Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University)
Jefferson known as Thomas Jefferson University, is a private university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was formed in 2017 through the merger of Thomas Jefferson University. At the 1876 Centennial Exposition, local textile manufacturers noticed that Philadelphia's textile industry was falling behind its rivals' capacity and ability. In 1880, they formed the Philadelphia Association of Manufacturers of Textile Fabrics, with Theodore C. Search as its president, to fight for higher tariffs on imported textiles and to educate local textile leaders. Search joined the board of directors of the Philadelphia Museum and School of Industrial Art, thinking it the perfect partner for his plans for a school, began fundraising in 1882. In early 1884, Search himself taught the first classes of the Philadelphia Textile School to five students at 1336 Spring Garden Street; the school was opened on November 5, 1884. The school moved to 1303-1307 Buttonwood Street in 1891 moved again in 1893. Enrollment had been growing and the school was turning away "bright young fellows" for lack of space.
Search and the board of trustees of the school took out a mortgage on the former Philadelphia Institute of the Deaf and Dumb on the corner of Broad and Spruce Streets. This allowed capacity of students. In 1942, the school was granted the right to award baccalaureate degrees and changed its name to the Philadelphia Textile Institute. In 1949, having decided to break its ties with the museum, PTI moved to its present site in the East Falls section of Philadelphia. In 1961, the school changed its name again, to Philadelphia College of Science; the university's student population doubled between 1954 and 1964, doubled again by 1978, with programs in the arts and business administration being introduced. The College purchased an adjoining property in 1972. In 1976, it offered the Master of Business Administration; the purchase of additional properties in East Falls in 1980 and 1988 nearly doubled the campus again, adding classrooms, research laboratories, student residences, athletic facilities. In 1992, the 54,000-square-foot Paul J. Gutman Library opened.
During the 1990s, the college began to offer undergraduate majors in a wider range of fields, resulting in the college being granted university status by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1999. The Board of Trustees voted to change the college’s name to Philadelphia University, or PhilaU for short, on July 13, 1999. Thomas Jefferson University began as a medical school. During the early 19th century, several attempts to create a second medical school in Philadelphia had been stymied by University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine alumni. In an attempt to circumvent that opposition, a group of Philadelphia physicians led by George McClellan sent an 1824 letter to the trustees of Jefferson College in Canonsburg, asking them to establish a medical department in Philadelphia; the trustees agreed, establishing the Medical Department of Jefferson College in Philadelphia in 1825. In response to a second request, the Pennsylvania General Assembly granted an expansion of Jefferson College's charter in 1826, endorsing the creation of the new department and allowing it to grant medical degrees.
An additional 10 Jefferson College trustees, including Joel Barlow Sutherland, were appointed to supervise the new facility from Philadelphia, owing to the difficulty of managing a medical department on the other side of the state. Two years this second board was granted authority to manage the Medical Department, while the Jefferson College trustees maintained veto power for major decisions; the first class was graduated in 1826, receiving their degrees only after the disposition of a lawsuit seeking to close the school. The first classes were held in the Tivoli Theater on Prune Street in Philadelphia, which had the first medical clinic attached to a medical school. Owing to the teaching philosophy of Dr. McClellan, classes focused on clinical practice. In 1828, the Medical Department moved to the Ely Building, which allowed for a large lecture space and the "Pit," a 700-seat amphitheater to allow students to view surgeries; this building had an attached hospital, the second such medical school/hospital arrangement in the nation, servicing 441 inpatients and 4,659 outpatients in its first year of operation.
The future founder of gynecology J. Marion Sims studied there from 1834-1835; the relationship with Jefferson College survived until 1838, when the Medical Department received a separate charter, allowing it to operate separately as the Jefferson Medical College. At this time, all instructors, including McClellan, were vacated from the school and the trustees hired all new individuals to teach; this has been considered the time at which the school came to be considered a "legitimate" medical school. In 1841, Jefferson Medical College hired what would be dubbed "The Faculty of'41", an influential collection of professors including Charles Delucena Meigs and Mütter Museum founder Thomas Dent Mütter; this collection of professors would institute numerous changes to Jefferson—including providing patient beds over a shop at 10th and Sansom Streets in 1844—and the staff would remain unchanged for 15 years. The graduating class of 1849 included a son of college founder Joel Barlow Sutherland, Charles Sutherland, who went on to serve as Surgeon General of the United States Army.
