O’Rourke, geography favored the Dutch Republic and they write, The foundations were laid by taking advantage of location, midway between the Bay of Biscay and the Baltic. The Dutch share of European shipping tonnage was enormous, well over half during most of the period of their ascendancy, from here the Dutch traded between China and Japan and paid tribute to the Shogun
City Hall (Haarlem)
The City Hall in Haarlem is the seat of the citys government. It was built in the 14th century replacing the Counts castle, around 1100 a wooden building was constructed on the location of the current Gravenzaal of the City Hall. Traces of this building were found in 1955, after large fires in 1347 and 1351, William II, Count of Holland donated the remains of the Gravenzaal to the citys municipality. A new building was built there, the central square building dates from the Middle Ages, but the distinctive façade of the building was designed by architect Lieven de Key and built from 1602-1604. The way it originally looked can be seen in a painting from 1460 by the Master of Bellaert, originally the city hall was just the front of the building, and the rear cloister belonged to the Dominican brotherhood. After the Protestant Reformation this came into the possession of the city council and it is now a complex with offices. Both the Frans Hals Museum and the Haarlem Public Library originally were located in the city hall, the town hall is still used for civic weddings and nearly every Friday in Spring, brides can be seen entering and leaving by the main stairway.
The town hall is still used for state visits, most recently when the King. They heard the local choir Zang en Vriendschap sing and received a book all the previous royal state visits to Haarlem. When they moved out, the paintings stayed and they became the Haarlem municipal museum, a large number of paintings and objects from Haarlems rich history can be found inside the building. One series of paintings depict the various counts of Holland, starting from Dirk I to Maximilian from Austria, in the Middle Ages these paintings were hanging in the Carmelieten Cloister in Haarlem, they were painted between 1486 and 1491. In 1570 it is mentioned in city archives that the paintings were hanging in the City Hall, other paintings and objects are either part of the original interior, or too big to fit in the Frans Hals Museum. Het stadhuis van Haarlem, hart van de stad, Wim Cerutti, Haarlem,2001
Boom (navigational barrier)
A boom or a chain is an obstacle strung across a navigable stretch of water to control or block navigation. Booms could be military in nature, with the goal of denying access to an enemys ships, booms could be used, especially along rivers, to force passing vessels to pay a toll. A boom generally floats on the surface, while a chain can be on the surface or below the water, a chain could be made to float with rafts, ships or other wood, making the chain a boom as well. Especially in medieval times, the end of a chain could be attached to a tower or boom tower. This allowed safe raising or lowering of the chain, as they were heavily fortified. By raising or lowering a chain or boom, access could be selectively granted rather than rendering the stretch of water completely inaccessible. The raising and lowering could be accomplished by a mechanism or a capstan. The boom at the siege of Londonderry, for example, was cut by sailors in a longboat, as a key portion of defences, booms were usually heavily defended.
This involved shore-based chain towers, batteries or forts, in the Age of Sail, a boom protecting a harbour could have several ships defending it with their broadsides, discouraging assaults on the boom. On some occasions, multiple booms spanned a single stretch of water. ^ Some sources have the chain being dismantled instead of broken by a ship in the Siege of Damietta and in the Raid on the Medway
Haarlem Guild of St. Luke
The Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke was first a Christian, and a city Guild for a large number of trades falling under the patron saints Luke the Evangelist and Saint Eligius. During the lifetime of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, there was probably a painters guild in Haarlem, if one existed, it would probably have been associated with the Janskerk, where Geertgen was active as a respected painter. The earliest mention of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke and this is possibly the year that the Guild switched its altar from the Janskerk to the Bavokerk. The guild was for painters and gold- and silversmiths, with St. Luke being the saint of the painters. The earliest charter for the no longer exists, but the earliest one still in the archives is from 1514. The Vrouwenbroerskerk was the church of the Carmelites, whose monastery is gone, of the original complex, only the entrance gate still stands on the Grote Houtstraat. These archives recorded that a kessophel was donated to this altar in 1575 by Elisabeth van Dorp, after Haarlem lost the Siege of Haarlem in 1573, it became a Catholic enclave that officially fell under the rule of Philip II of Spain.
