Gerard ter Borch
This article is for Gerard ter Borch the Younger, for the other artist of the same name see Gerard ter Borch the Elder Gerard ter Borch known as Gerard Terburg, was an influential and pioneering Dutch genre painter who lived in the Dutch Golden Age. He influenced fellow Dutch painters Gabriel Metsu, Gerrit Dou, Eglon van der Neer and Johannes Vermeer. According to Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. Ter Borch “established a new framework for subject matter, taking people into the sanctum of the home”, showing the figures’ uncertainties and expertly hinting at their inner lives, his influence as a painter, was surpassed by Vermeer. Gerard ter Borch was born in December 1617 in Zwolle in the province of Overijssel in the Dutch Republic, he received an excellent education from his father Gerard ter Borch the Elder an artist, developed his talent early. The inscription on a study of a head proves that Ter Borch was at Amsterdam in 1632, where he studied under Willem Cornelisz Duyster or Pieter Codde. Duyster's influence can be traced in a picture bearing the date 1638, in the lonides Bequest.
In 1634 he studied under Pieter de Molijn in Haarlem. A record of this Haarlem period is the Consultation at the Berlin Gallery. In 1635 he was in London, subsequently he travelled in Germany, France and Italy, his sister Gesina became a painter. It is certain that he was in Rome in 1641, when he painted the small portraits on copper of Jan Six,A Young Lady and the portrait of a Gentlemen. In 1648 he was at Münster during the meeting of the congress which ratified the treaty of peace between the Spaniards and the Dutch, executed his celebrated little picture, painted upon copper, of the assembled plenipotentiaries—a work which, along with the a portrait of a Man Standing, now represents the master in the national collection in London; the picture was bought by the marquess of Hertford at the Demidoff sale for 1280, presented to the National Gallery by Sir Richard Wallace, at the suggestion of his secretary, Sir John Murray Scott. At this time Ter Borch was invited to visit Madrid, where he received employment and the honour of knighthood from Philip IV, but, in consequence of an intrigue, it is said, he was obliged to return to the Netherlands.
He seems to have resided for a time in Haarlem. He died at Deventer in 1681. Ter Borch is a significant painter of genre subjects, he is known for his rendering of texture in draperies, for example in The Letter and in The Gallant Conversation, engraved by Johann Georg Wille. Ter Borch's works are comparatively rare. Six of these are at the Hermitage, six at the Berlin Museum, five at the Louvre, four at the Dresden Museum, three at the Getty Center, two at the Wallace Collection. A pair of portraits are located at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington D. C. highlighted in 2010 by Blake Gopnik. The artist's painting The Suitor's Visit, c. 1658, oil on canvas, 80 x 75 cm in the Andrew W. Mellon Collection, was used on the cover of Marilyn Stokstad's second edition of Art History. Gerard ter Borch's paintings This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ter Borch, Gerard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Gerard Terburg et sa famille, by Emile Michel on archive.org Der künstlerische Entwickelungsgang des C.
Ter Borch, by Dr W Bode Maîtres d'autre fois, by Eugène Fromentin Gerard Ter Borch, by Eduard Plietzsch on archive.org Vermeer and The Delft School, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gerard ter Borch The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gerard ter Borch Fifteenth- to eighteenth-century European paintings: France, Central Europe, the Netherlands and Great Britain, a collection catalog available online as a PDF, which contains material on Gerard ter Borch Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gerard ter Borch Works and literature on Gerard ter Borch
Gemeentemuseum Den Haag
The Gemeentemuseum Den Haag is an art museum in The Hague in the Netherlands, founded in 1866. It is renowned for the largest in the world, his last work, Victory Boogie-Woogie, is on display here. The museum building was constructed between 1931–1935, designed by the Dutch architect H. P. Berlage. GEM and Fotomuseum Den Haag are part of the Gemeentemuseum, though not housed in the same building and with a separate entrance fee; the museum will be renamed to The Hague Art Museum in 2019. The museum's collection of modern art includes works by Dutch artists; the Hague Municipal Museum has one of the largest collections of Dutch Delftware in the world. Selected pieces of the collection are on display at the a permanent gallery which represent Dutch art in the'Golden Age'; the museum holds one of the largest collections of Persian ceramics and glasses in Europe. The museum has a collection of 19th and 20th century prints and drawings, containing around 50,000 items, it comprises works by Dutch artists such as Co Westerik and Jan Toorop, as well as works by Rodolphe Bresdin, Paul Klee, Toulouse-Lautrec, Odilon Redon and others.