A 125-bed hospital, one of the first in the nation affiliated with a medical
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
London Missionary Society
The London Missionary Society was a predominantly Congregationalist missionary society formed in England in 1795 at the instigation of Welsh Congregationalist minister Dr Edward Williams working with evangelical Anglicans and various nonconformists. It was Reformed in outlook, with Congregational missions in Oceania and the Americas, although there were Presbyterians, Methodists and various other Protestants involved, it now forms part of the Council for World Mission. In 1793, Edward Williams minister at Carr's Lane, wrote a letter to the churches of the Midlands, expressing the need for world evangelization and foreign missions, it was effective and Williams began to play an active part in the plans for a missionary society. He left Birmingham in 1795, becoming pastor at Masbrough and tutor of the newly formed Masbrough academy. In 1793, the Anglican cleric John Eyre of Hackney founded the Evangelical Magazine, he had the support of the presbyterian John Love, congregationalists Edward Parsons and John Townshend.
Proposals for the Missionary Society began in 1794 after a Baptist minister, John Ryland, received word from William Carey, the pioneer British Baptist missionary who had moved to Calcutta, about the need to spread Christianity. Carey suggested that Ryland join forces with others along the non-denominational lines of the Anti-Slavery Society to design a society that could prevail against the difficulties that evangelicals faced when spreading the Word; this aimed to overcome the difficulties. It had proved hard to raise the finance because evangelicals belonged to many denominations and churches. Edward Williams continued his involvement and, in July 1796, gave the charge to the first missionaries sent out by the Society; the society aimed to create a forum where evangelicals could work together, give overseas missions financial support and co-ordination. It advocated against opponents who wanted unrestricted commercial and military relations with native peoples throughout the world. After Ryland showed Carey’s letter to Henry Overton Wills, an anti-slavery campaigner in Bristol, he gained support.
Scottish ministers in the London area, David Bogue and James Steven, as well as other evangelicals such as John Hey, joined forces to organize a new society. Bogue wrote an influential appeal in the Evangelical Magazine for September 1794: Ye were once Pagans, living in cruel and abominable idolatry; the servants of Jesus came from other lands, preached His Gospel among you. Hence your knowledge of salvation, and ought ye not, as an equitable compensation for their kindness, to send messengers to the nations which are in like condition with yourselves of old, to entreat them that they turn from their dumb idol to the living God, to wait for His Son from heaven? Verily their debtors ye are. John Eyre responded by inviting a leading and influential evangelical, Rev. Thomas Haweis, to write a response to Bogue's appeal; the Cornishman sided with Bogue, identified two donors, one of £500, one of £100. From this start, a campaign developed to raise money for the proposed society, its first meeting was organised at Baker’s Coffee House on Change Alley in the City of London.
Eighteen supporters showed up and helped agree the aims of the proposed missionary society – to spread the knowledge of Christ among heathen and other unenlightened nations. By Christmas over thirty men were committed to forming the society. In the following year, 1795, Spa Fields Chapel was approached for permission to preach a sermon to the various ministers and others by now keenly associated with the plan to send missionaries abroad; this was organised for Tuesday 22 September 1795, the host chapel insisting that no collection for the proposed society must be made during the founding event which would be more solemn, formally mark the origin of the Missionary Society. Hundreds of evangelicals attended, the newly launched society began receiving letters of financial support, interest from prospective missionaries. Joseph Hardcastle of Hatcham House, Deptford became the first Treasurer, the Rev. John Eyre of Hackney became the first Secretary to the Missionary Society—the latter appointment providing it with an effective'newspaper' to promote its cause.
The Missionary Society's board began interviewing prospective candidates. In 1800 the society placed missionaries with the Rev. David Bogue of Gosport for preparation for their ministries. A Captain James Wilson offered to sail the missionaries to their destination unpaid; the society was able to afford the small ship Duff, of 267 tons. It could carry 30 missionaries. Seven months after the crew left port from the Woolwich docks in late 1796 they arrived in Tahiti, where seventeen missionaries departed; the missionaries were instructed to become friendly with the natives, build a mission house for sleeping and worship, learn the native language. The missionaries faced unforeseen problems; the natives were anxious to gain possessions from the crew. The Tahitians had faced difficulties with diseases spread from the crews of ships that had docked there; the natives saw this as retribution from the gods, they were suspicious of the crew. Of the seventeen missionaries that arrived in Tahiti, eight soon left on the first British ship to arrive in Tahiti.