In 1576, a decision was made on September 28 to make a piece for St. Eligius. This referred to the painting by Martin van Heemskerck, which does not display St. Eligius, but shows St. Luke painting the Virgin. This painting was large, and though it shows a pottery baker as St. Luke and sculptures and woodcarvings abound in it. The signed paper attached at the bottom of the painting is recorded by Karel van Mander, heemskerk had painted this before he traveled to Italy, and when he came back he became charter master of the guild from 1550-1552. To protect the market, a new charter was issued in 1590, Luke had been donated for the altar by the painter Barthel Pons, who had gotten it from the cardinal Christoforo da Forli. This relic was accompanied by an indulgence of 100 days to whoever would say their Paternoster, apparently Pieter Fransz de Grebber gave this relic to the Franciscan monk Joannes Cloribus van Brugge in 1627 for safekeeping. In 1632 the St. Lucas guild masters were very upset about this and Salomon de Bray tried to get it back, in 1641 they tried once again to get the relic back, but it seems to have disappeared.
Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem, the competition for commissions was very high and the 1590 charter was apparently not considered protective enough. In 1631 a new charter was released again, and this charter is so detailed that it tells us more about the art of painting. It was prepared by Salomon de Bray, and he described a hierarchy of members that apparently met with a lot of opposition. His first petition to pass this charter was denied with the remark that it was too long, essentially the charter of 1590 held up until the guild was dissolved altogether in 1795 by Napoleonic decree
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Damietta, known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta branch, a distributary of the Nile,15 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, in Ancient Egypt, the city was known as Tamiat, but in the Hellenistic period it was called Tamiathis. Mentioned by the 6th-century geographer Stephanus Byzantius, the became known as Damiata. Under Caliph Omar, the Arabs took the town by treachery and successfully resisted the attempts by the Byzantine Empire to recover it, the Abbasids used Alexandria, Damietta and Siraf as entry ports to India and the Tang Empire of China. Damietta was an important naval base during the Abbasid and Fatimid periods and this led to several attacks by the Byzantine Empire, most notably the sack and destruction of the city in May 853. Damietta was again important in the 12th and 13th centuries during the time of the Crusades, in 1169, a fleet from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, with support from the Byzantine Empire, attacked the port, but it was defeated by Saladin.
During preparations for the Fifth Crusade in 1217, it was decided that Damietta should be the focus of attack, control of Damietta meant control of the Nile, and from there the crusaders believed they would be able to conquer Egypt. From Egypt they could attack Palestine and recapture Jerusalem, when the port was besieged and occupied by Frisian crusaders in 1219, Francis of Assisi arrived to peaceably negotiate with the Muslim ruler. The siege devastated the population of Damietta, in 1221 the Crusaders attempted to march to Cairo, but were destroyed by the combination of nature and Muslim defences. Damietta was the object of the Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France. His fleet arrived there in 1249 and quickly captured the fort, having been taken prisoner with his army in April 1250, Louis was obliged to surrender Damietta as ransom. Hellenistic Tamiathis became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the Metropolitan see of Pelusium and its bishop Heraclius took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Helpidius was a signatory of the decree of Patriarch Gennadius of Constantinople against simony in 459, bassus was at the Second Council of Constantinople. Later bishops too of Tamiathis are named in other documents, in 1249, when Louis IX of France captured the town, it became for a short time the seat of a Latin Church bishop. P. Eugenio Lachat, Missionaries of the Precious Blood Ignazio Persico, O. F. M, in addition to the Egyptian market, its furniture is sold in Arab countries, Europe, US, and almost all over the world. Today, there is a canal connecting it to the Nile, containers are transported through the new Damietta Port. The Damietta governorate has a population of about 1,093,580 and it contains the SEGAS LNG plant, which will ultimately have a capacity of 9.6 million ton/year through two trains. The plant is owned by Segas, a joint venture of the Spanish utility Unión Fenosa, Italian oil company Eni, the plant is unusual since it is not supplied from a dedicated field, but is supplied with gas from the Egyptian grid
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
Hendrick Goltzius, was a German-born Dutch printmaker and painter. He was the leading Dutch engraver of the early Baroque period, or Northern Mannerism, noted for his sophisticated technique and the exuberance of his compositions. According to A. Hyatt Mayor, Goltzius was the last professional engraver who drew with the authority of a good painter, in middle age he began to produce paintings. Goltzius was born near Venlo in Bracht or Millebrecht, a in the Duchy of Julich. His family moved to Duisburg when he was 3 years old, after studying painting on glass for some years under his father, he learned engraving from the Dutch polymath Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, who lived in Cleves. In 1577 he moved with Coornhert to Haarlem in the Dutch Republic, in the same town, he was employed by Philip Galle to engrave a set of prints of the history of Lucretia. He returned to Haarlem in August 1591, considerably improved in health and his portraits, though mostly miniatures, are masterpieces of their kind, both on account of their exquisite finish, and as fine studies of individual character.