A selection is on view in the print room. The collection of fashion items, jewellery and prints includes historical items as well as modern ones by designers such as Cristóbal Balenciaga, Gabrielle Chanel, André Courrèges, John Galliano and Fong Leng. For reasons of conservation items are only shown at temporary exhibitions; the music collection includes a large collection of musical instruments and a music library, with an emphasis on European music. The collection includes fortepiano's, wind and plucked string instruments. There are instruments from other cultures and contemporary electronic instruments. In addition, the collection includes prints, posters and photographs relating to'performance practice'. Part of the collection came from the Scheurleer Music History Museum, that lasted from 1905 to 1935, was purchased after the bankruptcy of Scheurleer & Zoonen in 1932. Official website
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi
Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age painter of portraits, who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, he helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture. Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp in the Spanish Netherlands, as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck. Like many, Hals' parents fled during the Fall of Antwerp from the south to Haarlem in the new Dutch Republic in the north, where he lived for the remainder of his life. Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander, whose Mannerist influence, however, is noticeable in Hals' work. In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, he started to earn money as an art restorer for the city council, he worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck published in Haarlem in 1604.
The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, Jan Mostaert that hung in the St John's Church in Haarlem. The restoration work was paid for by the city of Haarlem, since all Catholic religious art had been confiscated after the satisfactie van Haarlem had been reversed in 1578, which had given Catholics equal rights to Protestants. However, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall; the remaining art, considered too "Roman Catholic" was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen, a fellow guild member, on the condition that he remove it from the city. It was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes; the earliest known example of Hals' art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius. His'breakthrough' came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616.
His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649. Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall and not in church; the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved. Anneke was born 2 January 1590 as the daughter of bleacher Harmen Dircksz and Pietertje Claesdr Ghijblant, her maternal grandfather, linen producer Claes Ghijblant of Spaarne 42, bequeathed the couple the grave in St Bavo's Church where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there. Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals' second marriage; as biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of these charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat, as Anneke had died in May 1615.
Historical accounts of Hals' propensity for drink have been based on embellished anecdotes of his early biographers, namely Arnold Houbraken, with no direct evidence existing documenting such. After his first wife died, Hals took on the young daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617, he married Lysbeth Reyniers, they married in Spaarndam, a small village outside the banns of Haarlem, because she was 8 months pregnant. Hals was a devoted father, they went on to have eight children. Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, but Hals remained in Haarlem and insisted that his customers come to him. According to the Haarlem archives, a schutterstuk that Hals started in Amsterdam was finished by Pieter Codde because Hals refused to paint in Amsterdam, insisting that the militiamen come to Haarlem to sit for their portraits. For this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made.
Hals' work was in demand throughout his life, but he lived so long that he went out of style as a painter and experienced financial difficulties. In addition to his painting, he continued throughout his life to work as a restorer, art dealer, art tax expert for the city councilors, his creditors took him to court several times, he sold his belongings to settle his debt with a baker in 1652. The inventory of the property seized mentions only three mattresses and bolsters, an armoire, a table, five pictures. Left destitute, he was given an annuity of 200 florins in 1664 by the municipality; the Dutch nation fought for independence during the Eighty Years' War, Hals was a member of the local schutterij, a military guild. He included a self-portrait in his 1639 painting of the St Joris company, according to its 19th-century painting frame, it was not common for ordinary members to be painted, as that privilege was reserved for the officers. Hals painted the company three times, he was a member of a local chamber of rhetoric, in 1644 he became chairman of the Guild of St Luke.