When Duff returned to Britain it was sent back to Tahiti with thirty more missionaries. This journey was disas
Lewis Wallace was an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician and author from Indiana. Among his novels and biographies, Wallace is best known for his historical adventure story, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, a bestselling novel, called "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century."Wallace's military career included service in the Mexican–American War and the American Civil War. He was commanded the 11th Indiana Infantry Regiment. Wallace, who attained the rank of major general, participated in the Battle of Fort Donelson, the Battle of Shiloh, the Battle of Monocacy, he served on the military commission for the trials of the Lincoln assassination conspirators, presided over the trial of Henry Wirz, the Confederate commandant of the Andersonville prison camp. Wallace resigned from the U. S. Army in November 1865 and served as a major general in the Mexican army, before returning to the United States. Wallace was appointed governor of the New Mexico Territory and served as U.
S. minister to the Ottoman Empire. Wallace retired to his home in Crawfordsville, where he continued to write until his death in 1905. Lewis "Lew" Wallace was born on April 1827, in Brookville, Indiana, he was the second of four sons born to Esther French David Wallace. Lew's father, a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, left the military in 1822 and moved to Brookville, where he established a law practice and entered Indiana politics. David served in the Indiana General Assembly and as the state's lieutenant governor, governor, as a member of Congress. Lew Wallace's maternal grandfather was Congressman John Test. In 1832 the family moved to Covington, where Lew's mother died from tuberculosis on July 14, 1834. In December 1836, David married nineteen-year-old Zerelda Gray Sanders Wallace, who became a prominent suffragist and temperance advocate. In 1837, after David's election as governor of Indiana, the family moved to Indianapolis. Lew began his formal education at the age of six at a public school in Covington, but he much preferred the outdoors.
Wallace had a talent for drawing and loved to read. In 1836, at the age of nine, Lew joined his older brother in Crawfordsville, where he attended the preparatory school division of Wabash College, but soon transferred to another school more suitable for his age. In 1840, when Wallace was thirteen, his father sent him to a private academy at Centerville, where his teacher encouraged Lew's natural affinity for writing. Wallace returned to Indianapolis the following year. Sixteen-year-old Lew went out to earn his own wages in 1842, after his father refused to pay for more schooling. Wallace found a job copying records at the Marion County clerk's office and lived in an Indianapolis boardinghouse, he joined the Marion Rifles, a local militia unit, began writing his first novel, The Fair God, but it was not published until 1873. Wallace said in his autobiography that he had never been a member of any organized religion, but he did believe "in the Christian conception of God". By 1846, at the start of the Mexican–American War, the nineteen-year-old Wallace was studying law at his father's law office, but left that pursuit to establish a recruiting office for the Marion Volunteers in Indianapolis.
He was appointed a second lieutenant, on June 19, 1846, mustered into military service with the Marion Volunteers. Wallace rose to the position of regimental adjutant and the rank of first lieutenant while serving in the army of Zachary Taylor, but Wallace did not participate in combat. Wallace was mustered out of the volunteer service on June 15, 1847, returned to Indiana, where he intended to practice law. After the war and William B. Greer operated The Free Soil Banner, in Indianapolis. In 1848 Wallace met Susan Arnold Elston at the Crawfordsville home of Henry Smith Lane, Wallace's former commander during the Mexican War. Susan was the daughter of Major Isaac Compton Elston, a wealthy Crawfordsville merchant, Maria Akin Elston, whose family were Quakers from upstate New York. Susan accepted Wallace's marriage proposal in 1849, they were married in Crawfordsville on May 6, 1852; the Wallaces had one son, Henry Lane Wallace, born on February 17, 1853. Wallace was admitted to the bar in February 1849, moved from Indianapolis to Covington, where he established a law practice.
In 1851 Wallace was elected prosecuting attorney of Indiana's 1st congressional district, but he resigned in 1853 and moved his family to Crawfordsville, in Montgomery County, Indiana. Wallace continued to practice law and was elected as a Democrat to a two-year term in the Indiana Senate in 1856. From 1849 to 1853, his office was housed in the Fountain County Clerk's Building. While living in Crawfordsville, Wallace organized the Crawfordsville Guards Independent Militia called the Montgomery Guards. During the winter of 1859–60, after reading about elite units of the French Army in Algeria, Wallace adopted the Zouave uniform and their system of training for the group; the Montgomery Guards would form the core of his first military command, the 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, during the American Civil War. Wallace, a staunch supporter of the Union, became a member of the Republican party, began his full-time military career soon after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861.