Of his larger heads, his life-size self-portrait is probably the most striking example, Goltzius brought to an unprecedented level the use of the swelling line, where the burin is manipulated to make lines thicker or thinner to create a tonal effect from a distance. He was a pioneer of dot and lozenge technique, where dots are placed in the middle of lozenge shaped spaces created by cross-hatching to further refine tonal shading, hollstein credits 388 prints to him, with a further 574 by other printmakers after his designs. In his command of the burin, Goltzius is said to rival Dürer and he made engravings of Bartholomeus Sprangers paintings, thus increasing the fame of the latter – and his own. Goltzius began painting at the age of forty-two, some of his paintings can be found in Vienna and he executed a few chiaroscuro woodcuts. He was the stepfather of engraver Jacob Matham and he died, aged 58, in Haarlem. A Hyatt Mayor and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton,1971, cohn, An Interpretation of Four Woodcut Landscape by Hendrick Goltzius, Print Quarterly, XXXI, June 2014, pp. 144–155.
Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web Gallery of Art Retrieved 19-08-2008 Works and literature on Hendrick Goltzius Goltzius engravings from the De Verda collection2
The Damiaatjes refer to two bells in the St. Though Haarlem no longer has a wall around the city, or gates to close, Damietta is mentioned during the Fifth Crusade in 1218/1219, and again during the Seventh crusade in the year 1249. The Haarlem story claims that Haarlem knights and innovative shipbuilders played an important role in the fall of Damietta, access to the city via the Nile was closed with a large, heavy harbor chain. A Haarlem ship with a saw on the bow was equipped with an iron saw fastened along the bow and this ship sawed through the Damietta harbour chain and allowed the fleet to attack the city, which was a success. The Damietta story is contradicted by the eyewitness account of Oliver of Cologne, who led the Dutch fleet. The story gained in popularity after 1667 when the Dutch fleet broke another chain to win an important naval victory, Haarlem declared itself the inspiration for this deed. Deugd boven geweld, Een geschiedenis van Haarlem, 1245-1995, edited by Gineke van der Ree-Scholtens,1995, ISBN 90-6550-504-0, p88
European Heritage Days
The annual programme offers opportunities to visit buildings and sites, many of which are not normally accessible to the public. It aims to widen access and foster care for architectural and environmental heritage and these events are known as Doors Open Days and Open Doors Days in English-speaking countries. The event began in France in 1984, with La Journée Portes Ouvertes, the Netherlands held their first Open Monumentendag in 1987. Sweden and the Republic of Ireland joined in 1989, and Belgium, in 1991 these events were united as European Heritage Days at the initiative of the Council of Europe, supported by the EU. By 2010,50 signatory states of the European Cultural Convention had joined the EHDs, united Kingdom, Heritage Open Days by English Heritage. London has an event, Open House London. In Argentina and Uruguay the corresponding Día del Patrimonio is held on the last weekend of September, European Heritage Days — includes links to the national sites of all participants
Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the edge of the Randstad. Haarlem had a population of 155,758 in 2014 and it is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam, and many residents commute to the countrys capital for work. Haarlem was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270, the modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede. Apart from the city, the municipality of Haarlem includes the part of the village of Spaarndam. Newer sections of Spaarndam lie within the municipality of Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude. The city is located on the river Spaarne, about 20 km west of Amsterdam and it has been the historical centre of the tulip bulb-growing district for centuries and bears the nickname Bloemenstad, for this reason. Haarlem has a history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal.
The people on this strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships, however, as shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a bedroom community. Nowadays many of them are on the Dutch Heritage register known as Rijksmonuments, the list of Rijksmonuments in Haarlem gives an overview of these per neighbourhood, with the majority in the old city centre. The oldest mentioning of Haarlem dates from the 10th century, the name probably comes from Haarlo-heim. This name is composed of three elements, haar, lo and heim, there is not much dispute about the meaning of lo and heim, in Old Dutch toponyms lo always refers to forest and heim to home or house. Haar, has several meanings, one of them corresponding with the location of Haarlem on a sand dune, the name Haarlem or Haarloheim would therefore mean home on a forested dune.
There was a stream called De Beek, dug from the peat grounds west of the river Spaarne as a drainage canal, over the centuries the Beek was turned into an underground canal, as the city grew larger and the space was needed for construction. Over time it began to silt up and in the 19th century it was filled in, the location of the village was a good one, by the river Spaarne, and by a major road going south to north. By the 12th century it was a town, and Haarlem became the residence of the Counts of Holland