Frans Hals was buried in the city's St Bavo's Church. He had been receiving a city pension, unusual and a sign of the esteem with which he was regarded. After his death, his widow applied for aid and was admitted to the local almshouse, where she died. Ha
Jan van de Cappelle
Jan van de Cappelle was a Dutch Golden Age painter of seascapes and winter landscapes notable as an industrialist and art collector. He is "now considered the outstanding marine painter of 17th century Holland", he lived all his life in Amsterdam, as well as working as an artist spent much, or most, of his time helping to manage his father Franchoy's large dyeworks, which specialized in the expensive dye carmine, which he inherited in 1674. Because of this dual career, there are fewer than 150 surviving paintings, a small number for the industrious painters of the Dutch Golden Age, his marine paintings show estuary or river scenes rather than the open sea, the water is always calm, allowing it to act as a mirror reflecting the cloud formations above. His father was a cloth-dyer, his mother came from Rotterdam. Joannes' baptism is recorded in the Nieuwe Kerk, Amsterdam on 25 January 1626, he was described as a self-taught artist, but received some form of training from Simon de Vlieger, whose style he copied or is closest to his early paintings, other masters such as Willem van de Velde the Elder.
He received the citizenship of Amsterdam on 24 July 1653, an honorific ceremony for one of the city elite. A few months before, on 2 February 1653, he had married Annetje Jansdr. Grotingh, the daughter of a bricklayer. Van de Cappelle was a wealthy man who never needed to rely on his painting for his livelihood, it is not known if he joined the city's Guild of Saint Luke, or the separate "brotherhood of painters" founded in 1653. Whether he sold his work, or how he did so, is unclear. Abraham Bredius suggested Van de Cappelle was a friend of Rembrandt, at whose insolvency sales in 1656 and 1658 he was a large buyer, who painted portraits of him and his wife, it has been speculated that he may have used his business contacts to help obtain the commission for Rembrandt's last, financially useful, group portrait commission, the Syndics of the Drapers' Guild of 1662. His earliest dated painting is an important and highly accomplished one from 1645, only one is dated in the 1660s. From this most authors assume he devoted his years to his business, in which his brother Franchois worked.
In May 1661 he bought a house in the Koestraat, near Nieuwmarkt, moving from the more expensive Keizersgracht. The house with a garden, next to a school, was sold by a son of Sweelinck, in the deed of purchase van de Cappelle is called schilder and not a master painter, his wife predeceased him in 1677, van de Cappelle himself was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk on 22 December 1679. He left seven children; the inventory of his property at death has survived and is the main source of information about his impressive art collection. It took seven months to list all, he left his children six houses, a country house south of Loenen on the river Vecht, a pleasure yacht, "44 bags of ducats", silk and bonds together valued at 92,720 guilders. A lengthy list of the items from his splendid wardrobe was made, as well as a list of his large and important art collection; the majority of his works are marine or river views, nearly always with several vessels, but he left a number of small winter landscapes somewhat in the manner of Aert van der Neer.
His seascapes may be small. He had no interest in rough seas or cloudless skies, showing large cloudy skies, with the horizon low, about 15-20% of the way up the vertical axis; the clouds are mirrored in the dead calm water, although light ripples may be shown. As is the case in Dutch seascapes, there is a warship or "statenjacht", an official yacht used for transport, official salutes and other business; the edge of the composition slices through vessels, leaving them half seen. Van de Cappelle painted many parade marine subjects, depicting "a formal gathering of ships for a ceremonial occasion". Other paintings smaller and of less busy subjects, a type called "calms", show "an all-pervading luminous atmosphere that softens all outlines and unifies forms and local colours", or as Kenneth Clark puts it, "When sky was reflected on water, there was achieved that unity of luminous atmosphere which is... the whole point of van de Capelle and van de Velde". In his early works he followed the muted palette of the "tonal school", but enlived with local highlights of bright colour, but moved in his works to "a warmer golden tonality, exceptionally allowing himself a greater colouristic exuberance when setting the rosy glow of a sunset sky against water of a deep turquoise blue, as in the River Scene with Sailing Vessels".
According to his leading scholar, Margarita Russell, "More than any other artist of his time, with the exception only of Rembrandt, van de Cappelle was a painter of light". Cappelle made a small number of etchings. Fewer than twenty of the nearly 750 of his own drawings in the 1680 inventory have survived identifiably, he had one of the largest art collections of his day, with 192 paintings and over 7,000 drawings, nearly all Dutch with a few Flemish works, concentrating on his
Jan van der Heyden
Jan van der Heyden was a Dutch Baroque-era painter, glass painter and printmaker. Van der Heyden was one of the first Dutch painters to specialize in townscapes and became one of the leading architectural painters of the Dutch Golden Age, he painted a number of still lifes at the end of his career. Jan van der Heyden was an engineer and inventor who made significant contributions to contemporary firefighting technology, he improved the fire hose in 1672, with his brother Nicolaes, a hydraulic engineer. He modified the manual fire engine, reorganised the volunteer fire brigade and wrote and illustrated the first firefighting manual. A comprehensive street lighting scheme for Amsterdam and implemented by van der Heyden, remained in operation from 1669 until 1840 and was adopted as a model by many other towns and abroad. Jan van der Heyden was born in Gorinchem, the son of a mennonite father and the third of eight children, his father was by turns an oil mill owner, a grain merchant and a broker.