Indiana's governor, the Republican
Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother; the eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send"; the word was used in light of its biblical usage. The term is most used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology. A Christian missionary can be defined as "one, to witness across cultures"; the Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement". Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. In the Bible, Jesus is recorded as instructing the apostles to make disciples of all nations; this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The Christian Church expanded throughout the Roman Empire in New Testament times and is said by tradition to have reached further, to Persia and to India.
During the Middle Ages, the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the European boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England. In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and in other Western colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. Emblematic in many respects is Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China from 1582, peaceful and non-violent; these missionary movements should be distinguished from others, such as the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, which were arguably compromised in their motivation by designs of military conquest.
Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel. As the Catholic Church organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders, some specializing in it, undertook most missionary work in the era after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Over time, the Holy See established a normalized Church structure in the mission areas starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. At a stage of development these foundations are raised to regular diocesan status with a local bishops appointed. On a global front, these processes were accelerated in the 1960s, in part accompanying political decolonization. In some regions, they are still in course. Just as the Bishop of Rome had jurisdiction in territories considered to be in the Eastern sphere, so the missionary efforts of the two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius were conducted in relation to the West rather than the East, though the field of activity was central Europe.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople undertook vigorous missionary work under the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. This had lasting effects and in some sense is at the origin of the present relations of Constantinople with some sixteen Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; the Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after the mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century. Orthodox missionaries worked among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Under the Russian Empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Moldova, Estonia and China.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century; the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, resulting in the establishment of many new dioceses in the diaspora, from which numerous converts have been made in Eastern Europe, North America, Oceania. Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers
Rev Dr Andrew Alexander Bonar DD was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, a contemporary and acquaintance of Robert Murray M'cheyne and youngest brother of Horatius Bonar. He was born in the Broughton district of Edinburgh, the son of James Bonar, a solicitor with the Excise, his wife Marjory Pyott Maitland. Andrew Bonar studied divinity at the University of Edinburgh from 1831 and was ordained in 1835, his first position was as minister at Collace in Perthshire, 1838 – 1856. With Robert Murray McCheyne he visited Palestine in 1839 to inquire into the condition of the Jews there. Bonar joined the Free Church of Scotland in 1843, he served as minister of Glasgow, 1856 till his death. In 1874, the University of Edinburgh conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, he was the Moderator of the Free Church's General Assembly for 1878/9. Bonar was identified with evangelical and revival movements and adhered to the doctrine of premillennialism. During the visit of Dwight L. Moody to Britain in 1874 and 1875, Moody was warmly welcomed by Bonar, despite the latter receiving considerable criticism from other Calvinist ministers in the Free Church.
He died at his home, 20 India Street in Glasgow, on 30 December 1892. He is buried in Sighthill Cemetery in north Glasgow, his Glasgow house is now the site of modern offices. Andrew Bonar Law, the future British Prime Minister, was named after Andrew Bonar, whom Law's mother Eliza admired. A Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews from the Church of Scotland in 1839 ISBN 1-85792-258-1 Memoir and Remains of Robert Murray McCheyne ISBN 0-85151-084-1 "The Biography of Robert Murray M'Cheyne" Commentary on Leviticus ISBN 0-85151-086-8 Redemption Drawing Nigh, a defence of the premillennial advent The Development of the Antichrist online at The Life and Labours of Asahel Nettleton, with Bennet Tyler ISBN 0-85151-701-3 The Visitor's Book of Texts or The Word Brought Near the Sick ISBN 978-1-84871-071-9 Christ and his Church in the Book of Psalms ISBN 1-899003-65-7 Bonar edited Samuel Rutherford's Letters, his daughter Marjory edited his Diary and Letters, his Reminiscences, Heavenly Springs, Wayside Wells.
In-print publications include containing the Diary and Letters and the Reminiscences is: Bonar, Andrew A. Bonar, Marjory, ed. Andrew A Bonar: Diary and Life. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust. ISBN 0-85151-432-4.while the Reminiscences are available separately as: Bonar, Marjory. Andrew A Bonar: The Good Pastor. Belfast: Ambassador Productions. ISBN 1-84030-045-0. Ferguson, Fergus; the Life of the Rev Dr Andrew A Bonar. Glasgow: John J Rae. Works by Andrew Bonar at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Andrew Bonar at Internet ArchiveThis article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: the article on "Bonar, Andrew Alexander" in Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed.. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls; the editors of the online edition at ccel.org have given permission for material from articles to be used in Wikipedia