The family moved to Amsterdam in 1646 and van der Heyden’s father acquired local citizenship. Jan van der Heyden. Jan van der Heyden may have received his initial artistic training in the studio of a relative his eldest brother, Goris van der Heyden, who made and sold mirrors, he had joined his brother Goris in his mirror selling business. He may have learned drawing from a glass painter, it is possible that his teacher may have been one of the most admired glass painters of the time, Jacob van der Ulft, originally from Jan van der Heyden's hometown. Several examples of van der Heyden’s paintings on glass have survived and date from this early part of his career, he married Sara ter Hiel of Utrecht on 26 June 1661 in Amsterdam. At the time of his marriage, he lived on the most fashionable canal in Herengracht, he was already a practising artist. His earliest dated works are two drawn portraits of his brother-in-law Samuel ter Hiel and his bride, Jacquemijntje van der Passe date 1659, his earliest dated painting is from 1663.
As a young man he witnessed the fire in the old town hall. He would describe or draw 80 fires in any neighborhood of Amsterdam. In 1668 Cosimo III de' Medici bought one of his paintings, a view of the townhall with a manipulated perspective. Painting was not the sole interest of van der Heyden. In fact he never joined Amsterdam's painters' guild. While his work was in great demand, he did not rely on his art to make a living, his principal source of income was, in fact, not painting. Rather he was employed as engineer and municipal official, he was greatly preoccupied with the problem of how to fight fires and, with his brother Nicolaes, devoted much time between 1668 and 1671 to inventing a new successful water pumping mechanism. He devised a street-lighting system for Amsterdam and was in 1669 appointed director of street lighting. In 1673 the two brothers received official appointments to manage the city’s fire-fighting equipment and organisation; the two officials appointments were sufficient to ensure the prosperity of the artist.
Jan van der Heyden moved in 1680 to the Koestraat near the St. Anthonismarkt. Here he built a factory for producing fire equipment. In collaboration with his eldest son Jan, he published in 1690 an illustrated book on fire-fighting, entitled'Beschrijving der nieuwlijks uitgevonden en geoctrojeerde Slangbrandspuiten'. Jan van der Heyden died a wealthy man in 1712, his wife survived her husband by only a month. The inventory of the estate made, his only known pupil is his son Jan. Van der Heyden was one of the first Dutch painters to dedicate most of his output to cityscapes and other depictions of groups of buildings. In addition, he painted 40 pure landscapes, of which two on glass. At the end of his career he painted still lifes in indoor settings, his most frequent subject were various views of Amsterdam. In addition, he painted vistas of other Dutch and German cities, country houses and estates and landscapes, it is believed. A painting of an Italian scene is believed to have been based on a drawing by Daniël Schellinks.
Other foreign scenes may have been based on drawings of other artists. Van der Heyden painted country estates. Several views exist of Goudestein, a country estate owned by Joan Huydecoper II, the Amsterdam burgomaster. A set of 14 paintings depicting scenes in and around the village of Maarssen were also made on commission for Joan Huydecoper II, who had developed real estate around that village. Van der Heyden created imaginary architectural fantasies, so-called capricci. An example is An Architectural Fantasy. Italian influences are visible in the classical structure recalling the buildings of Palladio and the decorative sculptural elements; the figures painted by Adriaen van de Velde, on the other hand, are unmistakably Dutch. While the great house with its sunlit formal gardens evokes an idealized world, at the elaborate gateway of the brick walls surrounding the gardens, an elegant gentleman encounters a beggar with her baby; the inclusion of these discordant elements undermining the country idyll set van der Heyden apart from his
Aelbert Jacobsz Cuyp was one of the leading Dutch Golden Age painters, producing landscapes. The most famous of a family of painters, the pupil of his father Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, he is known for his large views of Dutch riverside scenes in a golden early morning or late afternoon light. Cuyp was born in Dordrecht on October 20, 1620, died there on November 15, 1691. Known as the Dutch equivalent of Claude Lorrain, he inherited a considerable fortune, his family were all artists, with his uncle Benjamin and grandfather Gerrit being stained glass cartoon designers. Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, his father, was a portraitist. Cuyp's father was his first teacher and they collaborated on many paintings throughout his lifetime; the amount of biographical information regarding Aelbert Cuyp is tremendously limited. Arnold Houbraken, a noted historian of Dutch Golden Age paintings and the sole authority on Cuyp for the hundred years following his death, paints a thin biographical picture, his period of activity as a painter is traditionally limited to the two decades between 1639 and 1660, fitting directly within the accepted limits of the Dutch Golden Age's most significant period, 1640–1665.
He is known to have been married to Cornelia Bosman in 1658, a date coinciding so directly with the end of his productivity as a painter that it has been accepted that his marriage played some sort of role in the end of his artistic career. The year after his marriage Cuyp became the deacon of the reformed church. Houbraken recalled that Cuyp was a devout Calvinist and the fact that when he died, there were no paintings of other artists found in his home; the development of Aelbert Cuyp, trained as a landscape painter, may be sketched in three phases based on the painters who most influenced him during that time and the subsequent artistic characteristics that are apparent in his paintings. Cuyp learned tone from the exceptionally prolific Jan van Goyen, light from Jan Both and form from his father, Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp. Cuyp's "van Goyen phase" can be placed in the early 1640s. Cuyp first encountered a painting by van Goyen in 1640 when van Goyen was, as Stephen Reiss points out "at the height of powers."
This is noticeable in the comparison between two of Cuyp's landscape paintings inscribed 1639 where no properly formed style is apparent and the landscape backgrounds he painted two years for two of his father's group portraits that are distinctly van Goyenesque. Cuyp took from van Goyen the straw yellow and light brown tones that are so apparent in his Dunes and the broken brush technique very noticeable in that same work; this technique, a precursor to impressionism, is noted for the short brush strokes where the colors are not blended smoothly. In Cuyp's River Scene, Two Men Conversing both of these van Goyen-influenced stylistic elements are noticeable The next phase in the development of Cuyp's amalgamated style is due to the influence of Jan Both. In the mid-1640s Both, a native and resident of Utrecht, had just returned to his hometown from a trip to Rome, it is around this same time. In Rome, Both had developed a new style of composition due, at least in part, to his interaction with Claude Lorrain.
This new style was focused on changing the direction of light in the painting. Instead of the light being placed at right angles in relation to the line of vision, Both started moving it to a diagonal position from the back of the picture. In this new form of lighting, the artist faced the sun less contre-jour. Both, subsequently Cuyp, used the advantages of this new lighting style to alter the sense of depth and luminosity possible in a painting. To make notice of these new capabilities, much use was made of elongated shadows. Cuyp was one of the first Dutch painters to appreciate this new leap forward in style and while his own Both-inspired phase was quite short he did, more than any other contemporary Dutch artist, maximize the full chromatic scale for sunsets and sunrises. Cuyp's third stylistic phase is based on the influence of his father. While it is assumed that the younger Cuyp did work with his father to develop rudimentary talents, Aelbert became more focused on landscape paintings while Jacob was a portrait painter by profession.
As has been mentioned and as will be explained in depth below, there are pieces where Aelbert provided the landscape background for his father's portraits. What is meant by stating that Aelbert learned form from his father is that his eventual transition from a landscape painter to the involvement of foreground figures is attributed to his interaction with his father Jacob; the evidence for Aelbert's evolution to foreground figure painter is in the production of some paintings from 1645–50 featuring foreground animals that do not fit with Jacob's style. Adding to the confusion that is, Aelbert's stylistic development and the problem of attribution is of course the fact that Jacob's style was not stagnant either, their converging styles make it difficult to understand the influences each had on the other, although it is clear enough to say that Aelbert started representing large scale forms and placing animals as the focus of his paintings. Sunlight in his paintings rakes across the panel, accentuating small bits of detail in the golden light.
In large, atmospheric panoramas of the countryside, the highlights on a blade of meadow grass, the mane of a tranquil horse, the horn of a dairy cow reclining by a stream, or th